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Published by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. 5 Toh Tuck Link, Singapore USA office: Suite 202, 1060 Main Street, River Edge, NJ UK office: 57 Shelton Street, Covent Garden, London
Published by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. 5 Toh Tuck Link, Singapore USA office: Suite 202, 1060 Main Street, River Edge, NJ UK office: 57 Shelton Street, Covent Garden, London WC2H 9HE Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Veltman, Martinus. Facts and mysteries in elementary particle physics / Martinus J.G. Veltman. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN ISBN X (pbk.) 1. Particles (Nuclear physics) I. Title. QC793.2.V '2--dc British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Copyright 2003 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system now known or to be invented, without written permission from the Publisher. First Edition For photocopying of material in this volume, please pay a copying fee through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA. In this case permission to photocopy is not required from the publisher. Printed by FuIsland Offset Printing (S) Pte Ltd, Singapore. v Table of Contents Introduction 1 Acknowledgments 5 Further Reading 5 Thumbnail Sketches 6 Equations 7 1 Preliminaries Atoms, Nuclei and Particles Photons Antiparticles Mass and Energy Events Electron-Volts and Other Units Particle Names and the Greek Alphabet Scientific Notation 33 2 The Standard Model Introduction Conservation of Energy and Charge Quantum Numbers Color The Electron-Neutrino, Electron Number and Crossing The First Family Families and Forces 55 vi ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS 2.8 The Spin 1 2 Particles The Spin 1 and 2 Particles Forces and Interactions Classification of Interactions Electromagnetic, Weak, Strong, Higgs and Gravitational Interactions Representing Interactions The Origin of Quantum Numbers 83 3 Quantum Mechanics. Mixing Introduction The Two-Slit Experiment Amplitude and Probability Cabibbo and CKM Mixing Neutrino Mixing Particle Mixing Energy, Momentum and Mass-Shell Introduction Conservation Laws Relativity Relativistic Invariance The Relation E = mc Detection Introduction Photoelectric Effect Bubble Chambers Spark Chambers Proportional Wire Chambers Accelerators and Storage Rings Energy Bubbles Accelerators 165 CONTENTS vii 6.3 Secondary Beams The Machine Builders The CERN Neutrino Experiment Introduction Experimental Set-up Neutrino Physics The First Neutrino Experiments Vector Bosons Missed Opportunities Epilogue The Particle Zoo Introduction Bound States The Structure of Quark Bound States Spin of a Bound State Mesons Baryons Exotics Discovering Quarks Triplets versus Doublets and Lepton-Quark Symmetry Particle Theory Introduction Feynman Rules Infinities Perturbation Theory Renormalizability Weak Interactions Compton Scattering Neutral Vector Bosons Charmed Quarks The Higgs Particle 279 viii ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS 9.11 General Higgs Couplings Speculations ρ-parameter Finding the Higgs Quantum Chromodynamics Introduction Confinement Asymptotic Freedom Scaling Epilogue 304 Name Index 309 Subject Index 317 Photo Credits 337
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