Welding Handbook. Ninth Edition Volume 1 WELDING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Prepared under the direction of the Welding Handbook Committee

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elding Handbook Ninth Edition Volume 1 ELDING SCIENCE ND TECHNOLOGY Prepared under the direction of the elding Handbook Committee Cynthia L. Jenney nnette O rien Editors merican elding Society 550 N..
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elding Handbook Ninth Edition Volume 1 ELDING SCIENCE ND TECHNOLOGY Prepared under the direction of the elding Handbook Committee Cynthia L. Jenney nnette O rien Editors merican elding Society 550 N.. LeJeune Road Miami, L i elding Handbook, Ninth Edition Volume 1 elding Science and Technology Volume 2 elding Processes Part 1 Volume 3 elding Processes Part 2 Volume 4 Materials and pplications Part 1 Volume 5 Materials and pplications Part 2 ii elding Handbook Ninth Edition Volume 1 ELDING SCIENCE ND TECHNOLOGY merican elding Society iii CONTENTS PRECE... xi CKNOLEGEMENTS... xii CONTRIUTORS... xiii CHPTER 1 SURVEY O JOINING, CUTTING, ND LLIED PROCESSES... 1 Introduction... 2 Joining Processes... 3 Cutting Processes Thermal Spraying Conclusion ibliography Supplementary Reading List CHPTER 2 PHYSICS O ELDING ND CUTTING Introduction usion and Solid-State elding Energy Sources for elding rc Characteristics Metal Transfer Melting Rates Physical Properties of Metals and Shielding Gases Conclusion ibliography Supplementary Reading List CHPTER 3 HET LO IN ELDING Introduction Heat low undamentals Quantitative Calculation of Heat Transfer in usion elding Conduction of Heat during usion elding Convective Heat Transfer in the eld Pool Relative Importance of Conduction and Convection Conclusion ibliography Supplementary Reading List CHPTER 4 ELDING METLLURGY Introduction Physical Metallurgy Metallurgy of elding eldability of Commercial lloys Corrosion in eldments The razed or Soldered Joint Corrosion in razed and Soldered Joints Conclusion ibliography Supplementary Reading List CHPTER 5 DESIGN OR ELDING Introduction Properties of Metals eldment Design Program elded Design Considerations vii Design of elded Joints Selection of eld Type Sizing of Steel elds Tubular Connections luminum Structures Conclusion ibliography Supplementary Reading List CHPTER 6 TEST METHODS OR EVLUTING ELDED JOINTS Introduction Testing for Strength Hardness Tests end Tests racture Toughness Testing atigue Testing Corrosion Testing Creep and Rupture Testing Testing of Thermal Spray pplications eldability Testing Conclusion ibliography Supplementary Reading List CHPTER 7 RESIDUL STRESS ND DISTORTION Introduction undamentals Nature and Causes of Residual Stress Effects of Residual Stress Measurement of Residual Stress Residual Stress Distribution Patterns Effects of Specimen Size and eight Effects of elding Sequence Residual Stress in elds Made with Different elding Processes eld Distortion Reducing or Controlling Residual Stress and Distortion Conclusion ibliography Supplementary Reading List CHPTER 8 SYMOLS OR JOINING ND INSPECTION Introduction undamentals elding Symbols elding Symbols for Specific eld Types razing Symbols Soldering Symbols Inspection Symbols Conclusion ibliography Supplementary Reading List CHPTER 9 ELDMENT TOOLING ND POSITIONING Introduction ixtures viii Positioners Conclusion ibliography Supplementary Reading List CHPTER 10 MONITORING ND CONTROL O ELDING ND JOINING PROCESSES Introduction Principles of Monitoring and Control Sensing Devices Process Instrumentation Process Monitoring Systems Process Control Systems Monitoring and Control Systems Conclusion ibliography Supplementary Reading List CHPTER 11 MECHNIZED, UTOMTED, ND ROOTIC ELDING Introduction Mechanized elding utomated elding Robotic elding Planning for utomated and Robotic elding Conclusion ibliography Supplementary Reading List CHPTER 12 ECONOMICS O ELDING ND CUTTING Introduction The Cost Estimate Economics of elding utomated and Robotic Systems Economics of Resistance Spot elding Capital Investment in elding utomation and Robotics Control of elding Costs Economics of razing and Soldering Economics of Thermal Cutting Conclusion ibliography Supplementary Reading List CHPTER 13 ELD QULITY Introduction Defining eld Quality Overview of eld Discontinuities Discontinuities ssociated with usion elding Discontinuities ssociated with Resistance elding Discontinuities ssociated with the Solid-State elding Processes Discontinuities in razed and Soldered Joints Significance of eld Discontinuities Conclusion ibliography Supplementary Reading List ix CHPTER 14 ELDING INSPECTION ND NONDESTRUCTIVE EXMINTION Introduction Personnel Qualifications The Inspection Plan Nondestructive Examination Metallographic Examination Methods Inspection of razed and Soldered Joints Conclusion ibliography Supplementary Reading List CHPTER 15 QULIICTION ND CERTIICTION Introduction elding and razing Procedure Specifications Qualification of elding and razing Procedures Performance Qualification Standardization of Qualification Requirements Conclusion ibliography Supplementary Reading List CHPTER 16 CODES ND OTHER STNDRDS Introduction Types of Regulatory Documents Standards-Developing Organizations and elding-related Publications Guidelines for Participating in International Standards ctivities Conclusion Supplementary Reading List CHPTER 17 SE PRCTICES Introduction Safety Management Protection of the ork rea Personal Protective Equipment Protection against umes and Gases Safe Handling of Compressed Gases Protection against Electromagnetic Radiation Electrical Safety ire Prevention Explosion Prevention Process-Specific Safety Considerations Safety in Robotic Operations Conclusion ibliography Supplementary Reading List PPENDIX TERMS ND DEINITIONS PPENDIX METRIC PRCTICE GUIDE OR THE ELDING INDUSTRY INDEX O MJOR SUJECTS: Eighth Edition and Ninth Edition, Volume INDEX O NINTH EDITION, Volume x CHPTER 1 SURVEY O JOINING, CUTTING, ND LLIED PROCESSES Prepared by the elding Handbook Chapter Committee on Joining and Cutting Processes:. H. Kielhorn, Chair LeTourneau University Y. donyi LeTourneau University R. L. Holdren Edison elding Institute R. C. Horrocks, Sr. Springfield & Clark Company N. E. Nissley The Ohio State University elding Handbook Volume 1 Committee Member: T. D. Hesse Technical elding Service Contents Introduction 2 Joining Processes 3 Cutting Processes 42 Thermal Spraying 47 Conclusion 49 ibliography 49 Supplementary Reading List 50 2 SURVEY O JOINING, CUTTING, ND LLIED PROCESSES CHPTER 1 SURVEY O JOINING, CUTTING, ND LLIED PROCESSES INTRODUCTION This chapter introduces the conventional and more widely known joining, cutting, and thermal spraying processes. The distinguishing features of the various processes are summarized and compared to one another. mong the joining processes reviewed are the arc, resistance, and solid-state welding processes as well as brazing, soldering, and adhesive bonding. The cutting processes examined include thermal and nonthermal methods. The thermal spraying processes considered include flame and plasma arc spraying as well as arc and detonation flame spraying. ith respect to process selection, as several processes may be applicable for a particular job, the challenge lies in selecting the process that is most suitable in terms of fitness for service and cost. However, these factors may not be compatible, thus forcing a compromise. The selection of a process ultimately depends on several criteria. These include the number of components to be fabricated, capital equipment costs, joint location, structural mass, and the desired performance of the product. The adaptability of the process to the location of the operation, the type of shop, and the experience and skill levels of the employees may also have an impact on the final selection. These criteria are examined as they relate to the various joining, cutting, and thermal spraying processes. s this chapter is intended to serve merely as a survey of the most common joining, cutting, and thermal spraying processes, 1 the reader is encouraged to conduct a thorough investigation of the processes that appear to have the best potential for the intended applications. This investigation should take into account safety and health considerations such as those presented in the merican National Standard Safety in elding, Cutting, and llied Processes, NSI Z49.1, 2, 3 and the information provided in the manufacturers material safety data sheets (MSDSs). dditional sources of information about the joining, cutting, and allied processes are listed in the ibliography and Supplementary Reading List at the end of this chapter. In particular, elding Processes, 4 Volume 2 of the merican elding Society s elding Handbook, 8th edition, presents in- 1. or further information on the categorization of the welding, joining, cutting, and allied processes, see ppendix. 2. t the time of the preparation of this chapter, the referenced codes and other standards were valid. If a code or other standard is cited without a date of publication, it is understood that the latest edition of the document referred to applies. If a code or other standard is cited with the date of publication, the citation refers to that edition only, and it is understood that any future revisions or amendments to the code or standard are not included; however, as codes and standards undergo frequent revision, the reader is encouraged to consult the most recent edition. 3. merican National Standards Institute (NSI) Committee Z49 on Safety in elding and Cutting, Safety in elding, Cutting, and llied Processes, NSI Z49.1, Miami: merican elding Society. 4. O rien, R. L., ed., 1991, elding Processes, Vol. 2 of elding Handbook, 8th ed., Miami: merican elding Society. SURVEY O JOINING, CUTTING, ND LLIED PROCESSES 3 depth coverage of each of the welding, cutting, and allied processes. JOINING PROCESSES The goal of the joining processes is to cause diverse pieces of material to become a unified whole. In the case of two pieces of metal, when the atoms at the edge of one piece come close enough to the atoms at the edge of another piece for interatomic attraction to develop, the two pieces become one. lthough this concept is easy to describe, it is not simple to effect. Surface roughness, impurities, fitting imperfections, and the varied properties of the materials being joined complicate the joining process. elding processes and procedures have been developed to overcome these difficulties by incorporating the use of heat or pressure, or both. Though portions of this description do not apply to brazing, soldering, and adhesive bonding, an explanation will be given when these processes are described later in the chapter. arring a few exceptions, most welding processes apply significant heat to the base material. This heat is only a means to bring the atoms at the edge of one piece of material close enough to the atoms of another piece for interatomic attraction. However, this heat is detrimental to the microstructure of the materials being joined. s hot metal tends to oxidize, sufficient protection from oxidation must be provided by the welding process to prevent this detrimental reaction with ambient oxygen. Some metals are far more sensitive than others, in which case protection from oxidation becomes more demanding. Thus, while examining each welding process, the reader should consider whether heat is produced by the process and, if so, the manner in which it is produced. The means by which sufficient protection against oxidation is provided by the process should then be identified. The selection of an appropriate joining and cutting process for a given task involves a number of considerations. These include the following: 1. vailability and fitness for service; 2. Skill requirements; 3. eldability of the base metal alloy with respect to type and thickness; 4. vailability of suitable welding consumables; 5. eld joint design; 6. Heat input requirements; 7. Demands of the welding position; 8. Cost of the process, including capital expenditures, materials, and labor; 9. Number of components being fabricated; 10. pplicable code requirements; and 11. Safety concerns. The overview of the joining processes featured in Table 1.1 presents an initial reference guide to the capabilities of various joining processes with respect to a variety of ferrous and nonferrous metals. This table indicates the processes, materials, and material thickness combinations that are usually compatible. The columns on the left list various engineering materials and four arbitrary thickness ranges. The processes most commonly used in industry are listed across the top. It should be noted that additional information such as the considerations listed above must be taken into account before process selections are finalized. Nonetheless, Table 1.1 serves as a useful tool in providing general guidelines for the screening and selection process. RC ELDING The term arc welding applies to a large, diversified group of welding processes that use an electric arc as the source of heat. The creation of a weld between metals using these processes does not usually involve pressure but may utilize a filler metal. The arc is struck between the workpiece and the tip of the electrode. The intense heat produced by the arc quickly melts a portion of the base metal, resulting in the formation of a weld. The arc welding processes may be moved along the joint to produce the weld or held stationary while the workpiece is moved under the process. rc welding operations are performed by conducting the welding current through consumable electrodes, which take the form of a wire or rod, or nonconsumable electrodes, consisting of carbon or tungsten rods. Metal arc processes utilize consumable electrodes that combine electrode filler metal with the molten base metal to create the weld. They may also produce a slag covering to protect the molten metal from oxidation. The nonconsumable arc processes can generate a weld by melting the base metal only, resulting in what is termed an autogenous weld. If filler metal is required in a nonconsumable process, it may be fed either manually or mechanically into the molten weld pool. In this case, the nonconsumable electrode serves only to sustain the arc. Shielded Metal rc elding Illustrated in igure 1.1, shielded metal arc welding (SM) is a basic, versatile process used to weld ferrous and some nonferrous metals. The most widely known of the arc welding processes, shielded metal arc welding is sometimes referred to colloquially as stick 4 SURVEY O JOINING, CUTTING, ND LLIED PROCESSES Material Thickness Carbon steel Low-alloy steel Stainless steel S M S Table 1.1 Capabilities of the Commonly Used Joining Processes G M C G T P E S E G R Processes* O S x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x I x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x M x x x x x x x x x x x x x x T x x x x x x x x x x x x S x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x I x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x M x x x x x x x x x x x x x x T x x x x x x x x x x x S x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x I x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x M x x x x x x x x x x x x x x T x x x x x x x x x x x Cast iron I x x x x x x x M x x x x x x x x x x T x x x x x x x Nickel and alloys luminum and alloys Titanium and alloys Copper and alloys Magnesium and alloys Refractory alloys S x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x I x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x M x x x x x x x x x x x T x x x x x x x x S x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x I x x x x x x x x x x x x x x M x x x x x x x x x x T x x x x x x x x S x x x x x x x x x x x x I x x x x x x x x x M x x x x x x x x x T x x x x x x x x S x x x x x x x x x x x x I x x x x x x x M x x x x x T x x x x S x x x x x x x x x I x x x x x x x x x x M x x x x x x T x x S x x x x x x x x x x x x I x x x x x x x x M x T * SM = shielded metal arc welding; S = submerged arc welding; GM = gas metal arc welding; C = flux cored arc welding; GT = gas tungsten arc welding; P = plasma arc welding; ES = electroslag welding; EG = electrogas welding; R = resistance welding; = flash welding; O = oxyfuel gas welding; D = diffusion welding; R = friction welding; E = electron beam welding; L = laser beam welding; T = torch brazing; = furnace brazing; R = resistance brazing; I = induction brazing; D = dip brazing; IR = infrared brazing; D = diffusion brazing; and S = soldering. S = sheet (up to 1/8 inch [in.] 3 millimeters [mm]); I = intermediate (1/8 in. to 1/4 in. [3 mm to 6 mm]); M = medium (1/4 in. to 3/4 in. [6 mm to 19 mm]); T = thick (3/4 in. [19 mm] and up). Commercial process. Copper requires molybdenum-coated tips. D R E L T R I D I R D S
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