UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF INTERLOCKING LOADBEARING HOLLOW BLOCK IDIB S. SADOUN FK

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UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF INTERLOCKING LOADBEARING HOLLOW BLOCK IDIB S. SADOUN FK FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF INTERLOCKING LOADBEARING HOLLOW BLOCK IDIB S. SADOUN MASTER
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UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF INTERLOCKING LOADBEARING HOLLOW BLOCK IDIB S. SADOUN FK FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF INTERLOCKING LOADBEARING HOLLOW BLOCK IDIB S. SADOUN MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA 2000 FINITE ELEMENT ANAL YSIS OF INTERLOCKING LOADBEARING HOLLOW BLOCK By IDm S. SADOUN Thesis Submitted in Fulfilment of the Requirement for the Degree of Master of Science in the Faculty of Engineering Universiti Putra Malaysia December 2000 Abstract of thesis submitted to the Senate of Universiti Putra Malaysia in ful:filment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF INTERLOCKING LOADBEARING HOLLOW BLOCK By IDIB S. SADOUN December 2000 Chairman Faculty : Associated Professor Waleed A. Thanoon, Ph.D : Engineering The interlocking hollow block system (nib) is used recently for the construction of loadbearing and non loadbearing walls. The urn system draws the attention of engineers and scientists all over the world due to its simplicity and lower construction cost, in addition to its good structural performance. The mechanical interlocking between different block units are designed to replace the mortar layers. This study covers the theoretical investigation of different hollow block systems in terms of their mechanical, physical and structural properties. The research focus mainly on the structural analysis of Putra block which is an interlocking hollow block system developed recently by the Housing Research Centre at UPM. The analysis of the putra interlocking hollow block has been carried out using the finite element method. The Finite Element analysis covers the structural behaviour of an individual block, interlocking prism and panel walls using different types of interlocking blocks i.e. stretcher, half and corner block, under vertical and horizontal loads. The structural behaviour of individual blocks, prisms and wall panels are studied in terms of stress distribution, deformation and the location of the maximum stresses as 11 well as failure load. In addition, the effect of eccentricity of the vertical axial load on the ultimate load capacity of the wall panel has been investigated. The maximum compressive stresses developed in the individual blocks (stretcher, half and comer block) are 3.92 MPa, 3.16 MPa and 2.95 MPa respectively, while the maximum tensile stresses are 1.47 MPa, 1.43 MPa and 0.92 MPa respectively. Interlocking block prism has been modeled using interface elements between blocks. The maximum compressive and tensile stresses have been found to be equal to 4.65 MPa and 2.38 MPa respectively. A panel wall with dimensions of 1200 mm W x 1200 mm H x 150 mm T has been elastically analysed under unifomtly distributed load. The result obtained indicates that the stress distribution is similar to the stress distribution observed in the prism. Interlocking block panel has been nonlinearly analyzed under concentric and different eccentricities loading (0.05t, O.lt, 0.2t, and O.3t). The failure loads obtained were 25.63, 24.0, 22.4, and N/mm2 respectively. The efficiency of the panel wall with the increase of the eccentricity of the load have been compared with the experimental observations. Panel walls with heights of 2.0 m, 2.4 m and 3.0 m have been nonlinearly analysed under lateral load and the maximum lateral displacements observed in different walls are 6.96 mm, 8.28 rom and rom respectively. The failure load decrease with increasing the height of the panel. The joint opening in the tensile side of the wall has been observed. The opening suddenly increases to a large value when the applied load approaches the failure stress, indicating a brittle failure mechanism. The overall conclusions drawn from this investigation indicates that the theoretical ill analysis performed in this study indicates possible cracking in the webs when the putra block is used to construct loadbearing walls in 5-storey buildings and considered critical. This is due to neglecting the geometric nonlinearity and initial imperfection, which is quite possible in the construction field. the construction of loadbearing walls in 1-2 storey buildings. While, more comprehensive experimental and theoretical study is required to ensure the applicability of putra block in 5- storey building. IV Abstrak tesis yang dikemukakan kepada Senat Universiti Putra Malaysia sebagai memenuhi keperluan untuk ijazah Master Sains ANALISIS UNSUR TERHAD BAGI BATU BLOK MENYANGGA BEBAN PANCA BERONGGA Oleh IDIB S. SADOUN Disember 2000 Pengerusi Fakulti Profesor Madya Waked A. Tbanoon, PbD : Kejuruteraan Sistem Batu Blok Panea Beronggga (BBPB) digunakan untuk membina dinding sarna ada yang menyangga beban atau yang tidak. Sistem BBPB ini telah menarik perhatian para jurutera dan saintis di seluruh dunia mamandangkan pembinaannya yang mudah dan murah, malah dapat membina struktur yang baik. Panea mekanikal antara unit batu blok yang berlainan direka bentuk khusus untuk menggantikan lapisan motar. Kajian ini meneakupi penyelidikan teori tentang sistem batu blok berongga yang berlainan dari aspek eiri mekanikal, fizikal dan strukturnya. Fokus kajian ini terutamanya ialah analisis struktur batu blok Putra yang merupakan batu blok panea berongga yang direka bentuk oleh Pusat Penyelidikan Perumahan di UPM baru-baru ini. Analisis terhadap batu Blok Panea Berongga Putra telah dijalankan dengan menggunakan kaedah Unsur Terhad. Analisis Unsur Terhad merangkumi gelagat struktur setiap batu blok, prisma panca dan panel dinding yang menggunakan jenis batu blok panca berongga yang berlainan; iaitu blok peregang, blok sudut dan separuh; dan dinding yang menyangga beban seeara menegak dan melintang. Selain itu, kajian ini turut melihat kesan percapahan paksi beban secara menegak terhadap keupayaan menanggung beban maksimum pada panel dinding. v Asakan kompresif maksimum yang diletakkan pada setiap satu batu blok (blok peregang, blok separuh dan blok sudut) masing-masing ialah 3.92 MPa, 3.16 Mpa, dan 2.95 MPa, manakala asakan regangan maksimum masing-masing 1.47:MPa, 1.43 :MPa, dan 0.92 MPa. Prisma batu blok panca yang dijadikan model telah menggunakan unsur antaramuka pada blok. Asakan kompresif dan regangan didapati seimbang, iaitu masing-masing dengan 4.65 MPa dan 2.38 :MPa. Panel dinding dengan ukuran 1200 lebar X 1200 mm tinggi X 150 mm panjang telah dianalisis dengan keadaan yang berbeza-beza berdasarkan bebanan yang disebarkan secara seragam. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahawa taburan asakan tersebut adalah sarna seperti taburan asakan yang ditinjau pada prisma. Panel batu blok panca telah dianalisis secara tidak linear dengan asakan beban secara berpusat dan asakan beban bercapah yang berbeza-beza (0.05t, O.lt, 0.2t, dan 0.3t). Bebanan yang tidak dapat disangga masing-masing 25.63, 24.0, 22.4, dan N/mm 2 Pengurangan keupayaan panel apabila percapahan beban bertambah telah dibandingkan dengan BS 5628 Bahagian kod keperluan bagi tembok mortar bangunan batu, dan tinjauan melalui uji kaji. Panel dinding dengan ketinggian 2.0m, 2.4m, dan 3.Om telah dianalisis dengan bebanan pada bahagian sisi dan Sesaran sisi maksimum yang didapati pada tembok yang berlainan masing-masing 6.96 rom, 8.28 rom, dan mm. Beban yang tidak dapat disangga sernakin kurang apabila ketinggian panel bertambah. Keterbukaan penyambung pada bahagian regangan dinding turut ditinjau. Bahagian yang terbuka menjadi lebih Vi luas apabila beban yang disanggakan menghampiri asakan tepu, dan ini menunjukkan mekanisme yang tidak mantap. Keseluruhannya dapat disimpulkan bahawa daripada kajian ini menvnjukan bahawa analisis teoritikal yg dijalonkan dalam kajion ini menunjukan adanya veretakan pada jarring apabila blok putra digvnakan untuk membina menyangga beban pada bangvnan stinguat adalah dijanguauan kiritikal. lni adalah disebabkan pangabaian ketidaksamaan geometric dan ketidak semppornaan podo awa pembinaan bagaimarapor, blok ini masih boleh digunav-an didalam pembinaan tembok yong boleh merampong beban didalam pembinaan bangunan 1-2 tingkat. Namun, kajian yang lebih mendalam dan kajian teori diperlukan untuk menjamin keupayaan biok Putra sebagai bahan binaan untuk bangunan lima tingkat. Vll ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In the name of ALLAH, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. It is my pleasure to take this opportunity to convey my sincere thanks and sincere gratitude to my supervisor Dr. Waleed A. Thanoon, who introduced me to this field, and for having taken so much of his valuable time for studying and correcting this thesis. I am also grateful to Dr. Mohamed Saleh Jaafof, Dr. Mohd Abdulkadir Razali, Dr. Mahgoub O. Mahgoub and Prof D.N. Trikha whose kind support, guidance and comments are appreciated. I convey my sincere appreciation to the staff of the faculty of engineering, laboratory technician, and the staff of the graduate school. I am grateful to all my mends Dr. Jamal 1. Daoud and Mr. Ong Che Hing who have given me the encouragement to complete my study. I would like to express my deep gratitude to my parents, and my wife for their kinds and full support in my studies. Finally, Allah will bless those who have helped me in any studies. mid viii I certify that an examination committee met on 8th December 2000 to conduct the final examination of Idib Sh. Sadoun on his Master Degree thesis entitled Finite Element Analysis of Interlocking Loadbearing Hollow Block in accordance with Universiti Pertanian Malaysia ( Higher Degree ) act 1980 and Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (Higher Degree) Regulations The committee reconunends that the candidate be awarded the relevant degree. Members of the examination committee are as follows: Y.Bhg.Abang Abdullah Abang Ali, Prof. Institut Teknologi Maju Universiti Putra Malaysia ( Chairman) Waleed A. Thanoon, Prof. Madya Department of Civil Engineering Faculty of Engineering Universiti Putra Malaysia (Member) Mohamed Saleh Jaafor, Ph.D Department of Civil Engineering Faculty of Engineering Universiti Putra Malaysia (Member) Mohd Razali Abdulkadir, Prof. Madya Department of Civil Engineering Faculty of Engineering Universiti Putra Malaysia (Member) Mahgoub O. Mahgoub, Ph.D. Department of Civil Engineering Faculty of Engineering Universiti Putra Malaysia (Member) Q HAZALI MOHA YIDIN, Ph. D, ProfessorlDeputy Dean of Graduate School, Universiti Putra Malaysia Date: 1 8 MAR ZuD 1 ix This thesis submitted to the Senate of Universiti Putra Malaysia has been accepted as fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of master of science. Professor Deputy Dean of Graduate School Universiti Putra Malaysia Date: x DECLARATION I hereby decwe that the thesis is based on my original work except for quotations and citations which have been duly acknowledged. I also declare that it has not been previously or concurrently submitted for any other degree at UPM or other institutions. Date: I I '5 I 2-0':: \ Xl TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT ii ABSTRACK v ACKNOWLEGMENTS viii APPROVAL SHEETS DEC LARA TION FORM... IX xi LIST OF TABLES xiv LIST OF FIGURES xiii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION General Significance of the study Scope and Objectives Organnization of the Thesis , II LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction The Development Of Interlocking Hollow Block... 5 Finite Element Analysis of Masonry Walls Concluding Remarks III THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF INTERLOCKING HOLLOW BLOCK Introduction Comparison of Different Interlocking Hollow Blocks Units Physical and Structural Properties Production and Constructional Properties Structural Analysis of The Interlocking Block System Linear Analysis of A Single Interlocking Block Unit Distribution of Stresses in Model 1 (volume element)..., Distribution of stresses in Model2(shell element) Concluding Remarks XlI 2- Linear Analysis ofinterlocking Block Prism....,...,...,... . Modelling ..., Linear Analysis ofinterlocking Block Panel ' ... .. 66 Modelling Nonlinear Analysis of The Interlocking Prism and Panel Modelling of the prism and walls.....,... ' ...,.., ' ...,..., 70 IV RESULTS AND DiSCUSSiON....,... ' ... ' Introduction ' ... ' Structural behaviour of different types of individual blocks ,..., 72 Distribution of Stresses... ' ...,...,...,..,.,.., Stretcher Block ...,... ...,..., Half Block. ... ...,...,..., 76 Corner Block ,..,...,.., Summary Structural behaviour of interlocking block prism ' ..,... ' ...,...,.. 74 Distribution of the stresses.....,...,... ' ...,..., Structural Behaviour of the Panel Wall ,... ' ..,..,..., Nonlinear Analysis ,... ' ... ' ' Results and Discussion The response of the interlocking panel under Lateral Loading v CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMONDATIONS Summary and Conclusions Individual blocks ,.,. ' ' ' ..,... ' ...,... ' ...,... ' ... ' Prisms Wall panel...,... ' ... ' ... ' ... ' ' ......,... ' ......, ' 103 Overall conclusion Recommendations for future analytical work ,...,......, 106 REFERENCES APPENDIX 110 A Assessment of Loads B Limiting Strength... C Theoetical Results , 116 ViTA... ' .., X1ll LIST OF TABLES Table Page 2.1 Predicted failure load compared with test results Analysis of different types of interlocking hollow blocks Maximum compressive and tensile stresses in different 81 individual blocks 4.2 Comparison between modell Goint element) and model 2 89 (merged surfaces) Al Theoretical (Nonlinear analysis) results for an individual block due to 116 axial load A2 Theoretical (Nonlinear analysis) results for 3-block prism due to axial 116 load A3 Theoretical (Nonlinear analysis) results for a panel wall due to axial load 117 AA Theoretical (Nonlinear analysis) results fora panel wall due to 117 eccentric load (0.05t) AS Theoretical (Nonlinear analysis) results fora panel wall due to 118 eccentric load (0.1 t) A6 Theoretical (Nonlinear analysis) results fora panel wall due to 118 eccentric load (0.2t) A7 Theoretical (Nonlinear analysis) results fora panel wall due to 119 eccentric load (O.3t) A8 The Theoretical Results of Eccentricity and Failure Load for A Panel 119 Wall A9 Capacity Reduction Factor, Due to EccentricityAccording to BS Part AlO Theoretical Results of Displacement and Lateral stress For A panel 121 Wall 2.0 m high All Theoretical Results of Displacement and Lateral stress For A panel 122 Wall 2.4 m high Al2 Theoretical Results of Displacement and Lateral Stress For A panel 122 Wall 3.0 m high A13 Theoretical results of joint opening against lateral stress 123 XlV LIST OF FIGURES Figures Pages 2.1 Interlocking Hollow Block Haener Interlocking Block System Modified H- Block Masonry System WIlD Block Masonry System Putra Interlocking Block System Failure Surfaces for Cracking and Crushing of Brick Typical Finite Element Mesh Predicted and observed failure loads Three-dimensional finite elementmodel model of one-eight of a masonry 18 prism 2.10 Three-dimensional finite elementmodel model of a grougted a masonry 18 prism 2.11 State of a stress at block and mortar interface Step-by-step loading of a prism Analysed Reinforced Masonry Wall Finite Element Mesh for Reinforced Masonry Wall Lateral Load versus Lateral Displacement for Wall Reinforced masonry wall specimen Load-Deflection Curves up to Ultimate Load for Wall Theory of Contact for Uniaxial Case Six-Degree of Freedom Contact Element Organization of finite element mesh Comparison with Fattal's experiment and a method developed by Priesley Comparison with a method developed by Mendola Finite element models compared to yokel's experimental results Configuration of (a) stretcher; (b) Half; and (c) Comer block Different Types of Finite Elements Discretization using (64 3D volume elements 52 xv 3.4 Discretization using (144 3D volume elements) Discretization using (84 Flat shell elements) Discretization using (187 flat shell elements), 3.7 Vertical stress distribution (64 Elements) Vertical stress distribution (144 Elements) Vertical stress distribution (84 Elements) Vertical stress distribution (187 elements) Vertical stress distribution (292 elements) Discretization, Loading and Boundary Conditions for a-stretcher; 60 b-half and Comer Blocks Block Prism Block prism consists of 3D volume element and joint elements. (Model l) 3.15 Description of Joint element (3 nof u, v, w) Block prism consists of 3D volume element only. (Model 2) Loading and Boundary Conditions for model block panel Configuration of interlocking Discretization of interlocking block panel (1092 elements) Loading and boundary conditions of a panel wall Failure envelope for biaxial concrete model Mesh and Boundary Conditions for a panel wall (eccentric case) Mesh and boundary conditions for a panel wall (lateral case) Deformed Shapes for the Stretcher, Half and Comer Blocks due to Uniformly Distributed vertical Load. 4.2 Stress Contours in Local y-direction in the Stretcher Block Stress Variation at Section A-A and B-B in the Stretcher Block Stress Variation for Section C-C in the Stretcher Block Stress Contours in Local y-direction for Half Block Stress Variation for Section A-A of Half Block Stress Variation for Section B-B of Stretcher Block Stress Contours in Local y-direction for Comer Block Stress Variation for Section A-A of Comer Block Stress Variation for Section B-B of Comer Block Deformed Shape for Model l and Model 2 (enlarged) Stress Contours in z-direction for Modell Slices Location in Model Stress Contours for Slice A-A Stress Contours for Slice B-B Stress Contours for Slice C-C xvi 4.17 Stress Contours for Slice D-D Stress Contours in z-direction for Model Deformed Shape For The Panel Wall Stress Contours in Global Z-Direction for The Panel Wall Relation between Displacement and Axial Load for a single block Relation between Displacement and Axial Load for 3-block prism 4.23 Relation between Displacement and Axial Load for a panel wall Displacement Vs failure load for different eccentricities of block prism Failure stress V s Eccentricity Comparison between Programme Results and BS Code 96 capacity reduction factor 4.27 Deformed Shape Of A wall panel 3.0 m Lateral Stress VS. Lateral Displacement Failure Lateral Stress VS Wall Height Lateral Stress VS. Joint Opening XV11 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS A Cross section of area L Length W Width H Height h Horizontal direction v Vertical direction e Eccentricity Ec Modulus of elasticity of concrete i;;u Characteristic strength of concrete Z Global z-direction Y Global y-direction X Global x-direction SZ Stress in global z-direction SY Stress in global y-direction SX Stress in global x-direction Sy Stress in local y-direction Sx Stress in local x-direction fg Grout compressive strength fm Masonry compressive strength l3 Capacity reduction factor O tu Characteristic tensile cube strength of concrete in MFa O cu Characteristic compressive cube strength of concrete in MFa xviii CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION General Due to rapid development in Malaysia. There is a need to build different categories of houses within a limited time to meet the increasing demand in the housing sector. Hence, a number of building systems have been developed in Malaysia by different overseas companies. The building system must satisfy all the normal building construction requirements, such as to be structurally efficient, durable and environmentally friendly. In addition, the building system required for housing construction must be developed fast enough to meet the time limit required for development. The cost is another important factor which everybody is interested in. Interlocking Hollow Blocks (lhb) are recently used in the construction of nonloadbearing walls and loadbearing walls. The main concepts of Interlocking Hollow Block system (lrbs) are the elimination of the mortar layers and instead the blocks are interconnected through providing key connection (protrusion and groove). The elimination of the mortar layers in the IHBS will speed up the construction and reduce the number of skilled and unskilled workers required to construct similar mortar blocks constructions. The stresses
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