October Process Industry Practices Structural. PIP STE05501 Fixed Ladders and Cages Design Guide - PDF

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October 2012 Process Industry Practices Structural PIP STE05501 Fixed Ladders and Cages Design Guide PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry
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October 2012 Process Industry Practices Structural PIP STE05501 Fixed Ladders and Cages Design Guide PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these technical requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and engineering costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While this Practice is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users, individual applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take precedence over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and particular matters or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering situations should not be made solely on information contained in these materials. The use of trade names from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of preference but rather recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the same specifications are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All Practices or guidelines are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and regulations including OSHA requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines should conflict with OSHA or other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or regulations must be followed. Consult an appropriate professional before applying or acting on any material contained in or suggested by the Practice. This Practice is subject to revision at any time. Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, 3925 West Braker Lane (R4500), Austin, Texas PIP Member Companies and Subscribers may copy this Practice for their internal use. Changes or modifications of any kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written authorization of PIP. Authorized Users may attach addenda or overlays to clearly indicate modifications or exceptions to specific sections of PIP Practices. Authorized Users may provide their clients, suppliers and contractors with copies of the Practice solely for Authorized Users purposes. These purposes include but are not limited to the procurement process (e.g., as attachments to requests for quotation/ purchase orders or requests for proposals/contracts) and preparation and issue of design engineering deliverables for use on a specific project by Authorized User s client. PIP s copyright notices must be clearly indicated and unequivocally incorporated in documents where an Authorized User desires to provide any third party with copies of the Practice. PUBLISHING HISTORY October 2012 Issued Not printed with State funds October 2012 Process Industry Practices Structural PIP STE05501 Fixed Ladders and Cages Design Guide Table of Contents 1. Introduction Purpose Scope References Process Industry Practices Industry Codes and Standards Government Regulations Definitions Typical Details General Design Ladder Lengths Platform Access Ladder Cages Ladder Supports and Guides Ladder Rails Ladder Rungs Ladder Pitch Design Loads Allowances for Temperature Variation for Vertical Vessels Ladder Pads Contract Documents Fabricator Shop Drawings Review... 9 Drawings STE Ladder Side Elevation STE Ladder Base at Structure/ Platform or Horizontal Vessel STE Ladder Base at Vertical Vessel STE Cage Hoops STE Step Thru Ladder STE Side Step Ladder Support Connection to Vertical Vessel STE Side Step Ladder Support Connection to Structure/Platform STE Step Thru Ladder Support Connection to Structure/Platform STE Ladder Guide Connection to Vertical Vessel STE Ladder Guide Connection to Structure/Platform STE Ladder Cage at Elevated Platform STE Side Step Ladders STE Minimum Clearances for Ladders Process Industry Practices Page 1 of 10 PIP STE05501 October 2012 Fixed Ladders and Cages Design Guide 1. Introduction 1.1 Purpose 1.2 Scope 2. References This Practice provides guidelines for specifying and designing fixed ladders and cages. This Practice provides design guidelines for typical OSHA-regulated fixed ladders and cages as specified and detailed for fabrication in PIP STF05501 for open structures, miscellaneous platforms, and vessels for regular operational access and egress. Typical detail drawings for design are provided that describe ladder and cage details, platform access configurations, support and guide connections, ladder location details, and ladder clearances for side step and step thru ladder types. Applicable parts of the following Practices, industry codes and standards, and government regulations shall be considered an integral part of this Practice. The edition in effect on the date of contract award shall be used, except as otherwise noted. Short titles are used herein where appropriate. 2.1 Process Industry Practices (PIP) PIP STC Structural Design Criteria PIP STF Fixed Ladders and Cages Fabrication Details PIP STI Concrete Typical Details PIP STS Structural and Miscellaneous Steel Fabrication Specification 2.2 Industry Codes and Standards American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) ASCE/SEI 7 - Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures 2.3 Government Regulations The following government document has been used as a reference in the development of this Practice. U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) - Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Regulations 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D (Walking-Working Surfaces) 3. Definitions contract documents: Any and all documents, including codes, studies, design drawings, specifications, sketches, practices, and data sheets, that the purchaser or engineer of record has transmitted or otherwise communicated, either by incorporation or reference, and made part of the Process Industry Practices Page 2 of 10 PIP STE05501 October 2012 Fixed Ladders and Cages Design Guide legal contract agreement or purchase order between the purchaser and the structure/platform fabricator, ladder fabricator and/or vessel manufacturer design drawings: Drawings produced by the structure/platform engineer and/or the vessel engineer that show the structure, vessel, platform, and ladder and cage arrangements and details engineer of record: Purchaser s authorized representative with overall authority and responsibility for the engineering design, quality, and performance of the civil works, structure, foundations, materials, and appurtenances described in the contract documents. The engineer of record shall be licensed as defined by the laws of the locality in which the work is to be constructed, and be qualified to practice in the specialty discipline required for the work described in the contract documents. fabricator shop drawings: Drawings produced by a fabricator that transfer the information from the design drawings and other contract documents into accurate, detailed dimensional information to be used for the fabrication of the ladders, cages and structural steel ladder fabricator: The party responsible for providing fabricated ladders and cages in accordance with the contract documents. Unless otherwise noted, the term ladder fabricator shall apply also to the ladder fabricator s subcontractor(s) and/or vendor(s). owner: The party who has authority through ownership, lease, or other legal agreement over the site, facility, structure, platform, vessel or project wherein the ladders and cages will be used purchaser: The party who awards the contracts to the structure/platform fabricator, ladder fabricator and/or vessel manufacturer. The purchaser may be the owner or the owner s authorized agent. structure/platform engineer: The engineer that performs the design of the structures/platforms, including the ladders and cages that connect to the structures/platforms. The structure/platform engineer may also perform the design of the ladders and cages that connect to vessels if the design of the ladder support and guide connections is validated by a vessel engineer. structure/platform fabricator: The party responsible for providing fabricated structural and miscellaneous steel in accordance with the contract documents. Unless otherwise noted, the term structure/platform fabricator shall apply also to the structure/platform fabricator s subcontractor(s) and/or vendor(s). vessel engineer: The engineer that performs the design of the vessels, including the ladders and cages that connect to the vessels. Alternatively, the vessel engineer may validate the design of the ladder support and guide connections to vessels for ladders and cages that are designed by a structure/platform engineer. vessel manufacturer: The party responsible for providing manufactured vessels in accordance with the contract documents. Unless otherwise noted, the term vessel manufacturer shall apply also to the vessel manufacturer s subcontractor(s) and/or vendor(s). Process Industry Practices Page 3 of 10 PIP STE05501 October 2012 Fixed Ladders and Cages Design Guide 4. Typical Details Typical details for the design of fixed ladders and cages are shown in the drawings appended to this Practice (i.e., PIP STE through PIP STE ). 5. General Design 5.1 Ladder Lengths In accordance with OSHA Regulations 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D, the maximum length of continuous ladders from grade to elevated platforms allowed is 30 ft (9000 mm) measured from the walking surface at grade to the walking surface at the top platform serviced by the ladder In accordance with OSHA Regulations 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D, the maximum length of continuous ladders between elevated platforms allowed is 30 ft (9000 mm) measured from the walking surface at the bottom platform to the walking surface at the top platform serviced by the ladder. 5.2 Platform Access Intermediate platform access from a continuous ladder is not specifically prohibited by OSHA Regulations 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D, however, it is not generally recommended based on common industry practice. Some owners may prohibit access to intermediate platforms from continuous ladders and may require a break in the ladder at intermediate platforms A ladder with side step access at the top platform serviced by the ladder is the preferred configuration by common industry practice. Some owners may prohibit ladders with step through access Self-closing double-bar safety gates, in accordance with OSHA Regulations 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D, are required to be provided at the opening in the platform railing for all platforms serviced by the ladder. Some owners may have a preferred manufacturer and type of safety gate to be used for their facility that should be specified in the contract documents accordingly The location of the safety gate hinges relative to the ladder orientation as well as the minimum required swing angle of the safety gate should be selected by the structure/platform engineer to provide adequate accessibility between the ladder and platform. The preferred location of the safety gate hinges is at the back of the person using the ladder and should be shown on the design drawings. The minimum required swing angle for safety gates should be 90 degrees, unless a wider swing angle (e.g., 180 degrees) is required for accessibility. The minimum required swing angle of the safety gate should be shown on the design drawings if it is greater than 90 degrees. Process Industry Practices Page 4 of 10 PIP STE05501 October 2012 Fixed Ladders and Cages Design Guide 5.3 Ladder Cages In accordance with OSHA Regulations 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D, cages are required on continuous ladders greater than 20 ft (6000 mm) long measured from the walking surface at grade or the bottom platform to the walking surface at the top platform serviced by the ladder Some owners specify more stringent criteria requiring cages also for continuous ladders that are 20 ft (6000 mm) long or less Cages should be considered for ladders on elevated platforms that are 20 ft (6000 mm) long or less if the bottom of the ladder at the elevated platform is relatively close to the edge of the platform to the side or back of the person using the ladder. In this case, a person using the ladder can potentially fall off the ladder and over the railing at the elevated platform if a cage is not provided In accordance with OSHA Regulations 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D, for ladders at elevated platforms that are close to the edge of the platform, cages are required to have vertical bars extending to the top rail of the railing on the platform if the ladder is 4 ft (1200 mm) or less from the edge of the platform to the back of the person using the ladder. However, based on common industry practice, it is recommended that vertical bars extending to the top rail of the railing on the platform be provided if the ladder is 6 ft (1800 mm) or less from the edge of the platform as shown in drawing PIP STE The inside radius for cages shown in details on drawings PIP STE and PIP STE are in accordance with OSHA Regulations 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D. Some owners specify a larger inside radius for cages than specified by OSHA to accommodate personnel wearing heavy clothing in cold climates and/or air packs in hazardous locations. 5.4 Ladder Supports and Guides Ladders should be supported at the top and guided at the bottom Guides should be provided where required based on the type of rails and the unguided length criteria shown on drawings PIP STE and PIP STE Ladder support members, support connectors, and guide connectors to structures/platforms should be located and designed by the structure/platform engineer and shown on the design drawings Ladder support members, support connectors, and guide connectors to vessels should be located and designed by the vessel engineer and shown on the design drawings. 5.5 Ladder Rails Selection of ladder rails by the fabricator should be based on guide locations shown on the design drawings and the unguided length criteria shown on fabrication detail drawing PIP STF , unless otherwise specified in contract documents. Process Industry Practices Page 5 of 10 PIP STE05501 October 2012 Fixed Ladders and Cages Design Guide Guides for ladder rails should be located and designed by the structure/platform engineer and/or vessel engineer based on using bar 2-1/2-inch by 3/8-inch ladder rails wherever feasible. If it is not feasible to provide sufficient guides for bar 2-1/2-inch by 3/8-inch ladder rails, bar 3-inch by 3/8-inch or C3x4.1 ladder rails should be used, in order of preference, based upon the feasibility of providing sufficient guides. 5.6 Ladder Rungs Ladder rung length of 1 ft 6 inches (460 mm) as specified in PIP STF05501 is based on common industry practice and exceeds the minimum required ladder rung length of 1 ft 4 inches (410 mm) specified in OSHA Regulations 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D. Rung length may be reduced to the minimum required by OSHA or increased at the discretion of the structure/platform engineer, vessel engineer and/or owner. Increased rung lengths may require a larger diameter rung based on design live load as prescribed in Section 5.8 of this Practice Ladder rung of 3/4-inch (20 mm) diameter smooth bar as specified in PIP STF05501 is based on common industry practice and minimum requirements in accordance with OSHA Regulations 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D. Ladder rungs specified in PIP STF05501 are designed based on a length of 1ft 6 inches (460 mm) with an applied design live load as prescribed in Section 5.8 of this Practice Ladder rung spacing of 1 ft 0 inch (300 mm) center-to-center as specified in PIP STF05501 is based on common industry practice and maximum allowed ladder rung spacing in accordance with OSHA Regulations 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D. Rung spacing may be reduced at the discretion of the structure/platform engineer, vessel engineer and/or owner Ladder rung spacing must be uniform throughout the length of the ladder in accordance with OSHA Regulations 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D. It is not specifically stated in OSHA Regulations 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D whether the spacing between the bottom rung and the base of the ladder must also be uniform with the rung spacing throughout the length of the rest of the ladder Ladder pads for ladder bases at grade are designed to have a full 1 ft 0 inch (300 mm) adjustability in height in order to accommodate uniform rung spacing of 1 ft 0 inch (300 mm) throughout the length of the ladder including the bottom rung to the base of the ladder. See Section 5.10 of this Practice for more information about ladder pads For ladders with bases at elevated platforms, it is preferred to lay out platform elevations such that the height between platforms serviced by ladders are in even 1 ft 0 inch (300 mm) increments in order to accommodate uniform rung spacing of 1 ft 0 inch (300 mm) throughout the length of the ladder including the bottom rung to the base of the ladder. Where this is not feasible, spacing from the bottom rung to the base of the ladder on the elevated platform may be adjusted in accordance with common industry practice and the criteria shown on drawing PIP STE Process Industry Practices Page 6 of 10 PIP STE05501 October 2012 Fixed Ladders and Cages Design Guide Some owners specify the use of rungs that are corrugated, knurled, dimpled, or have coatings, caps or other types of treatments that provide slip resistance. Regardless of what is specified, it is important to provide uniformity in the slipresistance throughout the entire length of the ladder. Regular inspection of ladders and maintenance should be performed to ensure uniform slip-resistance has not been compromised over time due to dirt, wear or damage. 5.7 Ladder Pitch The preferred pitch of fixed ladders in accordance with OSHA Regulations 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D is in the range of 75 degrees and 90 degrees with the horizontal Fixed ladders are considered as substandard in accordance with OSHA Regulations 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D if they are installed within the pitch range of 60 degrees and 75 degrees with the horizontal. Substandard fixed ladders are permitted only where it is found necessary to meet conditions of installation. This substandard pitch range is considered by OSHA as a critical range to be avoided, if possible Fixed ladders having a pitch in excess of 90 degrees with the horizontal are prohibited by OSHA Regulations 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D Requirements for fixed ladders in OSHA Regulations 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D cover only fixed ladders within the pitch range of 60 degrees and 90 degrees with the horizontal Details shown in drawings in this Practice and fabrication details shown in drawings in PIP STF05501 are intended only for ladders with a pitch of 90 degrees with the horizontal. If a ladder is required with a different pitch, additional fabrication details should be provided in an addendum to PIP STF05501 or shown on design drawings. 5.8 Design Loads Ladder design for continuous ladders should be based on a 30 ft (9000 mm) maximum length measured from the walking surface at grade or the bottom platform to the walking surface of the top platform serviced by the ladder with a 300 lb (1335 N) concentrated live load at every 10 ft (3000 mm) of ladder length in accordance with ASCE/SEI Individual rungs should be designed with a 300 lb (1335 N) concentrated live load in accordance with ASCE/SEI The following total dead load and live load acting at the center of a continuous ladder should be used for design of ladder support members and support connectors: a. Dead Load = 900 lbs (4000 N) b. Live Load = 3 x 300 lbs (1335 N) = 900 lbs (4000 N) Ladder supports and guides should be designed for ice, wind, and earthquake loads in accordance with PIP STC Process Industry Practices Page 7 of 10 PIP STE05501 October 2012 Fixed Ladders and Cages Design Guide 5.9 Allowances for Temperature Variation for Vertical Vessels For ladders at vertical vessels, the dimen
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