Effect Of Deep-Cryogenic Treatment On Coated Cemented Carbide Turning Inserts - PDF

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International Journal of Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering Volume 1, Number 1 (2015), pp International Research Publication House Effect Of Deep-Cryogenic Treatment
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International Journal of Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering Volume 1, Number 1 (2015), pp International Research Publication House Effect Of Deep-Cryogenic Treatment On Coated Cemented Carbide Turning Inserts H N Jagadeesh 1, B S Ajaykumar 2, Chethan T Gowda 3, Nikhil J 4, Nikith S 5 1. Research Scholar, AISECT University, Madhya Pradesh. 2. Professor, Mechanical department, Bangalore Institute of Technology. 3,4,5. Research Associates, Mechanical department, Bangalore Institute of Technology ABSTRACT This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation that has been carried out on coated carbide inserts of type TN2000 against C-40 and EN353 job comparing with the untreated and deep-cryo-treated inserts. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the cutting forces and tool tip temperature under different machining conditions. Results indicated much improvements in cutting forces and tool tip temperature thereby increasing tool life and cutting performance in deep cryo-treated inserts. It has been observed that cutting forces increase/decrease with increase in cutting feed, depth of cut but decrease/increase with increase in cutting speed. Keywords: Deep Cryo-Treatment (DCT), cutting forces, tool tip temperature. 1. Introduction The study of metal cutting focuses on the features of the behaviour of tool and work materials that influence the efficiency and quality of cutting operations. Development of cutting has been improved by contributions from all the branches of industry with an interest in machining. Productivity has been increased through replacement of carbon tool steel by high-speed steel and cemented carbide which allowed cutting speeds to be increased by many times. The main parameters to be controlled are cutting speed, selection of cutting tool, feed rate and depth of cut to give the desired tool life for tools.[15] Instead of just seeking out new tool materials, researchers showed interest into areas like coating of the tool by different physical or chemical vapour deposition methods to improve the performance of the parts. Coating technology was introduced in mid Now-a-days, it has become an integral part of tool technology. Several 16 H N Jagadeesh et al researchers have established that hard coatings deposited on tool and machine parts by different physical vapour decomposition methods can improve the performance of the parts. These coated materials not only help reducing the wear and increasing the tool life but also improve strength and chemical inertness, reduce friction, and make the parts more stable at high temperatures [5]. Coatings used for tungsten carbide tools include titanium carbide, titanium nitride and aluminium oxide or combinations of these etc. Although tool life is still less than that of extremely hard cutting tools such as the diamond tools, coatings enable the tool life of the carbide tools to be extended much longer than the uncoated tools.[5] The thermal treatment of metals must certainly be regarded as one of the most important development of the industrial age. After more than a century, research continues into making metallic components stronger and more resistant. One of the more modern processes being used to treat metals is Cryogenic tempering. Cryogenic technology on the whole is not a new process and has been used on several types of materials like plastics and composites to improve their performance in various applications. In cryogenic treatment, the tool bits are cooled down to cryogenic temperature and maintained at this temperature for a required length of time and then brought back to room temperature. [6][7][8][12][14] Some investigators have drawn a distinction between Cryo-Treatment (CT) at temperatures down to -80 o C and Deep Cryo-Treatment (DCT) which is down to o C, liquid nitrogen temperature, as these two temperature ranges result in different effects. It is not a surface treatment but a thorough treatment with changes occurring at molecular level. It is also relatively economical and cost effective. Cryogenics have been successfully applied on steels to improve its mechanical properties. This occurs due to the transformation of almost all the retained austenite in steel to martensite thereby making the steel more wear resistant. The present investigation has been carried out to understand the effect of Cryogenic treatment on cemented carbide inserts. 2. Experimental details The work piece used in our experiments is C-40 and EN353 steel. Single point cutting tools of types TN2000 coated cemented tungsten carbides (procured from Kennametal industries) were used in our experiments. These inserts were treated cryogenically in a cryogenic refrigerator. The procedure of which is given as follows [7][9][12] 1. Tool Inserts are placed in a cryogenic cooling chamber. 2. Temperature is gradually lowered at a rate of 1 C/min over a period of 6 h from room temperature to -196 C. 3. Temperature is then held steady for about 18 hours (Cold stabilization). 4. Temperature is gradually raised at a rate of 1 C /min, over a period of 6 hour to room temperature. 5. Temperature is gradually raised at a rate of 1 C / min for 6 hours till 190 o C which is the tempering stage. Effect Of Deep-Cryogenic Treatment Temperature is gradually lowered over a period of 2 hours to room temperature. In case of steels, the benefits are usually attributed to the reduction or elimination of retained austenite from hardened steel and accompanied by the precipitation of small finely dispersed carbides in the martensite. The effect in the tungsten carbide is yet to be ascertained and there are live experiments going around the globe. Before the cryogenic treatment the tools have previously been submitted to conventional thermal treatment to obtain the secondary hardness (conventional quenching and tempering). This sequence was chosen following the work developed by Baron et al. According to them the cryogenic treatment in cutting tools can be applied either after quenching and tempering or straight after the machining. Their results with tools cryogenically treated straight after the quenching was apparently better than those obtained with the tool cryogenically treated after quenching and tempering. Regardless of the method, the materials can usually have their properties improved with cryogenic treatment. A high power HMT lathe was used for this research. The cutting forces and tool tip temperatures are recorded for different speed, feed and depth of cut while turning different work pieces. Cutting forces were recorded using a lathe tool dynamometer and tool tip temperatures were recorded using a laser temperature gun. 3. Results and Discussions Effect of cutting speed The cutting force decreases in case of both untreated and treated tool as the speed increases from 250 rpm to 710 rpm. [1][2][11] 1. TN2000 with C-40 job It was found that the cutting force of the treated tool decreased by an amount of 15% in comparison with the untreated tool. 18 H N Jagadeesh et al 2. TN2000 with EN353 job It was found that the cutting force of the treated tool decreased by an amount of 20% in comparison with the untreated tool. Hence an improvement was taken place in cryo-treated tool due to heat bearing capacity. The same behaviour has been observed by earlier investigations. Hence the outcome of the experiment is in concurrence with the earlier investigators. Effect of depth of cut It has been observed from table that as depth of cut increases from 0.1 mm to 0.4 mm, there is an increase in tool tip temperature for both untreated and treated tool. [13] 1. TN2000 with C-40 job It was found that the tool tip temperature decreased by an amount of 30% in comparison with the untreated tool. Effect Of Deep-Cryogenic Treatment TN2000 with EN353 job It was found that the tool tip temperature decreased by an amount of 20% in comparison with the untreated tool. As depth of cut increases, the increase in friction is responsible for increase in temperature. Cryogenic treatment has improved thermal conductivity property which is responsible for reducing friction. Hence cryo-treated tool is capable to decrease tool tip temperature due to improvement in its thermal conductivity. The trend of results is in concurrence with the earlier investigators. Effect of feed It has been observed that as the feed increases from 0.11 to 0.33 mm/rev the cutting forces has been increased in both treated and untreated tools.[1][2][11] 1. TN2000 with C-40 job It was found that the cutting force of the treated tool decreased by an amount of 23% in comparison with the untreated tool. 20 H N Jagadeesh et al 2. TN2000 with EN353 job It was found that the cutting force of the treated tool decreased by an amount of 67% in comparison with the untreated tool. As the feed rate increases the chip breaking efficiency increases the shape of chip formation (ribbon shape) on account of higher thermal conductivity due to cryogenic treatment which is responsible for decrease in the tool tip temperature. Effect of cryogenic treatment From our observations it was seen that as speed, depth of cut and feed increases, the decrease in tool tip temperature is about 16% in favour of treated tool. The forces corresponding to untreated and treated tool is approximately 50% in favour of treated tool with the increase in speed, feed and depth of cut. 4. Conclusion From the outcome of the experiment, the following conclusions have been drawn. 1. Lower cutting forces have been observed in case of cryogenically treated TN2000 tools compared to that of untreated tools. 2. The tool tip temperature of the cryo-treated tool is found to be lower than that of untreated tool for the same cutting conditions. 3. The cutting forces increased with increase in both feed and depth of cut but decreased with increase in speed. 4. The tools has favourably responded to cryogenic treatment by means of which cutting performance has been increased. Acknowledgement We are indebted to The HOD, mechanical department, Bangalore Institute of Technology and non-teaching staff of machine shop, department of mechanical engineering, Bangalore Institute of Technology. Effect Of Deep-Cryogenic Treatment 21 References 1. Yigit R, Celik E, Findik F, Koksal S, (2008) Effect of cutting speed on the performance of coated and uncoated cutting tools in turning nodular cast iron, Journal of material processing technology, volume 204, pp Yong A Y L, Seah K H W, Rahman M,(2007) performance evaluation of cryogenically treated tungsten carbide tools in turning, internationak journal of machine tools & manufacture, volume 46, pp Reddy T V S, Sornakumar T, Reddy M V, Venkatram R, (2008) machining performance of low temperature treated p-30 tungsten carbide cutting tool inserts, cryogenics, volume 48, pp Vadivel K, Rudramoorthy R, (2009) performance analysis of cryogenically treated coated carbide inserts, international journal for advancement in manufacturing technology. Volume 42, pp Okumiya M, Griepentrog M, (1999), Mechanical properties and Tribological behaviour of TiN-CrAlN and CrN-CrAlN multilayer coatings. Surface Coatings & Technology Volume 112, pp Barron R, F Low temperature properties of engineering. Barron R, F. Cryogenic Heat transfer Edward Brothers, Ann Arbor, Wayne Reitz and John pendray, Cryo processing of materials, North Dakota state university, 16:6, J.D Kamody using deep cryogenics to advantage, Material process 10 (1998) X lin, Y Dong, Y Wang. Study on cryogenic treatment technology and mechanism of high speed steels. Trans. Met. Heat treat. (China) 19 (2), 1998, Y Dong, X lin, H Xiao. Deep cryogenic treatment of high speed steel and its mechanism, Heat Treatment of metals 3(1998), K.H.W Seah, M. Rahman, K.H. Yong, Performance evaluation of cryogenically tungsten carbide cutting tool inserts, proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part B- Journal of Engineering Manufacture 217(1)(2003) D.N. Collins, J. Dormer, Deep cryogenic treatment of tool steel, Heat treatment of metals 2: a review, heat treatment, Met.(2)(1996), T. Kitogawa, A. Kubo, K. Mackawa, Temperature and wear of cutting tools in high speed machining of INCONEL-718 and Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn, Wear 202 (1997) Cohen P, Kamody D. Cryogenics goes deeper. Cutting tool engg, vol. 50, no.7, 1998 Oct. 15. Metal cutting and cutting tools by B.L Juneja, New age publications 2005. 22 H N Jagadeesh et al
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