Contents ASM International. All Rights Reserved. ASM Handbook, Volume 8, Mechanical Testing and Evaluation (#06772G)

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Contents For a more detailed Table of Contents, see page x. Introduction to Mechanical Testing and Evaluation Chairperson: Todd M. Osman, U.S. Steel Research Introduction to the Mechanical
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Contents For a more detailed Table of Contents, see page x. Introduction to Mechanical Testing and Evaluation Chairperson: Todd M. Osman, U.S. Steel Research Introduction to the Mechanical Behavior of Metals Introduction to the Mechanical Behavior of Nonmetallic Materials Mechanical Testing of Polymers and Ceramics Overview of Mechanical Properties and Testing for Design Mechanical Testing for Metalworking Processes Testing Machines and Strain Sensors Accreditation of Mechanical Testing Laboratories Tension, Compression, Bend, and Shear Testing Chairperson: Howard Kuhn, Concurrent Technologies Corporation Mechanical Behavior under Tensile and Compressive Loads Stress-Strain Behavior in Bending Fundamental Aspects of Torsional Loading Uniaxial Tension Testing Uniaxial Compression Testing Hot Tension and Compression Testing Tension and Compression Testing at Low Temperatures Bend Testing Shear, Torsion, and Multiaxial Testing Hardness Testing Chairperson: Gopal Revankar, Deere & Company Introduction to Hardness Testing Macroindentation Hardness Testing Microindentation Hardness Testing Instrumented Indentation Testing Indentation Hardness Testing of Ceramics Miscellaneous Hardness Tests Selection and Industrial Applications of Hardness Tests Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility in Hardness Testing Hardness Conversions for Steels Friction, Wear, and Surface Testing Chairperson: Peter Blau, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Introduction to Adhesion, Friction, and Wear Testing Adhesion Testing Testing Methods for Solid Friction Scratch Testing Abrasive Wear Testing Solid Particle Erosive Wear Testing Sliding Contact Damage Testing Creep and Stress-Relaxation Testing Chairperson: James C. Earthman, University of California/Irvine Introduction to Creep and Stress-Relaxation Testing Creep Deformation of Metals, Polymers, Ceramics, and Composites Creep and Creep-Rupture Testing Assessment and Use of Creep-Rupture Properties Stress Relaxation Testing Influence of Multiaxial Stresses on Creep and Creep Rupture of Tubular Components Superplastic Deformation at Elevated Temperatures High Strain Rate Testing Chairperson: Sia Nemat-Nasser, University of California, San Diego Introduction to High Strain Rate Testing High Strain Rate Tension and Compression Tests High Strain Rate Shear Testing Classic Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar Testing Recovery Hopkinson Bar Techniques Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar Testing of Soft Materials Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar Testing of Ceramics Torsional Kolsky Bar Testing Triaxial Hopkinson Techniques Dynamic Indentation Testing Shock Wave Testing of Ductile Materials Low Velocity Impact Testing Impact Toughness Testing and Fracture Mechanics Chairperson: Peter K. Liaw, University of Tennessee Fracture Toughness and Fracture Mechanics Fracture Toughness Testing Creep Crack Growth Testing Impact Toughness Testing Evaluation of Environmentally Assisted Crack Growth Fracture Resistance Testing of Plastics Fracture Toughness of Ceramics and Ceramic Matrix Composites Fracture Resistance Testing of Brittle Solids Fatigue Testing Chairperson: Robert Ritchie, University of California at Berkeley Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics Fatigue, Creep Fatigue, and Thermomechanical Fatigue Life Testing Ultrasonic Fatigue Testing Fretting Fatigue Testing Fatigue Crack Growth Testing Fatigue Testing and Behavior of Plastics Fatigue Testing of Brittle Solids Multiaxial Fatigue Testing Component Testing Chairperson: Brian Klotz, General Motors Corporation Introduction to Mechanical Testing of Components Testing for Deformation Modeling Mechanical Testing of Threaded Fasteners and Bolted Joints Testing of Adhesive Joints Mechanical Testing of Welded Joints Testing of Bearings Mechanical Testing of Gears Testing of Pressure Vessels, Piping, and Tubing Residual Stress Measurements Mechanical Testing of Fiber Reinforced Composites Reference Information Property Comparison Tables: Hardness and Tensile Properties Glossary of Terms Metric Conversion Guide Abbreviations and Symbols Index ASM Handbook Volume 8 Mechanical Testing and Evaluation Prepared under the direction of the ASM International Handbook Committee Volume Editors Howard Kuhn, Concurrent Technologies Corporation Dana Medlin, The Timken Company ASM International Staff Steven R. Lampman, Project Editor Bonnie R. Sanders, Manager of Production Nancy Hrivnak and Carol Terman, Copy Editors Kathleen S. Dragolich, Production Supervisor Candace Mullet and Jill Kinson, Production Coordinators Scott D. Henry, Assistant Director of Reference Publications William W. Scott, Jr., Director of Technical Publications Editorial Assistance Erika Baxter Kelly Ferjutz Heather Lampman Pat Morse Mary Jane Riddlebaugh Materials Park, Ohio Copyright 2000 by ASM International All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced, stored, in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the copyright owner. First printing, October 2000 This book is a collective effort involving hundreds of technical specialists. It brings together a wealth of information from world-wide sources to help scientists, engineers, and technicians solve current and long-range problems. Great care is taken in the compilation and production of this Volume, but it should be made clear that NO WAR- RANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF MER- CHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE GIVEN IN CONNECTION WITH THIS PUBLICATION. Although this information is believed to be accurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication is intended for use by persons having technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use are outside of ASM s control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this information. No claim of any kind, whether as to products or information in this publication, and whether or not based on negligence, shall be greater in amount than the purchase price of this product or publication in respect of which damages are claimed. THE REMEDY HEREBY PROVIDED SHALL BE THE EXCLUSIVE AND SOLE REMEDY OF BUYER, AND IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIABLE FOR SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSE- QUENTIAL DAMAGES WHETHER OR NOT CAUSED BY OR RESULTING FROM THE NEGLIGENCE OF SUCH PARTY. As with any material, evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to specification is essential. Therefore, specific testing under actual conditions is recommended. Nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale, use, or reproduction, in connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or system, whether or not covered by letters patent, copyright, or trademark, and nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters patent, copyright, or trademark, or as a defense against liability for such infringement. Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are invited, and should be forwarded to ASM International. Library of Congress Control Number: ASM International ASM Handbook Vols. 1 2 have title: Metals handbook Includes bibliographical references and indexes. Contents: v.1. Properties and selection irons, steels, and high-performance alloys v.2. Properties and selection nonferrous alloys and special-purpose materials [etc.] v.7. Powder metal technologies and applications 1. Metals Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Metal-work Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. ASM International. Handbook Committee. II. Metals Handbook. TA459.M SAN ISBN ASM International Materials Park, OH Printed in the United States of America Foreword The new edition of ASM Handbook, Volume 8, Mechanical Testing and Evaluation is a substantial update and revision of the previous volume. This latest edition of Volume 8 contains over 50 new articles, and the scope of coverage has been broadened to include the mechanical testing of alloys, plastics, ceramics, composites, and common engineering components such as fasteners, gears, bearings, adhesive joints, and welds. This new scope is also complemented by substantial updates and additions in the coverage of traditional quasi-static testing, hardness testing, surface testing, creep deformation, high strain rate testing, fracture toughness, and fatigue testing. The efforts of many people are to be commended for creating this useful, comprehensive reference on mechanical testing. The ASM Handbook Committee, the editors, the authors, the reviewers, and ASM staff have collaborated to produce a book that meets high technical standards for the benefit of engineering communities everywhere. To all who contributed to the completion of this task, we extend our sincere thanks. Ash Khare President ASM International Michael J. DeHaemer Managing Director ASM International iii Policy on Units of Measure By a resolution of its Board of Trustees, ASM International has adopted the practice of publishing data in both metric and customary U.S. units of measure. In preparing this Handbook, the editors have attempted to present data in metric units based primarily on Système International d Unités (SI), with secondary mention of the corresponding values in customary U.S. units. The decision to use SI as the primary system of units was based on the aforementioned resolution of the Board of Trustees and the widespread use of metric units throughout the world. For the most part, numerical engineering data in the text and in tables are presented in SI-based units with the customary U.S. equivalents in parentheses (text) or adjoining columns (tables). For example, pressure, stress, and strength are shown both in SI units, which are pascals (Pa) with a suitable prefix, and in customary U.S. units, which are pounds per square inch (psi). To save space, large values of psi have been converted to kips per square inch (ksi), where 1 ksi = 1000 psi. The metric tonne (kg 10 3 ) has sometimes been shown in megagrams (Mg). Some strictly scientific data are presented in SI units only. To clarify some illustrations, only one set of units is presented on artwork. References in the accompanying text to data in the illustrations are presented in both SI-based and customary U.S. units. On graphs and charts, grids corresponding to SI-based units usually appear along the left and bottom edges. Where appropriate, corresponding customary U.S. units appear along the top and right edges. Data pertaining to a specification published by a specification-writing group may be given in only the units used in that specification or in dual units, depending on the nature of the data. For example, the typical yield strength of steel sheet made to a specification written in customary U.S. units would be presented in dual units, by the sheet thickness specified in that specification might be presented only in inches. Data obtained according to standardized test methods for which the standard recommends a particular system of units are presented in the units of that system. Wherever feasible, equivalent units are also presented. Some statistical data may also be presented in only the original units used in the analysis. Conversions and rounding have been done in accordance with ASTM Standard E 380, with attention given to the number of significant digits in the original data. For example, an annealing temperature of 1570 F contains three significant digits. In this case, the equivalent temperature would be given as 855 C; the exact conversion to C would not be appropriate. For an invariant physical phenomenon that occurs at a precise temperature (such as the melting of pure silver), it would be appropriate to report the temperature as C or F. In some instances (especially in tables and data compilations), temperature values in C and F are alternatives rather than conversions. The policy of units of measure in this Handbook contains several exceptions to strict conformance to ASTM E 380; in each instance, the exception has been made in an effort to improve the clarity of the Handbook. The most notable exception is the use of g/cm 3 rather than kg/m 3 as the unit of measure for density (mass per unit volume). SI practice requires that only one virgule (diagonal) appear in units formed by combination of several basic units. Therefore, all of the units preceding the virgule are in the numerator and all units following the virgule are in the denominator of the expression; no parentheses are required to prevent ambiguity. iv Preface At least three major trends have occurred since the last edition of Volume 8 in First, concurrent engineering is growing in importance in the industrial world, and mechanical testing plays a major role in concurrent engineering through the measurement of properties of product design, as well as for deformation processing. ASM Handbook, Volume 20, Materials Selection and Design (1997) reflects this focus in concurrent engineering and the broadening spectrum of involvement of materials engineers. Second, new methods of measurement have evolved such as strain measurement by vision systems and ultrasonic methods for measurement of elastic properties. This area will continue to grow as miniaturized sensors and computer vision technologies mature. Third, computer modeling capabilities, based on fundamental continuum principles and numerical methods, have entered the mainstream of everyday engineering. The validity of these computer models depends heavily on the availability of accurate material properties from mechanical testing. Toward this end, this revision of ASM Handbook, Volume 8 is intended to provide up-to-date, practical information on mechanical testing for metals, plastics, ceramics, and composites. The first section, Introduction to Mechanical Testing and Evaluation, covers the basics of mechanical behavior of engineering materials and general engineering aspects of mechanical testing including coverage on the accreditation of testing laboratories, mechanical tests in metalworking operations, and the general mechanical tests of plastics and ceramics. The next three sections are organized around the basic modes of loading of materials: tension, compression bending, shear, and contact loads. The first four modes (tension, compression, bending, and shear) are the basic simple loading types for determination of bulk properties of materials under quasi-static or dynamic conditions. The third section, Hardness Testing, describes the various methods for indentation testing, which is a relatively inexpensive test of great importance in manufacturing quality control and materials science. This section includes new coverage on instrumented (nano-indentation) hardness testing and the special issues of hardness testing of ceramics. Following the section on hardness testing, the fourth section, addresses the mechanical evaluation of surfaces in terms of adhesion and wear characteristics from point loading and contact loading. These methods, often in conjunction with hardness tests, are used to determine the response of surfaces and coatings to mechanical loads. The next four sections cover mechanical testing under important dynamic conditions of slow strain rates (i.e., creep deformation and stress relaxation), high strain rate testing, dynamic fracture, and fatigue. These four sections cover the nuances of testing materials under the basic loading types but with the added dimension of time as a factor. Very long-term, slow rate of loading (or unloading) in creep and stress relaxation is a key factor in many high-temperature applications and the testing of viscoelastic materials. On the opposite end of the spectrum, high strain rate testing characterizes material response during high-speed deformation processes and dynamic loading of products. Fracture toughness and fatigue testing are the remaining two sections covering engineering dynamic properties. These sections include coverage on the complex effects of temperature and environmental degradation on crack growth under cyclic or sustained loads. Finally, the last section focuses on mechanical testing of some common types of engineering components such as gears, bearings, welds, adhesive joints, and mechanical fasteners. A detailed article on residual stress measurements is included, as residual stress from manufacturing operations can be a key factor in some forms of mechanical performance such as stress corrosion cracking and fatigue life analysis. Coverage of fiber-reinforced composites is also included as a special product form with many special and unique testing and evaluation requirements. In this extensive revision, the end result is over 50 new articles and an all-new Volume 8 of the ASM Handbook series. As before, the key purpose of this Handbook volume is to explain test set-up, common testing problems and solutions, and data interpretations so that reasonably knowledgeable, but inexperienced, engineers can understand the factors that influence proper implementation and interpretation. Easily obtainable and recognizable standards and research publications are referenced within each article, but every attempt is made to provide sufficient clarification so that inexperienced readers can understand the reasons and proper interpretation of published industrial test standards and research publications. In this effort, we greatly appreciate the knowledgeable guidance and support of all the section editors in developing content requirements and author recommendations. This new content would not have been possible without their help: Peter Blau, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; James C. Earthman, University of California/Irvine; Brian Klotz, General Motors Corporation; Peter K. Liaw, University of Tennessee; Sia Nemat-Nasser, University of California, San Diego; Todd M. Osman, U.S. Steel Research; Gopal Revankar, Deere & Company; Robert Ritchie, University of California at Berkeley. Finally, we are all especially indebted to the volunteer spirit and devotion of all the authors, who have given us their time and effort in putting their expertise and knowledge on paper for the benefit of others. This work would not have been possible without them. Howard Kuhn Concurrent Technologies Corporation Dana Medlin The Timken Company v Officers and Trustees of ASM International ( ) Ash Khare President and Trustee National Forge Company Aziz I. Asphahani Vice President and Trustee Carus Chemical Company Michael J. DeHaemer Secretary and Managing Director ASM International Peter R. Strong Treasurer Buehler Krautkrämer Hans H. Portisch Immediate Past President Krupp VDM Austria GmbH Trustees E. Daniel Albrecht Advanced Ceramics Research, Inc. W. Raymond Cribb Brush Wellman Inc. Gordon H. Geiger University of Arizona Tuscon Office & Consultant, T.P. McNulty & Associates Walter M. Griffith Wright-Patterson Air Force Base Jennie S. Hwang H-Technologies Group, Inc. C. Ravi Ravindran Ryerson Polytechnic University Thomas G. Stoebe University of Washington Robert C. Tucker, Jr. Praxair Surface Technologies, Inc. James C. Williams The Ohio State University Members of the ASM Handbook Committee ( ) Craig V. Darragh (Chair 1999 ; Member 1989 ) The Timken Company Bruce P. Bardes (1993 ) Materials Technology Solutions Company Rodney R. Boyer ( ; 1995 ) Boeing Commercial Airplane Group Toni M. Brugger (1993 ) Carpenter Technology Corporation Henry E. Fairman (1993 ) MQS Inspection Inc. Michelle M. Gauthier (1990 ) Raytheon Systems Company Larry D. Hanke (1994 ) Materials Evaluation and Engineering Inc. Jeffrey A. Hawk (1997 ) U.S. Department of Energy Dennis D. Huffman (1982 ) The Timken Company S. Jim Ibarra, Jr. (1991 ) Amoco Corporation Dwight Janoff (1995 ) FMC Corporation Kent L. Johnson (1999 ) Engineering Systems In
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