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UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA FINITE ELEMENT METHOD PREDICTION OF HIP PROSTHESIS IN BONE RESORPTION ENVIRONMENT SOLEHUDDIN BIN SHUIB FK FINITE ELEMENT METHOD PREDICTION OF HIP PROSTHESIS IN BONE RESORPTION ENVIRONMENT By SOLEHUDDIN BIN SHUIB Thesis Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, in Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy MAY 2012 i Copyright 2012 by Solehuddin bin Shuib All Rights Reserved ii Abstract of thesis presented to the Senate of Universiti Putra Malaysia in fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy FINITE ELEMENT METHOD PREDICTION OF HIP PROSTHESIS IN BONE RESORPTION ENVIRONMENT By SOLEHUDDIN BIN SHUIB May 2012 Chairman: Professor Ir. Barkawi bin Sahari, PhD Faculty: Engineering Total hip replacement (THR) is normally done for the failure of hip joint caused by osteoarthritis. It is performed to relief pain and to improve functionality. Issues related to the study include method to reduce fixation failure, means to improve the longevity of the prosthesis, methods to reduce the factors contributing to probability of failure such as cement strength, implant interface strength, and loosening. The present work focused on failure related to stress related only. The main aim of this work is to study the inner failure stress for THR and to suggest recommended functional activities for patient whom undergoes THR. By knowing the stress for the inner bone, the failure mechanisms of THR for different dynamics loadings can be predicted more objectively. For this study, ANSYS Workbench version 11.0 was used for the Finite Element (FE) analysis. The values of stress and strain distributions in anterior (A), posterior (P), medial (M) and lateral (L) positions of the healthy femoral bone and THR were obtained. The stress and strain distributions of inner healthy femoral bone surface subjected to standing were studied. The effect of materials on the variations of stress and strain of the outer and inner surface of the iii healthy bone were studied and determined. Hip prosthesis and hip prosthesis with bone resorption for different functional activities such as standing, walking, stairclimbing, single-legged stance, abductor, and adductor loads was studied. Failure mechanisms of hip implant were determined and THR life was predicted. The values of von Mises stressess and strains for inner surface of the femur and consideration of bone resorption are essential for the study of Total Hip Replacement (THR). The restricted types of activities for the patient who undergoes THR surgery were recommended. From this study it was found that the THR the patient should not do activities such as stair climbing and adduction. The data for inner stress can be used as a guide for future implant design and surgical procedure. iv Abstrak tesis yang dikemukakan kepada Senat Universiti Putra Malaysia sebagai memenuhi keperluan untuk ijazah Doktor Falsafah RAMALAN ALAT GANTI TULANG PEHA DALAM PERSEKITARAN PENGECUTAN TULANG MENGGUNAKAN KAEDAH UNSUR TAK TERHINGGA Oleh SOLEHUDDIN BIN SHUIB Mei 2012 Pengerusi: Profesor Ir. Barkawi bin Sahari, PhD Fakulti: Kejuruteraan Prosedur menggantikan tulang peha dilakukan terhadap tulang paha yang menghidap penyakit osteoartritis. Tulang peha digantikan bagi menghilangkan kesakitan dan membantu meningkatkan fungsi gerakan. Dalam kajian alat ganti tulang peha, terdapat beberapa isu penting, antaranya teknik mengurangkan kegagalan pelekat, tatacara memanjangkan hayat, teknik mengurangkan faktor-faktor penyebab kegagalan seperti jenis beban, kekuatan simen, kekuatan antara muka implan, dan tatacara meramalkan kelonggaran alat ganti tulang peha pada jangka masa tertentu. Skop kajian ini bertumpukan kegagalan yang berkaitan dengan tegasan sahaja. Objektif utama kajian ini ialah mengkaji kegagalan tegasan pada bahagian dalam tulang peha dan mencadangkan aktiviti yang sesuai bagi pesakit yang menjalani pembedahan tulang peha. Dengan mengetahui nilai tegasan pada bahagian dalam tulang peha, mekanisma kegagalan bagi pelbagai beban dinamik dapat diramal dengan lebih objektif. Untuk kajian ini, perisian ANSYS Workbench versi 11.0 digunakan. Nilai taburan tegasan dan terikan bagi tulang peha yang sihat pada kedudukan anterior (A), posterior(p), medial (M) dan lateral(l) telah diperolehi. Taburan tegasan dan terikan bagi tulang peha yang sihat semasa berdiri diperolehi. Perubahan tegasan dan terikan bagi penggunaan bahan berbeza juga dikaji dan diperolehi. Bagi analisis untuk tulang peha dengan implan, dan v tulang peha mengecut dengan implan pula, pelbagai aktiviti telah dilakukan seperti berdiri, berjalan, menaiki tangga, angkat kaki sebelah, abduksi dan adduksi. Nilai tegasan bagi pelbagai aktiviti diperolehi dan dibentangkan. Mekanisme kegagalan telah dikaji dan diperolehi. Nilai-nilai tegasan dan terikan bagi permukaan dalam tulang peha mengecut amat penting untuk diketahui. Pesakit perlu menghadkan pergerakan mereka setelah pembedahan. Pesakit juga dinasihatkan untuk mengurangkan aktiviti menaiki tangga dan adduksi. Maklumat bagi tegasan mekanikal ini amat berguna sebagai panduan merekabentuk alat ganti tulang peha dan prosedur pembedahan. vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First and foremost, my deepest appreciation and thanks must be expressed to my academic advisor, Prof. Ir. Dr. Barkawi bin Sahari. He has been an inspiration, my primary motivator, guidance, support and encouragement throughout my study at UPM. I would like to thank also my co-supervisors Professor Dr. Wong Shaw Voon, and Associate Professor Dr. Manohar for their useful input and wisdom. Special thanks to Dr. A Halim Kadarman, USM and Mr. Timothy Kwan, CAD-IT consultant for their assistance in FORTRAN programming and ANSYS troubleshooting. Their assistance is invaluable. I have learned valuable lesson from them. I wish to thank ITMA for providing lab facilities for this research. The atmosphere at ITMA automotive lab is very conducive for producing exceptional work in the advancement of numerical study in biomechanics. Thank also for Mr. Nazrul for his technical support in the lab. I would like to dedicate this work to my mum, Hajjah Azizah bt Abd Hamid. The amount of love and support and du a she has provided me over the entire life allowed me to progress and complete this thesis. Lastly, I would like to thank my wife Dr. Siti Mariam, and my children Salman, Suhaib, Said Bilal and Siti Khadijah for their understanding and encouragement. vii I certify that a Thesis Examination Committee has met on 22 May, 2012 to conduct the final examination of Mr. Solehuddin bin Shuib on his thesis entitled Finite Element Method Prediction of Hip Prosthesis in Bone Resorption Environment in accordance with the Universities and University Colleges Act 1971 and the Constitution of the Universiti Putra Malaysia [P.U.(A) 106] 15 March The Committee recommends that the student be awarded the Doctor of Philosophy. Members of the Thesis Examination Committee were as follows: Shamsuddin bin Sulaiman, PhD Professor Faculty of Engineering Universiti Putra Malaysia (Chairman) Mohd. Khairol Anuar bin Mohd Ariffin, PhD Associate Professor Faculty of Engineering Universiti Putra Malaysia (Internal Examiner) Faizal bin Mustapha, PhD Associate Professor Faculty of Engineering Universiti Putra Malaysia (Internal Examiner) Shaker A. Meguid, PhD Nanyang Technological University Singapore (External Examiner) SEOW HENG FONG, PhD Professor and Deputy Dean School of Graduate Studies Universiti Putra Malaysia Date: 23 July 2012 viii This thesis submitted to the Senate of Universiti Putra Malaysia and has been accepted as fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. The members of the Supervisory Committee are as follows: Professor Barkawi bin Sahari, PhD, Ir Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia (Chairman) Professor Wong Shaw Voon, PhD Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia (Member) Associate Professor Dr. Manohar A/L Arumugam, M.S. Ortho Faculty or Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (Member) BUJANG KIM HUAT, PhD PROFESSOR AND DEAN SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA Date: ix DECLARATION I declare that the thesis is my original work except for quotations and citations which have been duly acknowledged. I also declare that it has not been previously, is not concurrently submitted for any other degree at Universiti Putra Malaysia or other institutions. SOLEHUDDIN BIN SHUIB Date: 22 May 2012 x TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT iii ABSTRAK ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS APPROVAL DECLARATION TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CHAPTER v vii viii x xi xiv xvii xxvii 1 INTRODUCTION Background Problems definitions Knowledge gap in the field of present research Project objectives Thesis structure 3 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Human skeletal system- Bony framework of the body Bone morphology Femoral bone anatomy Finite element modeling General procedures and discretization by finite elements Modeling of femoral bone Hip prosthesis modeling consideration Tissue growth, remodeling and degeneration of bone Failure analysis and life prediction Material criterion 36 xi 2.4.2 Loading conditions Summary 38 3 METHODOLOGY Introduction Finite element model generation for healthy femur and implant Meshing development Material Loading and boundary conditions Result and discussion for FEA of healthy femoral bone with Validation of healthy femoral bone with other researcher Modeling of healthy femoral bone Material variations Mechanical stresses and strains values Modeling of hip prosthesis Assessment of the effect of material properties variations Loading and boundary conditions Mechanical stresses and strains for THR Assesment of the the effect of bone resorption on hip prosthesis Summary 60 4 ANALYSIS OF HEALTHY FEMORAL BONE Introduction FE mesh, material properties, boundary conditions and load Results Stress and strain distributions The effect of material variations on von Mises strain Von Mises stress for inner and outer bone isotropic Mechanical stresses for healthy femoral bone A The overall directional stresses for inner and outer surfaces B The variation of stress Summary 82 5 FEMORAL HIP WITH IMPLANT 83 xii 5.1 Introduction Standardized Femur and implant Finite element model Material Finite element mesh Load and Boundary Conditions Basic theory Normalized stresses Stresses under combined loads Results and discussion Life prediction of cement mantle (PMMA) based upon activities Summary FEMORAL BONE RESORPTION WITH IMPLANT Introduction Development of resorption model Hip prosthesis FE mesh, material and boundary conditions Results and discussion Behavior of bone resorption with implant- Standing (Case 0) Effect of bone resorption Effect of bone resorption on cement mantle (PMMA) Effect of bone resorption on implant Summary CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Introduction Discussions of overall results Conclusion Recommendations 155 REFERENCES 156 APPENDICES 165 BIODATA OF STUDENT 246 LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 249 xiii
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