Install a satellite antenna. Digital Reception Technology Antenna Installer Training Resources. Learner Guide

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ICTTC163A Install a satellite antenna Digital Reception Technology Antenna Installer Training Resources Learner Guide Incorporating AS/ ACIF S009:2006 AS/NZS 1367:2007 Rev May
ICTTC163A Install a satellite antenna Digital Reception Technology Antenna Installer Training Resources Learner Guide Incorporating AS/ ACIF S009:2006 AS/NZS 1367:2007 Rev May This page is reserved for Duplex Printing Commonwealth of Australia Copyright notice These materials were developed by Integracom Management Group in association with the Australian Government through the Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy. Commonwealth of Australia Disclaimer While care has been taken in the preparation of this material, the Commonwealth of Australia, through the Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy (DBCDE), and the original developer do not, to the extent permitted by law, warrant that any licensing or registration requirements specified here are either complete or up-to-date for your State or Territory. DBCDE and the original developer do not accept any liability for any damage or loss (including as a result of any negligent act or omission) incurred by any person as a result of relying on the information contained in this material. DBCDE accepts no liability for any punitive or exemplary damages of any kind or for any loss or damage which does not arise naturally or in the usual course of things from a person's use or reliance on this material or which constitutes, or arises from or in connection with, a loss of revenue, profit or opportunity, loss of goodwill or loss of business reputation, even if such loss arises naturally or in the usual course of things from the use or reliance. Without limiting the above, and to the extent permitted by law, no representation has been made and no warranty is or has been given, express or implied, by or on behalf of DBCDE in respect of the condition, quality, fitness for purpose or merchantability of any of the materials or the accuracy, completeness, currency, suitability or efficacy of the materials. DBCDE does not accept any liability to any person for the information or advice (or the use of such information or advice) which is provided in this material or incorporated into it by reference. The information is provided on the basis that all persons accessing this material undertake responsibility for assessing the relevance and accuracy of its content. No liability is accepted for any information or services which may appear in any other format. DBCDE takes reasonable care in selecting linking websites. However, no responsibility is taken for any information or services which may appear on any linked websites. It is the responsibility of all persons to make their own decisions about the accuracy, currency, reliability and correctness of information contained in linked external websites. Linkage to external websites should not be taken to be an endorsement or a recommendation of any third party products or services offered by virtue of any information, material or content linked from or to this website. If a person uses a linked website, that person is responsible for being aware of which organisation is hosting the site they visit. Views or recommendations provided in linked sites do not necessarily reflect the views or recommendations of DBCDE. Commonwealth of Australia Preface This manual has been written to form part of a suite of accredited antenna installation training and assessment resources which make up the Digital Television Antenna Installer Industry Training Program. It represents one of the eleven units of competency from Certificates II ICT20508 and III ICT30508 in Telecommunications Digital Reception Technology which makes up skill sets based on minimum requirements identified by industry representatives for the following job roles: Domestic Digital Television Antenna Installer (six units) Commercial Digital Television Antenna Systems Installer (four units) Satellite Digital Television Antenna Installer (one unit) The training underpins the Antenna Installer Endorsement Scheme which was developed by the Digital Switchover Taskforce, within the Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy and which has been operating since December The Scheme is an Australian Government quality assurance measure to ensure that consumers have access to skilled antenna installers, to help them become ready for digital TV. For more information about the Antenna Installer Endorsement Scheme go to No licensing, legislative, regulatory or certification requirements apply to this unit at the time of publication. Author Carl Holmes - Integracom Management Group (2011) Acknowledgement of support The Integracom Management Group would like to acknowledge those organisations and people, whose publications and information have been invaluable in the development of this and other associated resources for use in the DRT training program. Industry support 1. SAI (Standards Australia International) 2. SIA (Safety Institute of Australia) 3. Telstra HSE 4. TITAB (Telecommunications Industry Training Advisory Board) 5. ACMA (Australian Communications and Media Authority) 6. Department of Broadband Communications and the Digital Economy 7. ADTIA (Australian Digital Television Industry Association) 8. FOXTEL / AUSTAR 9. Matchmaster TV Reception Systems 10. JONSA ELLIES 11. CLIPSAL Data-Communications 12. Hills Antenna and TV Systems 13. Downer Engineering 14. BAL Learning Individual acknowledgement goes to 1. Mr. Percy Underwood - Matchmaster TV Reception Systems 2. Mr. Robert Lamb - B Type Agencies 3. Mr. Cosmos Vlahopoulos - JONSA ELLIES 4. Mr. Patrick Lavin - CLIPSAL Datacomms 5. Mr. Peter O Connor - CERQ 6. Mr. Brad Knox - IMG 7. Mr. Ian Scott - Vision East 8. Mr. Paul Kilcullen - Polytechnic West (TAFE WA) Commonwealth of Australia Table of Contents General Overview Introduction to this program Overview of competencies within the program Learning Pathways Introduction to the learner guide Summary of content Working through this learner guide Course delivery Face-to-face learning Self paced learning (distance learning) Online learning Recommended assessments Digital TV Transmission Chapter overview Overview of television transmission systems Satellite transmission Satellite transmission frequencies Parabolic dishes Converting the downlink frequency Transmission over a cable network Terrestrial transmission Radio frequency (RF) principles Frequency Wavelength RF spectrum Frequencies used for satellite transmission Self Assessment Questions Evaluate Site for Installation Requirements Chapter overview Planning the installation Access Customer - first contact Verify installation order with the customer Amendments to initial order Location of equipment customer requests Restrictions to carrying out alterations Legislative requirements Identify risks and hazards Cabling or working in a roof space Working safely in a roof spaces Completing a risk assessment or SWMS / JSA Gather tools supplies and equipment for the installation Tools Passive and active equipment Cables and connections Mounting hardware Self Assessment Questions Where are our Satellites Located? Chapter overview Communication Satellites Satellites servicing Australia Elevation angle Viewer Access Satellite TV (VAST) Self Assessment Questions Commonwealth of Australia Understanding Satellite Systems Chapter overview Satellite systems Earth stations Uplink Downlink Satellite transmission bands Ku Band C Band Footprint Transponders Signal Loss EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiated Power) Self Assessment Questions Components for Satellite Installations Chapter overview General overview of components Components of install Mountings The Dish The LNB Down lead Distribution equipment Splitters Multiswitch Connectivity and configurations Down-lead configurations Self Assessment Questions Cable Down Lead Installation Chapter overview Installation practices Invisible is best Bend radius Cable Loss per metre Building types and construction Impedance Coaxial connection at the antenna Waterproofing connections Australian Standards AS/NZS 1367: Self Assessment Questions Installing a Satellite Antenna Chapter overview Considerations before installation Check the robustness of the roof Assemble the dish Preparation: Key elements to finding services Mounting hardware The set up Set Top Box Return paths Self Assessment Questions Commonwealth of Australia Satellite Measurements Chapter overview Commissioning Testing the installation Test equipment Test measurements Taking measurements weather conditions Taking satellite measurements Select satellite Select transponder Select channel Self Assessment Questions Finalise and Handover to Customer Chapter overview Reinstate after completion Make good any damage Remove waste Handover to customer Complete records Demonstrate system Damage Warranties Customer sign off Record keeping Self Assessment Questions Competency Assessment Tasks Chapter overview Assessment task Assessment task Assessment task Appendix Commonwealth of Australia Icons In order to readily identify sections within this learner guide, the following icons are used in this document to highlight certain activities. Important Notice - Depictions of equipment within this learner guide Throughout this learner guide there are pictures and descriptions of tools, test meters and equipment that are used generally by antenna installers. It must be noted that neither the author (Integracom Management Group) nor the Department of Broadband Communications and the Digital Economy endorse or recommend any one particular product. Commonwealth of Australia Glossary of general terms Some items courtesy of Australian standards AS/NZS 1367:2007 Antenna amplifier/preamplifier An amplifier (often a low noise type) associated with an antenna. Also called masthead amplifier. Antenna RF reception device also known as aerial, for terrestrial reception, or dish for satellite reception. An antenna converts electromagnetic radiation into current and voltage Attenuation The attenuation of any system or equipment is the ratio of input power to the output power expressed in decibels (db). Bandwidth (BW) The difference, expressed in Hertz (Hz) between the highest and lowest frequencies of a transmission channel i.e. a contiguous group of frequencies. BER Bit Error Ratio: The number of erroneous bits at the output of a system divided by the total number of received bits. This term is used in evaluation of digital transmission systems. Also referred to as Bit Error Rate. Cabled distribution system The general overall term used to define MATV systems and individually cabled receiving systems that are used primarily to deliver television and sound signal via coaxial and or optical fibre for both the terrestrial and satellite IF bands, unless otherwise defined. C/N (CNR) Carrier to Noise ratio. The difference (in decibels) between the carrier level or channel power and the noise level (or noise power) across a defined bandwidth. Channel A frequency division of the bandwidth of the terrestrial broadcast spectrum or a similar division in a cabled distribution system. The Australian terrestrial broadcast channel width for both analog PAL and DVB-T digital is 7 MHz for both VHF and UHF channels. Cable may use 7 MHz for Analog TV and 8 MHz for DVB-C digital. Channel power Channel power is used as the description of the level of digital services. The use of channel power for the measurement of level for digital services refers to the measurement of power within the relevant bandwidth of the service (7 MHz for DVB-T) but with the power/level expressed as a voltage in dbμv (across 75 ohms). Commonwealth of Australia Coaxial cable A dual conductor cable wherein a centre conductor is surrounded by but does not contact a concentric cylindrical outer conductor. The outer conductor may be a solid tube ( hardline or semi rigid cable) or a braid of many wires or a thin aluminium foil (flexible cable). Coaxial connector A device used to connect coaxial cable to other equipment. Commissioning Procedure aiming at providing documentary evidence that the implementation was carried out in accordance with relevant specifications and design, and includes tests and drawings. Digital Refers to the sampling and coding of analog signals into discrete bits of information, viz. ones and zeros. Digital cliff A digital cliff is the point at which the errors in the received digital signal can no longer be corrected by a set top box or integrated digital receiver. This phenomena can be produced by the receiving equipment either receiving too little or too much signal power or where the BER or MER signals are outside operational parameters. Digital TV Capitalisation of Digital in combination with TV indicates the television system is a DVB-T operating in a 7 MHz bandwidth as used and defined in Australian TV. Digital transmission The transmission of information in a digital format (i.e. in predefined states representing a series of zeros and ones), which may offer possible error detection and up to certain levels of signal impairment, error correction or concealment. DVB-T, -C, -S Digital Video Broadcast-Terrestrial, -Cable, -Satellite: The standards of the respective systems developed by the international consortium Digital Video Broadcast Project based in Geneva. The standards are distributed through ETSI on FEC Forward Error Correction is a system of error control for data transmission. It differs from standard error detection and correction in that the technique is specifically designed to allow the receiver to correct some errors without having to request a retransmission of data. The maximum fraction of errors that can corrected is determined in advance by the design of the code, so different forward error correcting codes are suitable for different conditions. Commonwealth of Australia Flylead A shielded coaxial cable that connects the system outlet or wallplate, to the settop unit or integrated receiver decoder, DVD, VCR etc. Is also known as an outlet flylead. FTA Free To Air services: A term used to refer to TV and radio services that are available to the public without payment of a fee. FTA signals are transmitted (broadcast) over the air and received via an antenna or by the VAST satellite system. F-type connector A Standard 75-ohm flexible coaxial cable connector that conforms to IEC Common type of connectors are defined as being either crimp or compression. Headend Equipment that is connected between receiving antennas or other signal sources and the remainder of the cabled distribution system, to process the signals to be distributed. The headend may comprise amplifiers, frequency converters, combiners, diplexers, PAL modulators and transmodulators for example. An MATV headend is used in blocks of flats and in built up sites to feed TV channels and FM radio channels into the house network or the spur network. IF Intermediate Frequency: Used in receivers or equipment which translates (shifts) any signal in the receiver s tuning range to a different but fixed intermediate frequency. A shift to an intermediate frequency allows signal amplification and filtering in a more uniform way. For example, analog PAL TV receivers use a standard intermediate frequency of or 38.9 MHz for the video carrier frequency but DVB-T receivers may use 36 MHz or 4.5 MHz. For satellite systems the IF is the range of frequencies in L-Band. IF range (Satellite) The intermediate frequency range is the well-defined output frequency range of the LNB and comprises the frequency band known as L-Band, between 950 MHz and 2150 MHz or parts thereof. Interference The effect of unwanted energy due to emissions, radiations, or induction upon reception in a radio communication system, or any combination thereof. It is manifested by any performance degradation, misinterpretation, or loss of information that would be extracted in the absence of such unwanted energy. I/Q diagram For digital television broadcasting the QPSK and QAM modulations are the most common. Digital data transmission needs the received information to be processed. The received digital signal can be displayed in the form of a graphic known as an I/Q diagram also commonly known as a constellation diagram. Commonwealth of Australia Lateral (path) A term used to describe the path from the backbone or trunk path (usually via a tap) to the outlets (usually directly or via a multiswitch). Also referred to as a side path or tap path. A drop is usually understood to be a coax (or fibre) from the tap or multiswitch to the outlet. LNB Low Noise Block-down converter. A device mounted on a satellite or MDS antenna to amplify and lower the entire block of frequencies in one step to usually a LBand intermediate frequency range to be processed by a receiver, STB or IRD. Being mounted externally LNBs are normally powered by a DC voltage fed by the L band output cable. Sometimes called a LNBF because with most dual polarity devices the antenna Feedhorn is integrated into the LNB structure. MDU Multiple Dwelling Unit: A residential or commercial dwellings where there is more than one unit (usually attached) or resident within a building sharing a common lead-in (e.g. block of flats). Typically an MDU with less than 13 Units and less than 4 stories may be referred to as a SMDU (Small MDU). Refer also SDU and MRE. MER Modulation Error Ratio: The measure of noise within digital modulation. This is the most complete measure of the errors in a DVB system. It can be seen on an I/Q diagram. Refer to ETSI TR The standards are distributed through ETSI on Noise Noise is any RF signal found in a transmission bandwidth that is not the wanted signal. It includes background noise from the sun, random spurts of electrical energy and interference. The noise is measured in a defined bandwidth related to the system being analysed and is the noise floor in the absence of wanted signal. The measured noise may be composed of thermal noise and intermodulation products derived from distortion in the system. In analog video, noise may produce a random salt-and-pepper pattern over the picture. High video noise is called snow. Outlet fly lead A shielded coaxial cable that connects between system outlet or wallplate, and the set-top unit, integrated receiver decoder, DVD, VCR etc. Is also known as a flylead. Pay TV/subscription TV TV service requiring payment by the user or the subscriber. Receiving antenna A device, with the appropriate construction that intercepts desired radio frequency electromagnetic radiation signals in the atmosphere and converts the intercepted energy into a electrical voltage and current suitable for transfer into cabled distribution system. Commonwealth of Australia RF Radio Frequency: For the purposes of the Standard AS 1367:2007, it is any frequency between 5 MHz and 2150 MHz. STB Set Top Box: A receiver decoder unit, usually located in a user s dwellings, that primarily tunes or selects and then decodes the required media/program. Its output is fed to the user s presentation and display system. The unit may also include functionality for program access authorisation (e.g. with a Smartcard slot) to activate descrambling capability. The term STB is most generally associated with FTA DTV services and IRD (Integrated Receiver Decoder) with subscription/pay media service reception via satellite and cable. System outlet Commonly referred to as a wallplate. A device for interconnecting an outlet drop and an outlet flylead at the wall of a dwelling. Ultra High Frequency: In general, the UHF band range is from 300 MHz to 3 GHz. For terrestrial TV broadcasting, mainly for antenna design, the band is broken into two with frequency ranges dependent upon the country of operation. In Australia the UHF frequencies that are used for television distribution are: Band-IV 526~582 MHz Band-V 582~820 MHz. Satellite receiving systems use L-Band 950 MHz to 2150 MHz VHF Very High Frequency: In general, the VHF band range is from 30 MHz to 300
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