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  3 ENGLISH FILE Advanced Pocket Book Robin Walker Christina Latham-KoenigClive OxendenJerry Lambert 4502139 EF3eAdv PB.indd 128/05/2015 12:02  2 Grammar 1A   have : auxiliary or main verb? Spanish and English use have   as a main verb in similar ways. Tenemos una pequeña cabaña en = We have a small cabin in the mountains. la montaña.Ya no tenemos una línea de teléfono fijo. = We don’t have a landline any more.Tengo tres hermanas y muchos sobrinos. = I have three sisters and lots of nephews and nieces.Tengo que ir a Bilbao mañana. = I have to go to Bilbao tomorrow. ¿Tienes que hacer alguna formación = Do you have to do any special training especial para este puesto? for this job?No tienen que hacerlo si no quieren. = They don’t have to do it if they don’t want to. In English we use have   as a dynamic verb where Spanish uses other verbs. I’m going to have a shower. = Voy a ducharme.Do you want to have supper with us? = ¿Quieres cenar con nosotros? Be careful with have something done  . We’re having the outside of = Nos están pintando la casa por fuera. the house painted.Do you have your apple trees pruned = ¿Te podan los manzanos o lo haces or do you do it yourself? tú mismo? Be careful with English have got . It is the same as Spanish tener . Tenemos un ordenador de sobremesa = We’ve got a desktop computer and y un portátil. a laptop.No tengo mucho tiempo ahora. ¿Lo = I haven’t got a lot of time right now. hablamos mañana? Can we talk about it tomorrow?¿Todavía no tienes una tablet? = Haven’t you got a tablet yet?Tienen que dormir en el aeropuerto. = They’ve got to sleep at the airport. As an auxiliary verb, have   is similar to Spanish haber . Si no hubiera / hubiese conocido a mi mujer, = If I hadn’t met my wife, I’d still be todavía estaría viviendo en el Reino Unido. living in the UK.Debe haber pensado que me había = She must have thought that I’d vuelto loco. gone crazy.Deberíamos haberles dejado una nota. = We should have left them a note. No van a saber a dónde hemos ido. They won’t know where we’ve gone.  A  No contestan. B  Puede que ya hayan entrado. Déjales un mensaje.  A  No answer. B  They might have gone in already. Leave them a message.   4502139 EF3eAdv PB.indd 228/05/2015 12:02  3 ¿Habrás terminado el primer borrador = Will you have finished the first draft by para la semana que viene? next week?Todo había terminado cuando llegamos allí. = Everything had finished by the time we got there.¿Has estado en la India alguna vez? = Have you ever been to India? Be careful with the use of the present perfect for unfinished time. They’ve been married for over 15 years. = Llevan más de 15 años casados.He’s been living in Spain since 1997. = Lleva viviendo en España desde 1997.I haven’t been feeling all that well recently. = No me encuentro muy bien últimamente.  PRONUNCIATION Be careful with the rhythm of have  as a main verb. I have  a sister . When  do you have  to leave ?We haven’t time for a drink . I need to have a break .Can I have  some water ? I’m going  to have  my hair   cut .We have  to go . Be careful with the rhythm of have  as an auxiliary verb. Where have  is unstressed, it is pronounced like of  . I’ve got   two cats . If we’d known,  we’d have told  you.Have you got  a dog ? They could  have gone  out.Have you ever   been  to Valencia ? They must  have gone  out.They’ve lived   here  for years . You shouldn’t  have come .I’ve been waiting  for ages .  Check the pronunciation on your  PRONUNCIATION 1A. 1B  discourse markers (1): linkers There are many similarities between discourse markers in English and Spanish.result Decidimos ir a la ópera, así que me compré = We decided to go to the opera, so una chaqueta elegante. I bought myself a smart jacket. Mucha gente pasó hambre como = Many people went hungry as a result of consecuencia del embargo. the embargo. En toda la semana no paró de llover. = It didn’t stop raining all week. Como consecuencia, los ríos se As a result, the rivers burst their banks desbordaron en muchos sitios. in many places.Las pruebas no revelaron una mejora = The trials revealed no significant significativa y por tanto / por consiguiente improvement and therefore / consequently no podemos recomendar el uso de we cannot recommend the use of this esta sustancia. substance. reason Fui de compras porque necesitaba un = I went shopping because / as I needed abrigo nuevo. a new coat.Ya que estás aquí, puedes ayudarme con esto. = Since you’re here, you can help me with this.   4502139 EF3eAdv PB.indd 328/05/2015 12:02  4 A  ¿Por qué no fueron al partido? A  Why didn’t they go to the game? B  Porque las entradas eran demasiado caras. B  Because the tickets were too expensive.Como no habías dicho nada, supuse = As / Since you hadn’t said anything, que no te interesaba. I assumed that you weren’t interested. NOT  How you hadn’t said anything, …No pudimos aterrizar en Nueva York = We couldn’t land in New York because of debido a la tormenta de nieve. the snowstorm.Debido al descontento generalizado en el = Because of the general feeling of país, el Gobierno suavizó los recortes. unhappiness in the country, the government eased up on the cutbacks.Muchos pacientes tuvieron que esperar = Many patients had to wait for hours durante horas para ser atendidos debido a before receiving attention due to the la falta de personal. staff shortages. purpose Está estudiando inglés para conseguir = He’s studying English to / in order to / un puesto mejor. so as to get a better job. NOT  He’s studying English for get a better job. NOT  He’s studying English for to get a better job.Aparcamos en la entrada del camping = We parked at the entrance to the para no molestar a los otros campistas. campsite in order not to / so as not to disturb the other campers. NOT  We parked at the entrance to the campsite to not to / to not / for not disturb the other campers.Condujo rápido para no llegar tarde. = He drove quickly so as not to be late. NOT  He drove quickly to not to be / so as not be / in order not be late.Voy a echar gasolina para que no tengas = I’m going to get petrol so (that) you don’t que ponerla mañana al salir. have to get it when you leave tomorrow.Traigo tres colores diferentes para que = I’ve brought three different colours escojas el que más te guste. so (that) you can choose the one you like best. NOT  …so that you could choose the one you like best.Hemos decidido vivir en Oviedo por si mis = We’ve decided to live in Oviedo in case padres necesitan nuestra ayuda. my parents need our help. contrast Pasamos un fin de semana genial, pero el = We had a great weekend, but the traffic tráfico a la vuelta fue espantoso. on the way back was appalling.Nos vamos a volver a reunir el jueves para = We’re meeting again on Thursday to try intentar econtrar una solución. Sin embargo, to find a solution. However, I don’t hold no tengo muchas esperanzas. out much hope.La crisis había tenido un gran impacto. Había, = The crisis had had quite an impact. There sin embargo / no obstante, indicios de que were, nevertheless / however, signs that las cosas empezaban a mejorar poco a poco. things were slowly starting to improve.Las encuestas indicaban una clara mayoría. = The polls showed a clear majority. Sin embargo, insistieron en que era pronto Nevertheless, they insisted that it was para cantar victoria. too soon to cry victory.Muchas multinacionales obtienen = Many multinational companies make beneficios millonarios, pero algunas millions in profits yet some pay very pagan muy pocos impuestos. little tax.   4502139 EF3eAdv PB.indd 428/05/2015 12:02
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