Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 1 Autonomous Rover Detection and Response Applied to the Search for Life Via Chlorophyll Fluorescence.

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Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March Robotic Survey ● Long-distance autonomous traverse ● Sustained solar-powered operation ● Health monitoring for automatic recovery ● Accomplished over 250 km of traverse ● 80+ traverses over 1 km in a single cycle
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  • 1 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 1 Autonomous Rover Detection and Response Applied to the Search for Life Via Chlorophyll Fluorescence in the Atacama Desert T. Smith, D. R. Thompson, S. Weinstein and D. Wettergreen Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh
  • 2 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 2 Coastal RangeInterior Desert Questions ● Biodiversity and distribution of habitats in Atacama Desert subregions are not understood – Where does life survive and where does it not? – What factors govern the distribution?
  • 3 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 3 Robotic Survey ● Long-distance autonomous traverse ● Sustained solar-powered operation ● Health monitoring for automatic recovery ● Accomplished over 250 km of traverse ● 80+ traverses over 1 km in a single cycle
  • 4 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 4 Autonomous Science ● Show robots can perform unsupervised science ● Instrument tightly integrated to robot mechanism ● Rapid deployment and measurement ● Autonomous detection and response
  • 5 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 5 Scientists choose locales for investigation Survey Traverse Method
  • 6 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 6 Scientists pick subsurface sampling location Choose periodic science during some traverses Survey Traverse Method
  • 7 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 7 Rover executes traverse and makes measurements Survey Traverse Method
  • 8 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 8 Rover records periodic samples during traverse Survey Traverse Method
  • 9 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 9 Rover downlinks science data Survey Traverse Method
  • 10 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 10 wet chlorophyll 0 5 10 15 20 25 spray water pre-dye C/D/P/L spray dye post-dye C/D/P/L dry chlorophyll, chlorophyll check wet chlorophyll check end Fluorescence Imaging Protocol
  • 11 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 11 wet chlorophyll 0 5 10 15 20 25 spray water pre-dye C/D/P/L spray dye post-dye C/D/P/L dry chlorophyll, chlorophyll check wet chlorophyll check end Fluorescence Imaging Protocol ?
  • 12 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 12 Interpreting Fluorescence Signal bad data ambiguous negativepositive negative
  • 13 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 13 Automatic Fluorescence Detection 0.3 0.9 9 0.0 1 0.9 0.999 9 ● Subsample ● Fuzzy threshold ● Naive Bayes
  • 14 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 14 Science on the Fly Transect 30 m 180 m
  • 15 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 15 Science on the Fly Transect M C C D P L C = Carbohydrate D = DNA P = Protein L = Lipid M = Morphology C = Chlorophyll
  • 16 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 16 Science on the Fly Transect M C C D P L C = Carbohydrate D = DNA P = Protein L = Lipid M = Morphology C = Chlorophyll
  • 17 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 17 Science on the Fly Transect M C C D P L C = Carbohydrate D = DNA P = Protein L = Lipid M = Morphology C = Chlorophyll
  • 18 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 18 Science on the Fly Transect M C C D P L C = Carbohydrate D = DNA P = Protein L = Lipid X negativ e ambiguou s positiv e bad data M = Morphology C = Chlorophyll no followup
  • 19 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 19 Science on the Fly Transect C = Carbohydrate D = DNA P = Protein L = Lipid X negativ e ambiguou s positiv e bad data M = Morphology C = Chlorophyll no followup X X XXX D07_270_430_TR N M C C D P L
  • 20 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 20 Results (Site D) ● Autonomy cut the number of followups in half (11 vs. 24) and still got 7 out of 8 of samples that had positive chlorophyll readings ● Precision is a measure of efficiency—it indicates the proportion of followups that corresponded to positive chlorophyll readings ● Compared to random followups, science autonomy increased precision by 90% (significance level < 0.01)
  • 21 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 21 Conclusions ● Demonstrated large-scale robotic survey for the distribution of extremophile life ● Efficiency was improved by autonomous chlorophyll detection and followup ● Autonomous followup can be a big win if: – Some samples are taken quickly and others slowly – There is a well-defined cue for followup – Scientists can tolerate hiccups!
  • 22 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 22 Future ● Spectrometer pointing on the fly ● Use onboard knowledge of satellite map ● Integration with traverse planning ● See poster tonight 7 pm in the Astrobiology group mixed cobbles hypothetical boundaries desert pavement clay patches rover traverse track 1 km
  • 23 Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference, March 2006 23 Thanks! Dimi Apostolopoulos, Robotics, Carnegie Mellon Nathalie Cabrol, Geology, NASA ARC/SETI Institute Francisco Calderón, Robotics, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Orion Carlisle, Spectroscopy, University of Hawaii Guillermo Chong, Geology, Universidad Católica del Norte, Peter Coppin, EventScope, Carnegie Mellon Matt Deans, Robotics, NASA ARC/QSS Cecilia Demergasso, Biology, Universidad Católica del Norte James Dohm, Geology, University of Arizona Darel Drake, Lawrence Livermore National Lab Gregory Fisher, Biology, Carnegie Mellon Edmond Grin, Geology, NASA ARC/SETI Institute Andres Guesalaga, Robotics, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Stuart Heys, Robotics, Carnegie Mellon Pamela Hinds, HCI, Stanford University Dominic Jonak, Robotics, Carnegie Mellon Allan Lüders, Robotics, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Ayorkor Mills-Tettey, Robotics, Carnegie Mellon Jeff Moersch, Geology, University of Tennessee Nicola Muscettola, Autonomy, NASA ARC David Pane, Biology, Carnegie Mellon Pedro Ramirez, Robotics, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Mike Rampey, Geology, University of Tennessee Reid Simmons, Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon Trey Smith, Robotics, Carnegie Mellon Alvaro Soto, Robotics, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile James Teza, Robotics, Carnegie Mellon Geb Thomas,HCI, University of Iowa David Thompson, Robotics, Carnegie Mellon Paul Tompkins, Robotics, NASA ARC/QSS Ingrid Ukstins-Peate, Geology, University of Iowa Baskaran Vijaykumar, Autonomy, NASA ARC Alan Waggoner, Biology, Carnegie Mellon Biology Michael Wagner, Robotics, Carnegie Mellon Roxana Wales, HCI, NASA ARC Kim Warren-Rhodes, Biology/Geology, NASA ARC Shmuel Weinstein, Biology, Carnegie Mellon David Wettergreen, Robotics, Carnegie Mellon Red Whittaker, Robotics, Carnegie Mellon Chris Williams, Robotics, Carnegie Mellon
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