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THE REPUBLIC OF THE UNION OF MYANMAR YANGON CITY DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE (YCDC) PREPARATORY SURVEY REPORT ON THE PROJECT FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF WATER SUPPLY, SEWERAGE AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM IN YANGON CITY IN THE REPUBLIC OF THE UNION OF MYANMAR VOLUME V SEWERAGE AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM SUMMARY Advance Version MARCH 2014 JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY TEC INTERNATIONAL CO., LTD. NJS CONSULTANTS CO., LTD. NIPPON KOEI CO., LTD. TOKYO SUIDO SERVICES CO., LTD. TOYO ENGINEERING CORPORATION JR GE THE PROJECT FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF WATER SUPPLY, SEWERAGE AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM IN YANGON CITY FINAL REPORT MARCH 2014 GENERAL LIST OF REPORTS VOLUME I: WATER VISION OF YANGON CITY VOLUME II: WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM SUMMARY VOLUME III: WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM MASTER PLAN VOLUME IV: WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM FEASIBILITY STUDY VOLUME V: SEWERAGE AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM SUMMARY VOLUME VI: SEWERAGE AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM MASTER PLAN VOLUME VII: SEWERAGE AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM FEASIBILITY STUDY TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Objectives of the Study Counterparts Organization Study Area CHAPTER 2. OUTLINE OF THE STUDY AREA Population Hydrology River System Salt Water Intrusion Hydrogeology Administrative Organization on Water, Sewerage and Drainage Yangon Regional Government Yangon City Development Committee Laws Related to Water and Sewerage in the City of Yangon City of Yangon Development Law Rules on Water Supply and Sanitation (Notification No.6/99) Budgetary System for Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage Budgetary Situation of the Regional Government Budgetary Situation of the YCDC Current Wastewater Treatment Type of Wastewater Treatment Current Status of On-site System Sewerage System Water Quality Investigation Existing Wastewater Treatment Plant Water Quality of Public Water Body Issues Relating to Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Technical Aspects Organizational and Institutional Aspects Current Status of Drainage Existing Drainage Facilities Current Flood Status Operation and Maintenance (O & M) i 2.9.4 Major Issues of Urban Drainage CHAPTER 3. SEWERAGE MASTER PLAN Development Policies Concerning Wastewater Treatment Outline of Development Policies Priorities of Tasks to be Implemented by YCDC for The Time Being Master Plan for Sewerage System Planning Frame Sewerage System Planning Area and Site for WWTP Phasing of Project Implementation Water Quality Improvement of Kandawgyi Lake Urgent Measures Short Term and Mid / Long- Term Measures Institutional Development for Operation and Maintenance and Capacity Building Project Implementation Plan and Cost Estimation Phased Implementation Program Up to Policy and Condition of Cost Estimation Project Cost Estimation Project Financing Plan Sewerage Tariff Policy Willingness-to-Pay and Affordability Yangon Sewerage Financial Analysis Initial Environmental Examination (with SEA Concept) Level of Environmental and Social Considerations in the Master Plan Alternative in the Master Plan Analysis of Alternatives Mitigation Measures CHAPTER 4. DRAINAGE MASTER PLAN Target of Improvement of Inundation Planning Conditions and Basic Policies Basic Policies Planning Conditions Drainage System Plan Drainage System Planning Recommendations from the Environmental and Social Considerations Recommendations for Drainage System Development in New Development Areas Operation & Maintenance and Capacity Development of Drainage System ii 4.4.1 Operation and Maintenance Capacity Developments Project Cost of Improvement of Drainage System Condition of Cost Estimation Project Cost Estimation Financing Plan CHAPTER 5. SEWERAGE AND DRAINAGE FEASIBILITY STUDY Scope of the Feasibility Study (F/S) Water Quality Improvement of Kandawgyi Lake Outline of Plan Construction of Interceptor Dredging Cost Estimation Economic Analysis Improvement of Sewerage System in C1 Sewerage Zone Design Conditions and Basis Design of Sewer Net Work WWTP Design Cost Estimation and Implementation Schedule Capacity Development Plan Economic Analysis Financial Analysis Project Evaluation Environmental and Social Considerations Conclusion and Recommendations iii LIST OF TABLES Table S. 1 Trend of Population in Yangon City Table S. 2 Tidal Information in Yangon Port Table S. 3 Type of Toilet, Results of Household Interview Survey Table S. 4 Treatment of Black Water and Gray Water Table S. 5 Outline of Wastewater Treatment Plant Table S. 6 Water Quality of River and Drain in Rainy Season (CODCr and BOD5) Table S. 7 Water Quality of River and Drain in Dry Season (CODCr and BOD5) Table S. 8 T-N and T-P of Kandawgyi Lake (Rainy season) Table S. 9 T-N and T-P of Kandawgyi Lake (Dry season) Table S. 10 List of Tasks to be Implemented by YCDC for the Time Being and Their Priorities Table S. 11 Wastewater Generation (Daily Average) Table S. 12 Population, Wastewater Flow and Area by Sewerage Zone Table S. 13 Evaluation of Priority of Sewerage Zone Table S. 14 Implementation Plan of Sewerage Works Table S. 15 Result of Cost Estimation of Sewerage Project (As of 2040) Table S. 16 Annual Operation and Maintenance Cost for Sewerage Works Table S. 17 Results of Financial Simulation According to Capital Subsidy and Type of Sewerage System Table S. 18 Evaluation Matrix of Alternatives Table S. 19 Methods of Drainage System Developments Table S. 20 Drainage System Planning Conditions Table S. 21 Summary of Planned Drainage System Table S. 22 Categories of Runoff Control Facilities Table S. 23 Cost Estimation of Drainage System Table S. 24 Annual Operation and Maintenance Cost for Drainage Works Table S. 25 Investment Cost by Priorities Table S. 26 Project Cost (Interceptor) Table S. 27 O&M Cost Table S. 28 Estimated Number of Visitors and Economic Impacts Table S. 29 Basis for Facility Design Table S. 30 Project Cost Table S. 31 Implementation Schedule Table S. 32 O&M Cost Table S. 33 Project Organization and Their Responsibility Table S. 34 Necessary Training Areas for Capacity Development of YCDC Table S. 35 Financial Goals and Required Tariffs iv LIST OF FIGURES Figure S. 1 YCDC DEWS Organogram Figure S. 2 Septic Tank for 10 Persons Figure S. 3 Sewerage System in Yangon City Figure S. 4 Existing Main Drainage Channels in/around Yangon City Figure S. 5 Present Status of Inundation in/around Yangon City Figure S. 6 Basic Development Policies Concerning Wastewater Treatment Figure S. 7 Sewerage Zones (Final Plan) Figure S. 8 Location of Experiment Site (in the Yellow Dotted Circle) Figure S. 9 Scheme of Blue-green Algae Removal Plant Figure S. 10 Organization Chart of Sewerage Department Figure S. 11 General plan of Drainage System Figure S. 12 General Layout of Interceptor Sewer Facility Figure S. 13 Site Plan of Drying Bed Figure S. 14 Construction Site for C1 WWTP Figure S. 15 General Layout of Trunk Main in C1 Sewerage Zone Figure S. 16 Flow Diagram of C1 WWTP Figure S. 17 General Layout of C1 WWTP v Abbreviation B/C Benefit per Cost BDS Back Drainage Space BOD Biochemical Oxygen Demand CBD Central Business District CIP Cast-Iron Pipe COD Chemical Oxygen Demand DDA Department of Development Affair DEWS Department of Engineering (Water Supply Sanitation) DIP Ductile Iron Pipe DMA District Metered Area EC Electrical conductivity E/N Exchange of Notes ECC Environment Conservation Committee F/S Feasibility Study FC Foreign Currency FY Fiscal Year GPCD Gallons Per Capita per Day HHWL Highest High Water Level HWL High Water Level IEE Initial Environmental Examination IUR Inner Urban Ring JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency JICA-HIS JICA Household Interview Survey Kyat Myanmar Kyat LPCD (or Lpcd) Liters Per Capita per Day LWL Low Water Level M&E Mechanical & Electrical M/P Master Plan METI Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry MG Million Gallons MGD Million Gallons per Day MIP Mingaladon Industrial Park ML Million Liters MLD Million Liters per Day MOAI Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation MOECAF Ministry of Environment Conservation and Forestry MOF Ministry of Forestry MOFA Ministry of Foreign Affairs MOU Memorandum of Understanding MWL Mean Water Level N/A Not Available NCEA National Commission for Environmental Affairs vi NewSZ New Suburbs Zone NRW Non Revenue Water NS Northern Suburbs O&M Operation & Maintenance OldSZ Older Suburbs Zone ORZ Outer Ring Zone P/S Pumping Station PPP Public Private Partnership PVC Polyvinyl Chloride R. Reservoir RC Reinforced Concrete S/R Service Reservoir SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition SCBD South of CBD SEA Strategic Environmental Assessment SEZ Special Economic Zone SS Suspended Solids STP Sewage Treatment Plant TDS Total Dissolved Solids T-N Total Nitrogen T-P Total Phosphorus TS Township TS Total Solids US$ USD United States Dollars VAT Value Added Tax WTP Water Treatment Plant WWTP Wastewater Treatment Plant YCDC Yangon City Development Committee YCDL Yangon City Development Law Abbreviation for the Relevant Studies The Preparatory Study for Urban Development Programme in the Greater Yangon (JICA) Household Interview Survey (JICA) Data Collection Survey on Water Resources Potential for Thilawa Special Economic Zone and Adjoining Areas (JICA) The Study on Improvement of Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment in Yangon (METI) The Study on Improvement of Water Supply System in Yangon City JICA Urban Plan Study, JICA-HIS JICA Thilawa Water Study METI Water Supply and Sewerage Study 2002 JICA-M/P vii Unit 1 Gallon (British Gallon) = liter 1 Acre = 4,047 m 2 Foreign Exchange Rate For M/P (as of December 2012) 1 USD = JPY For F/S (as of June 2013) 1 USD = JPY 1 USD = 885 Kyat 1 Kyat = JPY viii CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study Although the capital of Myanmar was moved to Naypyidaw in 2006, Yangon City is still the national center of economy, business and communication. Current population of Yangon City is approximately 5.1 million according to Yangon City Development Committee (YCDC). Water supply system in Yangon has a long history, the water supply services commenced in However, the service ratio is still as low as 38 %. Transmission and distribution pipes have not been rehabilitated properly resulting in large quantity of non-revenue water, i.e. 66 % of total daily supply of 520,000 m 3 /day. Approximately, 90 % of water comes from reservoirs, and two thirds of them is distributed directly without any treatment. In addition, water treatment at the water treatment plant is insufficient. Approximately, 70 % of connections are equipped with water meter, which is higher compared to other developing countries, but water charge is rather low, approximately 8 Yen/m 3 for metered houses and 180 to 300 Yen/month for houses without meter. It cannot be said that sufficient financial sources is secured for operation and maintenance of water supply system. Regarding technical capability of the undertaking, YCDC s capability is evaluated to be high, since they have been making efforts to design water supply facilities and to manufacture pipes by themselves. On the other hand, there remains much room for improvement in operation and maintenance of water treatment plant and in management of water quality. In the 6 townships located outside boundary of YCDC administrative area, water supply system, if it exists, is managed by the Yangon regional government. Regarding water supply, JICA implemented a development study titled The Study on Improvement of Water Supply System in Yangon City in 2002, in which master plan was formulated and feasibility study was conducted to prepare development plan targeting year Estimation of future water demand, investigation of potential water resources, block distribution system, rehabilitation of pipe networks, construction of facilities such as new water treatment plant, transmission lines, and reservoirs, project cost estimation were included in the study. However, due to various reasons, most of the projects proposed in the plan are yet to be implemented. Alternatively, measures to expand water supply coverage have been implemented to cope with the needs of development of new suburban areas; including 1 large water treatment plant for which raw water source is Ngamoeyeik reservoir and 4 small plants using ground water as sources of water. In addition, many service meters have been equipped. After adoption of new liberal policies in Myanmar, JICA initiated discussing with the Yangon regional government on formulation of comprehensive development plan including water supply, sewerage, 1-1 drainage, electricity, road, railways, ports etc., and the minutes were concluded concerning the project for the strategic urban development plan of the greater Yangon on May 1 st Further minutes were concluded concerning water supply, sewerage and drainage, one of the umbrella projects on May 22 nd As a result, the following related projects are under progress through the Japanese assistance; Project for the Strategic Urban Development Plan of the Greater Yangon (JICA) Study on Water Resource Potentialities for Thilawa SEZ and its environs (JICA) Study on the Improvement of Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment in Yangon City (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), Japan) Study on Development of Sewerage System in Myanmar, 2012 (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Japan) In addition, advisor for water supply has been dispatched from Fukuoka city, Japan, funded by JICA 1.2 Objectives of the Study The objectives of this study are formulation of development plan for water supply, sewerage and drainage in greater Yangon and selection of priority projects in order to contribute to economic development and improvement of living environment of the Region. 1.3 Counterparts Organization The main counterpart organization is Yangon City Development Committee (YCDC). 1.4 Study Area The Study area 1 is greater Yangon, covering YCDC area (33 townships) and parts of the surrounding 6 townships (Thanlyin, Kyauktan, Hmawbi, Hleagu, Htantapin and Twantay). 1 The study area was 33 townships belonging to YCDC at the beginning of the study as indicated in the study title. However, parts of 6 townships have been added for the study dung the course of study and they are called as Greater Yangon. 1-2 CHAPTER 2. OUTLINE OF THE STUDY AREA 2.1 Population Past populations together with the city area are shown in Table below. Population of 0.73 million in 1953 increased to 0.94 million (about 1 million) in Afterwards together with city area increase, population increased to 2 million in 1973, 3 million in 1993, 4 million in 2003 and 5.14 million in Average population growth rate has been about over 2%. Year Population (Mil.) Table S. 1 Trend of Population in Yangon City Average Population Growth (%) Area (km 2 ) Pop. Density (Person/km 2 ) Remark , , ,077 Expansion of the City in 1965 and ,254 Expansion of , ,161 Expansion of ,471 Expansion of 2003 Source: YCDC Hydrology River System Yangon City lies at the confluence of the Bago River and Hlaing River. The two rivers meet at the confluence of the Yangon River, which is connected to the Gulf of Mottama. The Pan Hlaing River and Twan Tay Canal, which converge and run downstream the Yangon River, as well as the Kokkowa River which connects with the Hlaing River, all of these rivers receive water from the Ayeyarwaddy River. These rivers are candidate water sources for the expansion of Yangon City s water demand which is expected to increase in the future. Pazuntaung River flows through the eastern part of the city CBD. The river upstream of this is called the Ngamoeyeik, where a Ngamoeyeik Reservoir has been built as part of the water source in YCDC Salt Water Intrusion The rivers mentioned are all tidal rivers. During dry season periods when the river flow is low, salt water intrusion occurs. Therefore, it is necessary to consider salt water intrusion when developing potential water source, as salt water intrusion is possible in the area of performance around Yangon. The following table shows available tidal information taken from the Myanmar Port Authority (MPA). The table indicates that tidal observations have not been carried out since several years ago. The 2-1 information is based on past observation records at Yangon Port (Sule Pagoda Wharf) and river mouth of Yangon River (Elephant point). In Yangon Port, highest high water level (HHWL) including tidal condition is m, and mean water level (MWL) is m. Ground elevation is normally assumed to MWL, and the difference between HHWL and MWL around Yangon port is approximately m (= HHWL MWL m) on ground elevation basis. Table S. 2 Tidal Information in Yangon Port Items Tidal Height (m) Observed Dates Highest High Water Level (HHWL) September 1899 Mean Water Level (MWL) Up to 1936 Lowest Low Water Level at Bo Aung Kyaw Street Wharf December 1902 Indian Spring Low Water Mark Source: MPA Hydrogeology From the study on groundwater potential (refer to Figure below) in 2002 JICA-M/P, the followings are concluded; Groundwater potential is low in the central hilly areas. Iron contents might be high in groundwater in areas adjacent to hilly areas. Groundwater potential is high in the remaining low land areas. Groundwater potential is very high along the rivers. Salinity might be high in groundwater in CBD area. 2.3 Administrative Organization on Water, Sewerage and Drainage Yangon Regional Government Construction and operation/maintenance of irrigation canals and drainages are clearly defined in the Constitution as duties of the central and regional governments while the responsible agencies for construction of water supply, sewerage and urban drainage facilities is not explicitly defined under the Constitution. However, collection of water tax is defined as the regional government s responsibility. Department of Development Affairs in the regional government assumes the role of providing water supply systems. Among the 6 peripheral townships, there exist small-sized water supply systems in Thanlyin and Kyauktan townships. In addition, there is one small-sized water supply system for Thilawa Special Economic Zone (SEZ). There is no sewerage system in 6 peripheral townships. However, as a result of restructuring of the organizations in July 2012, responsible organization for water supply system has been transferred to the Department of Rural Development Affairs of the Ministry of Border Affairs. Then in 2013, the Department of Rural Development Affairs is transferred to Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries, and Rural Development from Ministry of Border Affairs. So it is 2-2 not clear to us that the regional government still assumes water supply sector in Yangon region. The Yangon City development Law clearly defines that YCDC has responsibility of construction and operation/maintenance of water supply and sewerage systems Yangon City Development Committee (1) Yangon City Development Committee YCDC was established based on the City of Yangon Development Act aiming to foster development project in Yangon city independently. The law defined that YCDC is authorized to implement their own project by using their own funding resources. However, YCDC is not appropriately able to exercise their authority under current procedure, for instance, 1) YCDC needs to apply permissions of projects to the central government, and 2) the funding sources of YCDC s activity are incorporated into the national budgetary system. YCDC is responsible for water, sewerage and sanitation projects in 33 townships out of 45 townships of Yangon division. The law defines the role and the responsibility to establish policies, and to manage and implement them. YCDC is headed by the mayor, and supported by the secretary and the joint-secretary. The committee members consist of mayor, secretary, joint-secretary, and other 2 members (committee 4 and 5). 20 departments in YCDC belong to these committees. Department of Engineering (Water and Sanitation) (DEWS) is a central section to encompass water, sewerage and sanita
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