# Lab Report | Fluid Dynamics | Physics

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Faculty of Engineering TechnologyPage No.2 / 17Department of Electrical Engineering  TechnologyRevision No.1 Title ! #\$N%ENT&1'#NTR( T( %!T)!*E+ective Date &,/&2/2&1- INTRODUCTION ! venturi tue is a tue ith a constricte0 throat that increases velocity an0 0ecrease pressure. They are use0 for measuring the o rate of compressile an0 incompressile ui0 in pipelines. (rice plate is a 0evice hich measures the rate of ui0 o. #t uses the same principle as 3enturi tue4 namely *ernoulli5s principle hich says that there is a relationship eteen the pressure of the ui0 an0 velocity of the ui0. 6hen the velocity increases4 the pressure 0ecreases an0 vice versa. (rice plate usually place0 in the pipe hich ui0 os. !s ui0 os through the pipe4 it has a certain velocity an0 a certain pressure4 ith the hole in the mi00le4 the ui0 is force0 to converge to go through the small hole4 the point of maimum convergence actually occurs shortly 0onstream of the physical orice. 1.0 OBJECTIVE  To calculate the orate through pipe using venturi meter. 2.0 LEARNING OUTCOME !t the en0 of this eperiment4 stu0ents are ale to  ã  To evaluate the frictional resistance to o along a venture meter. ã  To i0entify the velocity4 the fall in pressure an0 the magnitu0e of the orate in venture meter. ã  To calculate the i0eal 0istriution an0 the losses occur in the systems. 3.0 THEORY OF THE VENTURI METER 8onsi0er o of an incrompressile4 invisci0 ui0 through the convergent 9 0ivergent 3enturi tue shon in Figure :.1. The cross sectional area at the upstream section 1 is a 14 at the throat section 2 is a 2  an0 at any other aritraty section n is a n . Pie;ometer tues at these sections register h 14 h 2 4 an0 h n aove the aritrary 0atum shon. Note that4 although the tue may have any inclination4 the 0atum must y necessity4 e hori;ontal. !ssume that oth the velocity an0 the pie;ometer hea0 are constant over each of the sections consi0ere0.  Faculty of Engineering TechnologyPage No.2 / 17Department of Electrical Engineering  TechnologyRevision No.1 Title ! #\$N%ENT&1'#NTR( T( %!T)!*E+ective Date &,/&2/2&1- Figure :.1  #0eal 8on0itions in a 3enturi %eter6e may treat the convergent 9 0ivergent pipe as a steam tue4 along hich *ernoulli5s theorem  Faculty of Engineering TechnologyPage No.2 / 17Department of Electrical Engineering  TechnologyRevision No.1 Title ! #\$N%ENT&1'#NTR( T( %!T)!*E+ective Date &,/&2/2&1- 4.0 EQUIPMENT1. <y0raulic *ench2.3enturi %eter:. top atchFigure =.1  3enturi %eterFigure =.2   Faculty of Engineering TechnologyPage No.2 / 17Department of Electrical Engineering  TechnologyRevision No.1 Title ! #\$N%ENT&1'#NTR( T( %!T)!*E+ective Date &,/&2/2&1- Figure =.:  Dimension of 3enturi %eter an0 )ocations of Pie;ometer Tuei.8ross ection !rea at !4 a 1  > ?:&.@ mm 2 ii.8ross ection !rea at D4 a 2  > 2&1.1 mm 2
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