Design Example Deep Compaction

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  DESIGN A 5,5-m-high highway embankment is to be constructed over alandll that has a ne-grained soil cover underlain by a soil mi!turewith the total thickness ranging rom 5#$ to %#& m# 'his soil mi!tureincludes (rimarily silts and clays with construction waste )concreteblocks, brick ragments, etc#*# At certain locations, there are voidsand loose (ockets within the landll# Standard (enetration tests(er ormed (rior to ground im(rovement indicate S+' values ranging rom about 5 to &$ with an average o $# 'he (redicted settlementranged rom $ to &. mm# Dynamic com(action is selected to reduce the antici(ated total anddi/erential settlements#  'he re0uired S+' N value a ter im(rovement should be at least &$# 'he sur ace o the landll is strong enough to su((ort the dynamiccom(action e0ui(ment# 1eachate inside the landll was at arelatively shallow de(th )a((ro!imately &#5 m rom the e!istingsur ace*# 'o minimi2e the generation o e!cess (ore water (ressure,multi(le (ass construction may be needed#  'he contractor has an 5-ton tam(er that has the diameter o #3 mand the height o #5 m# 4ou are re0uested to (rovide a (reliminarydesign or the dynamic com(action (roect and estimate thesettlement a ter com(action#S617'I6N 89onsidering the thickness o the landll ty(ically ranging rom 5#$ to%#& m, the de(th o im(rovement is selected as % m# :ased on thecom(osition o the landll, it can be considered as a +revious Soil#Since the landll has a high degree o saturation, the n c  value isselected as $#5 (refer to the Recommended n c  Value   Table * .    ; <E'6DE +E=:AI>AN 'ANA?  As a result, the re0uired energy (er blow can be com(uted as ollows8 n c  @ $,3%  D i  @ % m 8 m = 0,38 √  W  t   H  d 21,0526 = √  W  t   H  d W  t   H  d = 443,213 ton.m ?ence B t ? d  @ 443,213  t#m 'he contractor (rovided an 5 t tam(er, there ore, the re0uired dro(height is 8 443,213 ¿¿  H  d =¿  Hd =¿ &C,%C m  &C, m & ; <E'6DE +E=:AI>AN 'ANA?  :ased on the a((lied energy guidelines, the unit a((lied energy orlandlls ranges rom C$$ to $$ kFm3  'he average unit a((lied energy is %5$ kFm3, there ore, there0uired total a((lied energy is 8AE  'otal @ %5$ kFm 3  H % m @ C%$$ kFm &  @ C#% <Fm & #Ironing (asses are ty(ically used to com(act the ground near thesur ace, which is close to the de(th o the craters# 'y(ically, thecrater de(th ranges rom #$ to #5 m# 'he ground above the landllis most likely ne grained# Since the ground near the sur ace isabove the groundwater table, the unit a((lied energy or thesemi(ervious ne-grained soils o 3$$ kFm3 ) refer to the RequiredEnergy Table * may be used or the ironing (asses# 3 ; <E'6DE +E=:AI>AN 'ANA?  assume crater de(th 8 #3 m 'here ore, the re0uired total a((lied energy or ironing (asses isAE I+  @ 3$$ kFm 3  H #3 m @ 3$ kFm &  @ $#3 <Fm & # 'he re0uired total a((lied energy or high-energy com(action is 8AE ?E+  N (  @ AE total   AE I+  @ C#% <Fm&  $#3 <Fm& @ C# <Fm&# 'o allow or (ore water (ressure dissi(ation during energya((lication, multi(le (asses are needed# Assume two (asses areado(ted )N( @ &*# 'he re0uired a((lied energy or each (ass is 8 AE ?E+  N( @ C# <Fm&,AE?E+ @ C# & @ 3#&$5 <Fm &  @ 3&$5 kFm & # 'y(ical dro( s(acing is ,5  &,5 times the tam(er diameter# 'he actor o &#$ is selected or this site, that is, dro( s(acing, s @ &#$ H#3 m @ &#C m )assuming a s0uare (attern*# 'he number o dro(s ateach s(ecic dro( (oint location can be com(uted by 8  ; <E'6DE +E=:AI>AN 'ANA?
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