Data collection technologies for road management

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There are a wide range of technologies available to the road manager for measuring attributes of the road network. The challenge is to select the appropriate equipment, given local conditions and the way in which the data are expected to be used. The purpose of this report is to give an overview of the currently available technologies and to provide information that could assist managers in establishing an appropriate data collection program and procuring the appropriate equipment to collect the data. The project includes a literature review and comprehensive survey of vendors and users, both of which were conducted in late 2004. The report starts with a discussion of data collection requirements. This is then followed by separate discussions on pavements, bridges and traffic data. The final chapter contains our recommendations for data collection.
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Data Collection Technologies for Road Management Version 1.0 6 April 2005 Christopher R. Bennett Alondra Chamorro Chen Chen Hernan de Solminihac Gerardo W. Flintsch East Asia Pacific Transport Unit The World Bank Washington, D.C. Data Collection Technologies for Road Management The World Bank East Asia Transport Unit 1818 H Street NW Washington, D.C. 20433, U.S.A. Tel: (202) 458-1876 Fax: (202) 522-3573 Email: cbennett2@worldbank.org Website: www.worldban.org A publication of the World Bank East-Asia Transport Unit sponsored by the Transport and Rural Infrastructure Services Partnership (TRISP). The TRISP DFID/World Bank Partnership has been established for learning and sharing knowledge. This report is a product of the staff of the World Bank assisted by independent consultants. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the views of the Board of Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgment on the part of the World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. 6 April 2005 Data Collection Technologies for Road Management Acknowledgements This report was sponsored by the Transport and Rural Infrastructure Services Partnership (TRISP). The TRISP DFID/World Bank Partnership has been established for learning and sharing knowledge. Dr. Christopher R. Bennett of the World Bank managed the project and wrote the section on data issues and assisted with the pavement section. Prof. Hernan de Sominihac and Ms. Alondra Chamorro from the Catholic University of Chile were primarily responsible for the pavement section. Prof. Gerardo Flintsch and Mr. Chen Chen from Virginia Tech University were responsible for the bridge and traffic sections. The project web site was designed by Mr. Raoul Pop. The project team would like to express its appreciation to the many vendors and users in different countries who contributed to the project and provided data on equipment and their experiences with data collection. Quality Assurance Statement Report Name: Prepared by: C.R. Bennett, A. Chamorro, C. Chen, Data Collection Technologies H. de Solminihac, G. Flintsch for Road Management Reviewed by: Project Manager: Approved for issue by: C.R. Bennett C.R. Bennett April 2005 Revision Schedule Reviewed Approved Rev. No Date Description Prepared by by by 6 April 2005 Data Collection Technologies for Road Management Contents 1 Introduction .................................................................................1 2 Data Collection Issues ..................................................................3 2.1 Introduction................................................................................. 3 2.2 Deciding What to Collect................................................................ 3 2.3 Information Quality Levels (IQL) .................................................... 5 2.4 Sampling Intervals and Sectioning.................................................. 7 2.5 Survey Frequency........................................................................10 3 Location Referencing..................................................................12 3.1 Introduction................................................................................12 3.2 Linear Referencing.......................................................................13 3.3 Spatial Referencing......................................................................19 4 Pavement Condition and Structure .............................................23 4.1 Types of Evaluations....................................................................23 4.2 Pavement Characteristics and Indicators Considered in a Condition Evaluation.........................................................................................23 4.2.1 Roughness...........................................................................25 4.2.2 Texture ...............................................................................27 4.2.3 Skid Resistance ....................................................................29 4.2.4 Mechanical/Structural Properties.............................................30 4.2.5 Surface Distresses ................................................................31 4.3 Data Collection Techniques...........................................................32 4.3.1 Introduction.........................................................................32 4.3.2 Location Referencing.............................................................34 4.3.3 Road Geometry ....................................................................37 4.3.4 Roughness...........................................................................38 4.3.5 Macrotexture........................................................................41 4.3.6 Skid Resistance ....................................................................43 4.3.7 Mechanical/Structural Properties.............................................45 4.3.8 Surface Distresses ................................................................51 4.3.9 Rut Depths...........................................................................54 4.4 Technology Suitability Ranking and Cost/Performance Matrix............58 4.4.1 Suitability Evaluation Forms...................................................58 4.4.2 Suitability Index Calculation...................................................61 4.4.3 Suitability Ranking................................................................61 4.4.4 Cost/Performance Matrix .......................................................63 5 Bridge Data Collection ................................................................65 5.1 Introduction................................................................................65 5.2 Bridge Inspection Procedures........................................................66 5.3 Bridge Component Inspection and Available Technologies.................66 5.3.1 Timber Members...................................................................67 5.3.2 Concrete Members................................................................67 6 April 2005 Data Collection Technologies for Road Management 5.3.3 Steel and Iron Members.........................................................68 5.4 Bridge Data Collection Equipment..................................................68 5.4.1 Bridge Access Technologies....................................................69 5.4.2 Non-destructive Testing (NDT) Technologies ............................71 5.4.3 Digital Imaging.....................................................................76 5.4.4 Application in Developing Countries.........................................77 6 Traffic Data Collection.................................................................79 6.1 Introduction................................................................................79 6.2 Vehicle Classifications ..................................................................81 6.3 Traffic Sensor Types ....................................................................83 6.3.1 Intrusive Sensors..................................................................84 6.3.2 Non-Intrusive Sensors...........................................................88 6.4 Traffic Counting and Vehicle Classification Technologies ...................92 6.5 Truck Weighing Technology ..........................................................93 6.5.1 Static Scales ........................................................................96 6.5.2 Weight-in-Motion..................................................................96 6.6 Selecting the Traffic Monitoring Technology ....................................99 6.7 Application in Developing Countries .............................................100 7 Conclusions...............................................................................105 7.1 Implications for Developing Countries ..........................................105 7.2 Location Referencing..................................................................106 7.3 Pavement Data Collection...........................................................106 7.4 Bridge Data Collection................................................................108 7.5 Traffic Data Collection................................................................108 8 References................................................................................110 6 April 2005 Data Collection Technologies for Road Management 1 Introduction When considering the road infrastructure and its associated data, one must consider the different types of data used for road management. Table 1.1 shows one data grouping from Paterson and Scullion (1990). This report focuses on the first four elements, which, for the physical infrastructure, have two associated types of data: q Inventory; and q Condition. Table 1.1: Road Management Data Element Aspects Road Inventory Network/Location Geometry Furniture/Appurtenances Environs Pavement Pavement Structure Pavement Condition Structures Structures Inventory Bridge Condition Traffic Volume Loadings Accidents Finance Unit Costs Budget Revenue Activity Projects Interventions Commitments Resources Institutional Materials Equipment Source: Paterson and Scullion (1990) Inventory data describe the physical elements of the road system. These do not change markedly over time. Condition data describe the condition of elements that can be expected to change over time. There are a wide range of technologies available to the road manager for measuring attributes of the road network. The challenge is to select the appropriate equipment, given local conditions and the way in which the data are expected to be used. The purpose of this report is to give an overview of the currently available technologies and to provide information that could assist managers in establishing an appropriate data collection program and procuring the appropriate equipment to collect the data. 6 April 2005 1 Data Collection Technologies for Road Management The project includes a literature review and comprehensive survey of vendors and users, both of which were conducted in late 2004. It is recognized that with the rapid developments in road data collection, some information provided in this project report may become outdated. To address this, we have developed a project web site: www.road-management.info This site enables vendors and others involved in road management to upload the latest information on equipment and general data collection issues. It is envisaged that this report will be reissued and refined on a bi annual basis. The report starts with a discussion of data collection requirements. This is then followed by separate discussions on pavements, bridges and traffic data. The final chapter contains our recommendations for data collection. 6 April 2005 2 Data Collection Technologies for Road Management 2 Data Collection Issues 2.1 Introduction Data collection is expensive. Each data item collected requires time, effort, and money to collect, store, retrieve, and use. The first rule of data collection is that data should never be collected because it would be nice to have the data, or because it might be useful someday. This section addresses a number of issues that road managers face when determining exactly what their data requirements are and how to select the appropriate data collection technologies that could meet those requirements. 2.2 Deciding What to Collect Regarding road management data, the first question usually asked is, What data should we collect? Many agencies start by asking an internal team to compile a data wish list. Other agencies first take inventory of currently available data and try to implement road management systems using that data. Both of these approaches should be avoided. The real questions that should be asked are: q What decisions do we need to make regarding our road management system to manage the network? q What data are needed to support these decisions? q Can we afford to collect these data initially? q Can we afford to keep the data current over a long time period? Several agencies have become so mired in data collection that that the data collection appears to be an end in itself. Large sums of money are spent collecting data, with little to show in the form of more efficient and cost effective decisions. Excessive data collection is probably one of the top five reasons pavement management systems are abandoned. The systems are seen as data intensive and too expensive to begin and operate. To avoid these misperceptions, Paterson and Scullion (1990) have provided approaches for deciding what data should be collected and how it should be collected: q Confirm whether the data are actually required. A road management system (RMS)1 is often used to assist in making 1In this report the term `road management system' (RMS) is used. This is often comprised of one or more applications such as a pavement management system (PMS), bridge management system (BMS), and traffic management system (TMS). The data collection principles presented here apply to all these individual sub systems as well as other associated systems such as geographic information systems (GIS). 6 April 2005 3 Data Collection Technologies for Road Management management decisions. If the data does not have a bearing on either the RMS output or management decisions, it should not be collected. A common problem arises when agencies try to collect project level data for network level analyses. This means that data are collected in a much more detailed manner than is required for analysis, thereby wasting time and money. q Consider the total cost. With any RMS, the commitment is not for a one time needs survey. Some inventory data needs only to be collected once and is updated when there are changes in the network, such as new roads or realignments. However, other data changes rapidly, especially data on auxiliary information such as signs and markings. Implementation of a pavement management process is a commitment to a permanent change in the way pavements are managed. That means that data collected must be kept current this can be both difficult and expensive if excessive data are collected. q Minimize data collection. Generally, the greatest t
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