Synthesis and Dry Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNT) for Flexible, Transparent Conducting Electrodes (TCE) - PDF

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Synthesis and Dry Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNT) for Flexible, Transparent Conducting Electrodes (TCE) Prof Dr Esko I Kauppinen NanoMaterials Group (NMG) Department of Applied Physics Aalto University
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Synthesis and Dry Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNT) for Flexible, Transparent Conducting Electrodes (TCE) Prof Dr Esko I Kauppinen NanoMaterials Group (NMG) Department of Applied Physics Aalto University School of Science and Technology Espoo, Finland MIICS 2010, Mikkeli, Finland 18 March, 2010 Nanotube and Carbon Fiber Products Overview Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Multi-walled CNT Carbon Nanofiber VGCF's Carbon Fibers Other carbon Materials which are widely used: - Graphite - Carbon Black - DLC (diamond like carbon) Electrical Optical Mechanical Thermal Electrical Mechanical Thermal Electrical Mechanical Thermal Vapor grown Electrical Thermal (nm) Vapor grown Mechanical Tube Diameter, nm Toxic carbon Materials from Combustion soot Applications of flexible TCEs courtesy Prof Y-H Lee SKKU University, Korea Flexible displays Wearable displays Future electronic device PCB board E-paper Known forms of Carbon Nanomaterials Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT): Roll of carbon sheet one atomic layer thick = Graphene NanoRibbons (GNR) times thinner than paper Rolling in different directions makes different kinds of tubes (10,10) armchair tube METALLIC (10,5) helical (chiral) tube SEMICONDUCTING By Prof Shigeo Maruyama, Tokyo Universssity, Japan ITO (indium tin oxide) film 2500 Excellent transmittance and conductivity Sheet res sistance Ω/sq ITO SWCNT film 94% T SWCNT film 70% T CNT film on PET Bending angle (degree) ITO can be cracked easily against bending, yielding poor flexibility Indium is limited natural resource! Courtesy Prof Young-Hee Lee, SKKU University, Korea Traditional, wet SWCNT transparent electrode manufacturing process Many process steps, possibility to cut and damage CNTsynthesis reactor SWCNTs Collected CNT powder Acid purify & sonicate Raw bundled CNTs in gas or on substrate Chemically purify, functionalize & dry Raw bundled CNTs as powder Filter, spray or spin coat and dry Clean bundled (damaged) CNTs ina solvent Add surfactant & centrifuge Clean (bundled) (damaged) CNTs on substrate Surfactant coated bundled (damaged) CNTs on substrate Surfactant coated debundled (damaged) CNTs in a solvent HOW TO MAKE DEVICES without damaging SWCNTs? Novel, Dry, direct deposition method for Continuous Manufacturing at Aalto University Synthesis Process CNT Aerosol Deposition Process Products Control of Material Direct Manufacture growth window Schematic presentation of mechanism of SWCNT formation Nasibulin, Queipo, Shandakov, Brown, Jiang, Pikhitsa, Tolochko, Kauppinen, J Nanosci Nanotech C 894 C 700 C - REACTIONS ON REACTOR WALLS: 2CO=C+CO2 H2+CO=C+H2O - CO2 and H2O RELEASE 400 C H2O CO2 CO CO CO H2O CO CO C CO2 H2 C CO ethcing reactions: C+CO2 = 2CO AND C+H2O=CO+H2 End of CNT growth - CO DISPROPRTIONATION AND CO HYDROGENATION REACTIONS ARE PROHIBITED (t 900 C) CO CO CO H2O CO H2 CO H2O CO CO2 CO H2 H2/N2 CO2 CO CO H2 H2 CO Fe(g) Steady-state growth of CNT - C INCORPORATION INTO GRAPHENE LAYER - REACTIONS OF CARBON RELEASE AND ETCHING: 2CO = C+CO2 AND H2+CO = C+H2O Formation of graphene layer - HEXAGON AND PENTAGON FORMATION CNT nucleation - HEPTAGON FORMATION Bundle formation not shown here - C INCORPORATION INTO GRAPHENE LAYER - REACTIONS OF CARBON RELEASE AND ETCHING: 2CO = C+CO2 AND H2+CO = C+H2O Particle saturation by C - REACTIONS: 2CO=C+CO2 AND H2+CO=C+H2O - C RELEASE ON SURFACE - C DISSOLUTION FE particle formation - VAPOUR NUCLEATION - CONDENSATION - CLUSTER COAGULATION Control of Diameter Distribution via CO 2 concetration Comparison of Optical Absorption and HR-TEM SWCNT length - In-situ sampling experiments TEM grid Individual SWCNT length 290 nm Water cooled stainless steel sampling rod 388 nm 1225 nm 1622 nm 290 nm TEM images of SWCNTs at 1000 oc short tubes & bundles SWCNTs for transparent conducting electrodes (TCE) - TEM images of SWCNTs at 825 oc longer tubes and bundles TEM of Pilot reactor SWCNTs - ultralong Collaboration with Prof Florian Banhart Strasbourg Univ France Length distribution of SWCNTs bundles as measured from SEM images Normalised fre equency 0,20 0,18 0,16 0,14 0,12 0,10 0,08 0,06 0,04 0,02 L = 13 µm σ = 08 L = 33 µm σ = 14 L = 94 µm σ = 14 0,00 0, Bundle length / [µm] How to manufacture CTEs Sheet resistance versus optical transparency for different samples synthesised at 825 C and 1000 C in small reactor and at large reactor Pristine Chemically doped via HNO 3 13 ± 08 µm 33 ± 14 µm ± 14 µm Transmittance / [%] Sheet Resistance / [Ohm/square] Transmittance vs sheet resistance comparison with literature results ITO on polymer NOT flexible Solution-based Graphene on polymer This work - 94 µm bundles Arc Laser CVD HiPCO NanoMaterials Group, Helsinki University of Technology Dept of Applied Physics & Center for New Materials Antti Kaskela Dr Albert G Nasibulin Dr Hua Jiang Zhen Zhu Anton Anisimov Toma Susi Dr Maoshuai He Jing Tian Marina Zavodchikova Acknowledgement for Funding * Academy of Finland * EU FP6 & FP7 TEKES FinNano Program NEDO TKK 100th Anniv Fund Acknowledgements for Collaboration Prof Angus Kirkland, Oxford University, UK Prof Florian Banhart, University of Strasbourg, France Dr Jérôme Lagoute, CNRS/ONERA, France Prof Young-Hee Lee, SKKU University, Korea Dr David P Brown, Brad Aitchison, Timo Murto and Jussi Sarkkinen, Canatu Oy, Finland THANKS TO YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!
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