Wind and Wave Lab Report | Wind Turbine

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  CAPE3411 Renewable Technologies: Wind and Wave Energy Laboratory Report Nur Amal Liyana Binti Fazillah 20081120116 th  February 2017 Abstract  The aim of the rst exeriment is to stu!y the e e#t of ele#tri#al o$er by the see! of the$in! %enerator& 't is obser(e! that throu%h a lotte! %rah) the o$er %enerate! by the $in!%enerator in#reases $ith the $in! see! as exe#te!& *ommon arameters utilize! in the $in!o$er in!ustry are the ti+see! ratio an! ele#tri#al o$er #oe,#ient& The hi%hest o$errea#he! $as 7-&2. $hi#h !isa%ree $ith the Betz limit& /rrors that may #ause !urin% theexeriment are state! in the !is#ussion se#tion& The exeriment also #on#lu!e! that themaximum o$er e,#ien#y obtaine! is at 7.5 m / s & The obe#ti(e of the se#on! exeriment isto !etermine the %eneral oeratin% beha(ior of a $a(e turbine by lottin% a #hara#teristi##ur(e $ith in#reasin% set oints& The #hara#teristi# #ur(e resents the $orin% ran%e of theturbine $hi#h in this #ase is bet$een 2300 min − 1  an! 3600 min − 1  rotational see! of theturbine& Furthermore) the ino$ (elo#ity $as exe#te! to !e#rease as the turbine see!in#reases) ho$e(er the exeriment sho$e! a !i erent result& a!ety preca tion 3afety re#autions $ere taen into a##ount $hen #on!u#tin% the exeriments& There is a ris of ele#tri#al sho# from the lu%s ese#ially $hen $ater is in(ol(e! !urin% the se#on!exeriment& Therefore) a safe !istan#e from the e4uiment $ere la#e! $hen #on!u#tin% theexeriments& #ethodology 5in! /xeriment Figure 1: The experimental rig used in the wind experiment. Firstly) a lato is setu on the ben#h (ia 3B to the #ontrol anel& After the lato $as fullyfun#tionin%) a soft$are $as ultilize! to re#or! measurements su#h as #urrent) (olta%e)ustream an! !o$nstream (elo#ity ma!e by the sensors in the $in! turbine& The axial fan $asthen s$it#he! on& 3ubse4uently) the $in! see! $as a!uste! to 7.5 m / s  by turnin% the 1  nob next to the s$it#h #lo#$ise slo$ly as not to !ama%e the turbine& n the soft$are) theaxis $ere mo!ie! to obtain o$er %enerator ( W  )  an! rotational see! ( min − 1 )  in the y+axis an! x+axis rese#ti(ely& n#e this $as !one) the loa! resistan#e $as in#rease! by sli!in%the #ontrol nob an! obser(in% the !i%ital !islay on the #ontrol anel& The resultin% o$er an!rotational see! $ere measure! an! re#or!e! in a le un!er a relati(e le name after e(eryin#rements of 100 min − 1  resistan#e ma!e& The s#hemati# !ia%ram is sho$n in Fi%ure 1& The ro#e!ure $as reeate! for $in! see! of 8.5 m / s  an! 9.5 m / s $ 3imilarly) there#or!e! !ata $as sa(e! un!er rele(ant le name& At the en! of the exeriment) the nob $asturne! anti #lo#$ise until fully #lose! an! the turbine $as s$it#he! o & 5a(e /xeriment 3$it#hboxfor$a(e%enerator5a(e%eneratoran!!isla#ereasurementof $a(ehei%ht5ellsturbine3$it#hboxforturbineeasurementof $ater#olumnBaffle Figure 2: The schematic diagram used for the wave experiment.  The exerimental setu is sho$n in Fi%ure 2 for this exeriment& After usin% the lato in therst exeriment) it $as then use! in this exeriment as $ell& The oeratin% mo!e lo#ate! onthe s$it#h box of the turbine $as set to 9:*;& After rearin% the soft$are) the #olumn $as lle!$ith $ater from a nearby ta until the $ater le(el is aroximately 60 mm &The $a(e%enerator $as then s$it#he! on& 'n the soft$are) the set oint for the turbine see! $asse#ie! at 2500 min − 1 & The measure! (alues $ere re#or!e! by ressin% a re! button on thesoft$are& n#e !one) the rotational see! $as in#rease! to 2600 min − 1  an! #orreson!in%lyre#or!e! the measure! (alues& This $as reeate! in the same manner $ith an in#rement of  100 min − 1  until it rea#he! a maximum (alue of 4200 min − 1 & The rele(ant measure! (alues$ere sa(e! un!er a suitable le name& Res lts and disc ssion :o$er %enerate! from $in! %enerators 2  01020<0-0=0600=0010001=0020002=00     :   o   $   e   r    >    5    ? @otational3ee!>min+1? 7&=msC&=ms8&=ms 00&10&20&<0&-0&=0&60&70&8012<-=67     /    l   e   #    t   r    i   #   a    l    :   o   $   e   r    *   o   e    f    f    i   #    i   e   n    t  Tisee!ratio 7&=msC&=ms8&=ms 00&10&20&<0&-0&=01020<0-0=078C10     /    l   e   #    t   r    i   #   a    l    :   o   $   e   r   #   o   e    f    f    i   #    i   e    t    /    l   e   #    t   r    i   #   a    l   %   e   n   e   r   a    t   o   r      o   $   e   r    >    5    ? 5in!see!>ms? Figure 3: Results obtained from the rst experiment that shows the eect of wind speed to the power generated b! the wind turbine.  The o$er %enerate! by the $in! turbine is not !ire#tly measure! from the turbine ho$e(er#urrent an! (olta%e #oul! be measure! !ire#tly throu%h the #ontrol anel& Therefore) o$eroutut)  P ) of the $in! turbine is #al#ulate! as follo$sD  P =  IV  $here  I   an! V   is the #urrent an! (olta%e in the #ir#uit rese#ti(ely&For examle) at $in! see! of 7.5 m / s ) the o$er %enerate! isD  P =  IV  = 1.403  A× 0.340 V  = 0.477 W   The rst exeriment yiel!e! a lotte! %rah sho$in% the o$er %enerate! $ith in#reasin%rotational see! of the turbine >To left of Fi%ure <?& 't is e(i!ent that the o$er %enerate! bythe $in! turbine in#reases $ith in#reasin% $in! see! until it rea#hes a maximum o$eroutut& For instan#e) the maximum o$er at a $in! see! of 7.5 m / s, 8.5 m / s ∧ 9.5 m / s rea#hes 27 W at  1200 min − 1 , 40 W at  1600 min − 1 ∧ 53 Wat  1900 min − 1  rese#ti(ely& An alternati(e outloo of the measurements obtaine! is throu%h the ele#tri#al o$er#oe,#ient) C   pel  ) often use! by the $in! o$er in!ustry& 't is the ratio of the a#tual ele#tri#o$er ro!u#e! by the $in! turbine to the total ener%y a(ailable in the $in! at a %i(en $in!see! an! ra!ius of the bla!es& Thus for examle in mathemati#al form) rotor see! at 354.8 rpm  ro!u#e! 51.0 W   of o$er >!ata taen from the soft$are?) the ele#tri#al o$er#oe,#ient is then) C   pel =  P el  P w =  0.47751.025 = 0.009 A!!itionally) the ti see! ratio (  λ )  is also an imortant !imensionless arameter in the!is#ussion of erforman#e #riteria an! aero!ynami# of $in! turbines& 't is a !imensionless(ariable that #omes from the ratio of the eriheral see! ( v u )  of the rotor to the $in!(elo#ity ( v w ) & Therefore) at <=-&8 rm) <   λ =  v u v w =  R 160 × 2 πrV   1 = 354.8 min − 1 60 smin − 1  × 2 π  ( 0.255 m ) 7.426 ms − 1  = 1.28 $here  R 1 as the see! of the rotor >  min − 1 ?) r  is the ra!ius of the rotor >  0.255 m  taen from Aen!ix?)  v u = 2 πR 160  is the see! of the rotor ( ms − 1 )  an!  v w = V  1  is the(elo#ity of the $in! ms (¿¿− 1 )¿ &3imilar metho! is #al#ulate! for all the rotational see! to obtain both ele#tri#al o$er#oe,#ient an! ti see! ratio& These are lotte! in a %rah for #omarison bet$een !i erent$in! (elo#ities& This is seen in the to ri%ht #orner of Fi%ure <& 't is obser(e! that the maximumo$er a#hie(e! for this turbine bla!e is at 74.2  $ith $in! see! of 7.5 m / s & 'n theory)the maximum a#hie(able o$er of a $in! turbine) no$n as the Betz Limit) is =C&<.& Thatbein% so) the result obtain from this exeriment !oes not #orrelates $ith the theory& The reasonbehin! this anomaly may be a##ounte! for the errors intro!u#e! !urin% the exeriment su#h astime $as not allo$e! to stabilize the system an! fri#tion) #on(erter an! %enerator losses&A!!itionally) the see! (alues of the rotor et u#tuatin% $hen #han%in% the resistan#e loa!&on #omarin% the e e#t of $in! see! to the o$er %enerate! an! the o$er #oe,#ient>bottom of Fi%ure <?) it is !e!u#e! that the e,#ien#y for the #on(ersion of the $in! ener%y intoele#tri#al ener%y is hi%hest at a $in! see! of 7.5 m / s & The o$er #hara#teristi# #ur(e isimortant in !eterminin% the !esi%n of the $in! turbine for otimal oeration& The (alues seenin the %rah $ere taen from the a(era%e (alues of their #orreson!in% arameters&:o$er %enerate! from $a(e %enerators   012<-+100+=00=01001=02002=0<000=0010001=0020002=00<000<=00-000    (    @    8    3    >   m    B   s    ?    8   e   #    h   a   n    i   #   a    l    :   o   $   e   r    >   m    5    ? n>min+1? :me#h>m5?(@3>ms? Figure : #ower characteristic of the $ell turbine in the wave experiment. -
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