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SEDIMENTARY PROCESSES, ENVIRONMENTS AND BASINS Other publications of the International Association of Sedimentologists SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS 37 Continental Margin Sedimentation From Sediment Transport to
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SEDIMENTARY PROCESSES, ENVIRONMENTS AND BASINS Other publications of the International Association of Sedimentologists SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS 37 Continental Margin Sedimentation From Sediment Transport to Sequence Stratigraphy Edited by C.A. Nittrouer, J.A. Austin, M.E. Field, J.H. Kravitz, J.P.M. Syvitski and P.L. Wiberg 2007, 549 pages, 178 illustrations 36 Braided Rivers Process, Deposits, Ecology and Management Edited by G.H. Sambrook Smith, J.L. Best, C.S. Bristow and G.E. Petts 2006, 390 pages, 197 illustrations 35 Fluvial Sedimentology VII Edited by M.D. Blum, S.B. Marriott and S.F. Leclair 2005, 589 pages, 319 illustrations 34 Clay Mineral Cements in Sandstones Edited by R.H. Worden and S. Morad 2003, 512 pages, 246 illustrations 33 Precambrian Sedimentary Environments A Modern Approach to Ancient Depositional Systems Edited by W. Altermann and P.L. Corcoran 2002, 464 pages, 194 illustrations 32 Flood and Megaflood Processes and Deposits Recent and Ancient Examples Edited by I.P. Martini, V.R. Baker and G. Garzón 2002, 320 pages, 281 illustrations 31 Particulate Gravity Currents Edited by W.D. McCaffrey, B.C. Kneller and J. Peakall 2001, 320 pages, 222 illustrations 30 Volcaniclastic Sedimentation in Lacustrine Settings Edited by J.D.L. White and N.R. Riggs 2001, 312 pages, 155 illustrations 29 Quartz Cementation in Sandstones Edited by R.H. Worden and S. Morad 2000, 352 pages, 231 illustrations 28 Fluvial Sedimentology VI Edited by N.D. Smith and J. Rogers 1999, 328 pages, 280 illustrations 27 Palaeoweathering, Palaeosurfaces and Related Continental Deposits Edited by M. Thiry and R. Simon Coinçon 1999, 408 pages, 238 illustrations 26 Carbonate Cementation in Sandstones Edited by S. Morad 1998, 576 pages, 297 illustrations 25 Reefs and Carbonate Platforms in the Pacific and Indian Oceans Edited by G.F. Camoin and P.J. Davies 1998, 336 pages, 170 illustrations 24 Tidal Signatures in Modern and Ancient Sediments Edited by B.W. Flemming and A. Bartholomä 1995, 368 pages, 259 illustrations 23 Carbonate Mud-mounds Their Origin and Evolution Edited by C.L.V. Monty, D.W.J. Bosence, P.H. Bridges and B.R. Pratt 1995, 543 pages, 330 illustrations 16 Aeolian Sediments Ancient and Modern Edited by K. Pye and N. Lancaster 1993, 175 pages, 116 illustrations 3 The Seaward Margin of Belize Barrier and Atoll Reefs Edited by N.P. James and R.N. Ginsburg 1980, 203 pages, 110 illustrations 1 Pelagic Sediments on Land and Under the Sea Edited by K.J. Hsu and H.C. Jenkyns 1975, 448 pages, 200 illustrations REPRINT SERIES 4 Sandstone Diagenesis: Recent and Ancient Edited by S.D. Burley and R.H. Worden 2003, 648 pages, 223 illustrations 3 Deep-water Turbidite Systems Edited by D.A.V. Stow 1992, 479 pages, 278 illustrations 2 Calcretes Edited by V.P. Wright and M.E. Tucker 1991, 360 pages, 190 illustrations SPECIAL PUBLICATION NUMBER 38 OF THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SEDIMENTOLOGISTS Sedimentary Processes, Environments and Basins: a Tribute to Peter Friend EDITED BY Gary Nichols, Ed Williams and Chris Paola SERIES EDITOR Ian Jarvis School of Earth Sciences & Geography Centre for Earth & Environmental Science Research Kingston University Penrhyn Road Kingston upon Thames KT1 2EE UK 2007 International Association of Sedimentologists and published for them by Blackwell Publishing Ltd BLACKWELL PUBLISHING 350 Main Street, Malden, MA , USA 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK 550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia The right of Gary Nichols, Ed Williams and Chris Paola to be identified as the Authors of the Editorial Material in this Work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher. First published 2007 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Sedimentary processes, environments, and basins : a tribute to Peter Friend / edited by Gary Nichols, Ed Williams and Chris Paola. p. cm. (Special publication number 38 of the International Association of Sedimentologists) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Sedimentation and deposition. 2. Environmental geology. 3. Sedimentary basins. I. Friend, P. F. II. Nichols, Gary. III. Williams, Ed, 1960 IV. Paola, C. (Chris) QE571.S dc A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library. Set in 10.5/12.5pt Palatino by Graphicraft Limited, Hong Kong Printed and bound in Singapore by Markono Print Media Pte Ltd The publisher s policy is to use permanent paper from mills that operate a sustainable forestry policy, and which has been manufactured from pulp processed using acidfree and elementary chlorine-free practices. Furthermore, the publisher ensures that the text paper and cover board used have met acceptable environmental accreditation standards. For further information on Blackwell Publishing, visit our website: Contents Sedimentary processes, environments and basins a tribute to Peter Friend: introduction, 1 G. Nichols, E. Williams and C. Paola Basin-fill incision, Rio Grande and Gulf of Corinth rifts: convergent response to climatic and tectonic drivers, 9 M.R. Leeder and G.H. Mack Drainage responses to oblique and lateral thrust ramps: a review, 29 J. Vergés Stratigraphic architecture, sedimentology and structure of the Vouraikos Gilbert-type fan delta, Gulf of Corinth, Greece, 49 M. Ford, E.A. Williams, F. Malartre and S.-M. Popescu Anatomy of anticlines, piggy-back basins and growth strata: a case study from the Limón fold-and-thrust belt, Costa Rica, 91 C. Brandes, A. Astorga, P. Blisniuk, R. Littke and J. Winsemann Tectono-sedimentary phases of the latest Cretaceous and Cenozoic compressive evolution of the Algarve margin (southern Portugal), 111 F.C. Lopes and P.P. Cunha Late Cenozoic basin opening in relation to major strike-slip faulting along the Porto Coimbra Tomar fault zone (northern Portugal), 137 A. Gomes, H.I. Chaminé, J. Teixeira, P.E. Fonseca, L.C. Gama Pereira, A. Pinto de Jesus, A. Pérez Albertí, M.A. Araújo, A. Coelho, A. Soares de Andrade and F.T. Rocha Effects of transverse structural lineaments on the Neogene Quaternary basins of Tuscany (inner Northern Apennines, Italy), 155 V. Pascucci, I.P. Martini, M. Sagri and F. Sandrelli Facies architecture and cyclicity of an Upper Carboniferous carbonate ramp developed in a Variscan piggy-back basin (Cantabrian Mountains, northwest Spain), 183 O. Merino-Tomé, J.R. Bahamonde, L.P. Fernández and J.R. Colmenero Peritidal carbonate evaporite sedimentation coeval to normal fault segmentation during the Triassic Jurassic transition, Iberian Chain, 219 M. Aurell, B. Bádenas, A.M. Casas and R. Salas A shallow-basin model for saline giants based on isostasy-driven subsidence, 241 F.JG. Van Den Belt and P.L. De Boer Single-crystal dating and the detrital record of orogenesis, 253 D.W. Burbank, I.D. Brewer, E.R. Sobel and M.E. Bullen Modelling and comparing the Caledonian and Permo-Triassic erosion surfaces with present-day topography across Highland Scotland: implications for landscape inheritance, 283 D. MacDonald, B. Archer, S. Murray, K. Smith and A. Bates 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating of detrital white mica as a complementary tool for provenance analysis: a case study from the Cenozoic Qaidam Basin (China), 301 A.B. Rieser, F. Neubauer, Y. Liu, J. Genser, R. Handler, X.-H. Ge and G. Friedl Provenance of Quaternary sands in the Algarve (Portugal) revealed by U Pb ages of detrital zircon, 327 C. Veiga-Pires, D. Moura, B. Rodrigues, N. Machado, L. Campo and A. Simonetti Anatomy of a fluvial lowstand wedge: the Avilé Member of the Agrio Formation (Hauterivian) in central Neuquén Basin (northwest Neuquén Province), Argentina, 341 G.D. Veiga, L.A. Spalletti and S.S. Flint Anatomy of a transgressive systems tract revealed by integrated sedimentological and palaeoecological study: the Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto Basin, northeastern Sicily, Italy, 367 C. Messina, M.A. Rosso, F. Sciuto, I. Di Geronimo, W. Nemec, T. Di Dio, R. Di Geronimo, R. Maniscalco and R. Sanfilippo vi Contents Late Cretaceous to Early Eocene sedimentation in the Sinop Boyabat Basin, north-central Turkey: a deep-water turbiditic system evolving into littoral carbonate platform, 401 B.L.S. Leren, N.E. Janbu, W. Nemec, E. Kirman and A. Ilgar Facies anatomy of a sand-rich channelized turbiditic system: the Eocene Kusuri Formation in the Sinop Basin, north-central Turkey, 457 N.E. Janbu, W. Nemec, E. Kirman and V. Özaksoy River morphologies and palaeodrainages of western Africa (Sahara and Sahel) during humid climatic conditions, 519 G.G. Ori, G. Diachille, G. Komatsu, L. Marinangeli and A. Pio Rossi Floodplain sediments of the Tagus River, Portugal: assessing avulsion, channel migration and human impact, 535 T.M. Azevêdo, A. Ramos Pereira, C. Ramos, E. Nunes, M.C. Freitas, C. Andrade and D.I. Pereira Creation and preservation of channel-form sand bodies in an experimental alluvial system, 555 B.A. Sheets, C. Paola and J.M. Kelberer Fluvial systems in desiccating endorheic basins, 569 G. Nichols Anatomy and architecture of ephemeral, ribbonlike channel-fill deposits of the Caspe Formation (Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene of the Ebro Basin, Spain), 591 J.L. Cuevas Martínez, P. Arbués Cazo, L. Cabrera Pérez and M. Marzo Carpio Index 613 Sedimentary processes, environments and basins a tribute to Peter Friend: introduction GARY NICHOLS*, ED WILLIAMS and CHRIS PAOLA *Department of Geology, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX, UK ( University Centre on Svalbard, P.O. Box 156, Longyearbyen, N-9171, Norway CRPG, B.P. 20, 15, rue Notre-Dame des Pauvres, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex, France Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414, USA It is one thing to be a good scientist, but the scientific community would soon be impoverished if some of those good scientists were not also able to inspire and help others. For several decades Peter Friend has been one of the leading figures in sedimentology and throughout that time he has helped scores of other people by supervising doctoral students, collaborating with colleagues, especially in developing countries, and being willing selflessly to share ideas with fellow geologists. All those who have worked with Peter know what a rich experience it is he is not only inspirational as a scientist, but through his relaxed and friendly manner he reminds us of the pleasure both of doing good science and of doing well by people in the process. Peter s style eschews cut-throat competition and one-upmanship but rather encourages the open sharing of scholarship. The scientific community of sedimentologists has been enriched by Peter s scientific and human contribution, and this volume is a small way of saying thank you to him. The idea of holding some form of conference event started circulating soon after Peter formally retired as a full-time academic in the Department of Earth Sciences, Cambridge University, in A European meeting of the International Association of Sedimentologists seemed an appropriate forum, and the meeting being held in Coimbra, Portugal, in September 2004 was in the right place (close to the areas where Peter had worked in Spain) at the right time. The IAS Bureau, and in particular Judith McKenzie and José Pedro Calvo, provided support and encouragement, and the organizing committee of the Coimbra meeting (in particular Pedro Proença e Cunha) arranged for the first morning plenary session of the meeting to be dedicated to Peter, allowing us to invite three keynote speakers to speak on themes related to his work. We are grateful to all the Coimbra meeting organizers for allowing us to devote such a significant part of their conference to honouring Peter Friend. The contributors to the plenary session, and others presenting papers in related sessions of the meeting, were invited to contribute papers to this volume, and subsequently a more general invitation was issued to those who we thought might like to provide a manuscript. This collection of papers is a token of thanks from a number of people who have benefited from an association with Peter, whether as doctoral students, research collaborators or just fellow scientists who have encountered him somewhere along the way. PETER FRIEND Academic leadership comes in many forms. In Peter s case it is a subtle blend of encouragement, enthusiasm and inspiration. The most immediate beneficiaries have been the many PhD students (over 30) who have been supervised by Peter. Some worked in areas which were core to Peter s own research interests, such as the Old Red Sandstone provinces of the North Atlantic, the Cenozoic basins of Spain and the foothills of the Himalayas, whereas others have carried out their fieldwork in exotic places as far afield as the Antarctic, Siberia and Canada, and worked on topics as varied as carbonate and evaporite sedimentology, volcaniclastics and coal basins. These doctoral students were from the United Kingdom, North America and South Asia, but there have also been researchers from other countries such as Spain and Portugal 2 G. Nichols, E. Williams and C. Paola who have worked with Peter on many projects. An enthusiasm for collaboration has always been a hallmark of Peter s career, and the outcomes have been very fruitful. In some cases he has worked with researchers in other fields of earth science, such as fluid dynamics to better understand sediment transport processes in rivers (Dade & Friend, 1998; Friend & Dade, 2005), or using provenance techniques to unravel exhumation and erosion histories (White et al., 2002). Peter has also collaborated with local geologists in the countries where he has carried out research, for example in Spain (Friend et al., 1981; Friend & Dabrio, 1996), India (Friend & Sinha, 1993; Sinha & Friend, 1994, 1999; Sinha et al., 1996) and Pakistan (Abbasi & Friend, 1989, 1993, 2000; Friend et al., 2001). International collaboration is not always easy: sometimes people feel protective about their patch of geology, they do not always welcome others coming along to work in the same area, and they may be suspicious of suggestions of joint project proposals. Peter s gentle style of diplomacy seems to have allowed him to work with anyone, anywhere. Any tensions which might exist between countries do not seem to have hindered Peter working with, for example, both Pakistani and Indian colleagues during the course of his work in the Himalayan foothills, and even the rivalries which used to exist between different geology departments in Spain apparently posed few problems. The sharing of ideas is always one of the objectives of scientific conferences, and so Peter has long been a contributor to national and international meetings. These conferences have not necessarily always been the big international jamborees, but instead the smaller, local or regional conferences, such as the annual meetings of the IAS. Every four years since 1977 an international meeting of fluvial sedimentologists has taken place, and Peter can claim to have attended more of these fluvial meetings than almost anybody else. Part of the attraction for all who attend these meetings has always been the opportunities to participate in field trips in locations like eastern Australia, South Africa, northern Spain (Fig. 1) and the Rocky Mountains. These relatively small meetings, and the field excursions associated with them, have created an international community of fluvial sedimentologists, within which Peter has long played a leading part. Fig. 1 Oligo-Miocene alluvial-fan conglomerate body in the Ebro Basin, Spain, an area where Peter Friend has worked for many years and led field trips there as part of International Fluvial Sedimentology Conferences in 1981 and Closer to home, in the UK geological community, Peter was one of the first to be involved with the British Sedimentological Research Group (BSRG) in the 1960s, which were the early days of modern sedimentology. At that time, the concepts of looking at sedimentary rocks in terms of processes of deposition and the recognition of facies were still relatively new, and the discipline of sedimentology has made huge advances during the course of Peter s career. Peter has continued to regularly attend the annual BSRG meetings, held at university geology departments around the British Isles, for many years. The emphasis in BSRG annual meetings has always been to provide a forum for postgraduate students and postdoctoral workers to present their work in a supportive context, and as such they strike a chord with Peter s own approach to fostering and encouraging research in sedimentology. The Friends of the Devonian is a loose association of enthusiasts of the Old Red Sandstone of the North Atlantic borderlands who have regularly held informal field meetings in Britain and Ireland. Although probably considered by many to have been dormant for a while, some of these friends recently got together with others to put together a collection of papers under the editorship of Peter Friend and Brian Williams (Friend & Williams, 2000), a timely synthesis of recent work on the tectonic development and controls on depositional facies of the Old Red Sandstone continent. Introduction 3 Fig. 2 Red beds of Devonian strata on Spitsbergen, where Peter Friend worked with Mark Moody-Stuart on the distinctive characteristics of ancient fluvial systems. Peter s papers at conferences are typically delivered in a manner that is deceptively low-key, but they leave you thinking afterwards. Paper titles such as Distinctive features of some ancient river systems (Friend, 1978) and Towards the field classification of alluvial architecture or sequence (Friend, 1983) are similarly beguiling. These are landmark papers in which Peter says here are some issues that need to be considered rather than providing complete answers and neat classifications. The test of these is that the aspects of fluvial sedimentology which are covered in these papers have been revisited over and over again by those who have followed after. Apart from his own presentations, Peter contributes to the conference proceedings with his ability to ask the most incisive questions in the most understated and nonconfrontational way. Many of Peter s earliest papers were on the Devonian of Spitsbergen (Fig. 2), Scotland and East Greenland, covering aspects of stratigraphy and sedimentology of the areas in which he and his colleagues and students carried out fieldwork. These thorough, detailed field studies provided the basis for new ideas about fluvial systems of the past, including the concept of downstream decrease in discharge (Friend & Moody-Stuart, 1972), and used systematic, statistical approaches to the analysis of sedimentological data (Friend et al., 1970b). Studies closer to home in Norfolk in collaboration with one of the other leading figures of sedimentology, John R.L. Allen, led to a better Fig. 3 Multistorey fluvial channel-fill sandstone bodies, Oligo-Miocene, Ebro Basin, Spain. understanding of subaqueous dune behaviour (Allen & Friend, 1976a,b). A long association with Spanish sedimentology began with fieldwork in Cenozoic fluvial deposits of the Ebro Basin leading to a much-cited paper (Friend et al., 1979) which was one of the first to look at the architecture of fluvial deposits in the stratigraphic record, followed by later papers which expanded on this theme (Friend, 1983; Friend et al., 1986). In particular, this work highlighted the concept of multistorey sand bodies (Fig. 3), which remains a core idea
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