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Aluminum Properties and Physical Metallurgy Copyright © 1984 ASM International® John E. Hatch editor, p 1-24 All rights reserved. DOI: 10.1361/appm1984p001 www.asminternational.org CHAPTER 1 PROPERTIES OF PURE
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   H PTER   PROPERTIES OF PURE  LUMINUM Aluminumexceeding99.99 inpurity,producedbytheHoopes(Ref1)electrolyticprocess,wasfirstavailableearlyin1920.In1925,Edwards(Ref2)reportedsomeofthephysicalandmechanicalpropertiesofthisgradeofaluminum.Taylor,Willey,Smith,andEdwards(Ref3)publishedapaperin1938thatgaveseveralpropertiesfor99.996 aluminumthatwasproducedinFrancebyamodifiedHoopesprocess.ThefirstinternationalmeetingtodiscussverypuremetalswasheldinOctober1959inParis(Ref4),andaseminaronultrahigh-puritymetalswassponsoredbytheAmericanSocietyforMetalsin1961(Ref5).Thefirsteditionofthismonographwaspublishedin1967.Intheinterveningyears,becauseoftherelativeeaseofpreparingthemetalinhigh-purityformandbecauseofitsinterestingpropertiesasapurematerial,manypapershavebeenpublishedonthesubjectofpurealuminum.Applicationshavebeenmainlyinthefieldsofelectrolyticcapacitorfoil,cryoelectrics,cryomagnetics,andsemiconductors.Newermethodsofpreparationincludezonerefining(Ref 6-9 crystallizationfromamalgams(Ref10and11),andpreparationfromaluminumalkyls(Ref9and12).Electricalresistivityatlowtemperatureshasbeendevelopedasameasureofpurity(Ref9and13).Improvedmethodsofanalysis,includingneutronactivation,haveextendedthesensitivityandscopeofanalyses(Ref9and14).Thereisnogenerallyadoptednomenclatureforthevariousdegreesofpurityofaluminum.Thefollowingclassificationisappropriate: Aluminum Designation 99.50-99.79Commercialpurity99.80-99.949Highpurity99.950-99.9959Superpurity99.9960-99.9990ExtremepurityOver99.9990,Ultrapurity Similardesignationsandtheterm U.S.wroughtalloy1199 areusedin WarldAluminumAbstracts In ChemicalAbstracts informationonthepreparationandpropertiesarefoundundertherespectiveheadingsof AluminumPreparationandAluminumProperties. Thischapterreviewsthepropertiesofaluminumof99.95 purityormore.Theeffectsof *ThischapterwasrevisedbyateamcomprisedofW.B.Frank,AlcoaTechnicalCenter;G.P.Koch,ReynoldsMetalsCo.;andJ.J.Mills,MartinMariettaLaboratories.TheoriginalchapterwasauthoredbyJ.L.Brandt,AlcoaResearchLaboratories.   Aluminum Properties and Physical Metallurgy John E. Hatch editor, p 1-24   DOI: 10.1361/ appm1984p001 Copyright © 19 84  ASM International® All rights reserved. www.asminternational.org  2 PROPERTIES AND PHYSICAL MOALLURGY alloyingadditionsandimpuritiesonthepropertiesofaluminumalloysarecoveredinChapter6ofthisVolume. MECHANICAL PROPERnES Themechanicalpropertiesofaluminumarediscussedunderseveralheadingsinthischapter,butonlybrieflyineachcaseinviewofthevarietyandscopeofthestudiesthathavebeenmade.ThenormalmechanicalpropertiesofaluminumofseveralpuritiesareshowninTable1.Inthiscaseandingeneral,sets of datafromdifferentsourcesshouldnotbecompareddirectly.Majordifficultiesmayoccurinsuchcasesbecauseofproblemsofpreciseanalysis,specimenpreparation,andtestmethods. TENSILE AND YIELDPROPERTIES Tensileandyieldpropertieshavebeenstudiedforarangeofpuritiesandstructuresunderavarietyoftestconditions.DeepandPlumtree Ref16)determinedthetensileandyieldvaluesofrodsof99.7and99.99 puritiesextrudedunderidenticalconditionsandrelatedobservedpropertiestostructuralcharacteristics.Iida  t l  Ref17)foundananomalousstrain-ratesensitivityofyieldstressin99.99and99.999 puritymetalatfractionalvaluesofthesuperconductivitytemperature.Hamel Ref18)determinedtheeffectofstrainrateandorientationonthetensilepropertiesandworkhardeningforsamplesof99.99and99.3 aluminumsheet.Hammadandothers Ref19)investigatedworksofteningyieldpointsin99.995 aluminuminthetemperaturerangeof100to 45 °C  212to840 O afterprestrainingintensionatlowertemperaturesorahigherstrainrate.Hamel Ref18)andVainblatandKhayurov Ref20)havereportedserratedyielding. STRESS STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS Stress-straincurveshavebeenusedbyanumberofinvestigatorsbecauseoftheirsensitivitytomaterialandtestconditionsandthemathematicalexpressionsthatcanbeusedtorepresent,analyze,andcomparethem.Kocks Ref21)studied99.99 aluminuminthisway,usinganexpandedVoceequationtodescribethedependenceontemperatureandstrainrate,grainsize,andpurityfor99.99and99.5 aluminum.PolakovicandTaborsky Ref22and23)studiedtheeffectsofdeformationrate,grainsize,andpurityfor99.99and99.5 aluminum.Theseauthors,togetherwithHyross Ref24),performedsimilarstudiesovera Table MechanicalPropertiesofPureAluminumatRoomTemperature Tensileylelel  o.~ cS: set) Purity,  t MPa ksl 99.99 a)101.499.8 a)202.999.6 a)30 4 4 Tensilestrength MPa ksl 456.5608.77010.2 ElongationIn50 mm  2In. ,  t 0 b 5065455543  a)FromChapter9,Table3ofthisVolume. b)FromRef15.  PROP RTI S OF PUR ALUMINUM/3 temperaturerangeof20to  90°C  68to  130 OF . SellarsandMcG.Tegart Ref25 madesuchstudiesat 400°C  750 OF Roberts Ref26 hasreportedtheeffectsofstrainrateonworkhardeninginthetemperaturerangeof77to425 K.  R P ParkerandWilshire Ref27 studiedtheeffectofasuddenreductioninappliedstress.Theinstantaneouscontractioncanbegreaterthantheelasticmoduluspredicts.Negativecreepoccursimmediatelyaftertheinstantaneousspecimencontractionwithlargereductionsinstress.Positivecreepbehaviorisdeterminedbythefullappliedstress,notbyaneffectivestress.Radhakrishnan Ref 28 31 comparedtheeffectofanoscillatingstressonthesteady-statecreepratetothatforastaticstress.Young,Robinson,andOleg Ref32 foundthatthecreepstrengthatagivenstrainrateincreasesasthesubgrainsizedecreases.Myshlyaevandothers Ref33 determinedthestressdependenceofthesteady-statecreeprateat18and600°C 64and1110 OP Athightemperaturesandlowstresses,therateisparabolicandafunctionofstress.Atlowertemperaturesandhighstresses,theratedependencechangestoanexponentiallaw.Prasad  t l  Ref34 studiedcreepatlowtemperaturesof87and200°C 190and390 OF andfoundtheeffectsofstressincrementsanddecrementstobedifferent. Table2.IsotopesofAluminum Ref36 Decay products with absorptionAbundance,ofotherParticles  sotop o MalS a HaIf-lIf.,S Decay productsparticlesabsorbed 23   0.13 Mg   proton 24   24.0076 2.7 24Mg   protonNeutron 25   <1.5 X 10- 4 24.9983 7.5 24Mg   proton   I rays 25Mg   protonNeutron 26   <1.5 X 10- 4 25.996 I 7.0 25Mg   proton   I rays 23Na   He4Neutron 2SMg   H2Neutron 26Mg   protonNeutron  7 Al   raysNeutron 26   10 6years 27   100 26.98974 stable 28   <5 x 10- 5 27.9978 144.0 28Mg   electron  6 0   N 2 protons  7 Al   neutron   I rays 25Mg   4He 1 proton 27AI   14N13N 27AI   2HIneutron 28Si   28Si   neutronIproton 29Si Iproton 31p   neutron  He CI   protonNeutron 29   <2 x 10- 5 28.9897 396.0 26Mg   4HeProton 27AI   3HProton 27AI   4He 2 protons 29Si   neutronProton 30Si   raysProton 31p   I rays 2 protons  a Masscalculatedonbasisof  6 0 = 16.00000.   PROPERTIES  N PHYSICAL MOALLURGY PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  tomicStructureandNuclearProperties Aluminumhasanatomicnumberof13,andthelatestacceptedvaluesfortheatomicweightare26.9815basedon 12C and26.98974basedon  6 0 (Ref35).Themainisotopeis 27 AI,whichisstableandconsistsof14neutronsand13protons.Apartfromoneisotope, 26Al whichhasahalflifeof106years,alltheisotopeshaveshorthalflivesandnegligibleabundance(Table2)(Ref36).Thevalenceofaluminuminchemicalcompoundsis3,withthe13electronsdistributedasfollows:Is2,2s2,2p6,3s   and3p l. Thenaturallyoccurringaluminumisotopehasalowcrosssectionforthermalneutronsof0.232 ± 0.003b*(Ref37),increasinginanirregularmannerto  0 6 bat700to800MeV.Between20and50keV,therearevariousresonancepeakswithmaximauptoIS(Ref38).Thenuclearmassabsorptioncoefficientfor  I-rays isdominatedbythephotoelectric Spectroscopicterms 80 00070 00060 00040 00030 00020 00010 000 dd II II II   i C J 4p I II   IN 4 -------j -------II--- -- ------j 50 000 E u ui 11 254 2S2p   p 3 p 10 98   p2   7 3s3p2 0 > d > -: 6 OJ 9   c 8 w 5 7 4 3 2 aa  = l Fig. 1. Termdiagram for Aluminum 1.  ll combinationsobservedinthisworkareshown except for thehigher part of thesharp and diffuseseries.WavelengthsaregiveninAngstroms.  Ref 43 *Abarnisaunit of area equalto 10 24 ern .
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