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Coagulants and Flocculants for Water Treatment Working for a sustainable life Chemipol is a chemical company that manufactures and supplies a wide range of biocides and additives for industrial use and
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Coagulants and Flocculants for Water Treatment Working for a sustainable life Chemipol is a chemical company that manufactures and supplies a wide range of biocides and additives for industrial use and chemical products for water processing. We provide innovative technologies, highly effective products and expert support services through specialized technical sales teams who boast considerable expertise from the customer s perspective. SOME OF THE INDUSTRIES WE SUPPLY Paints and coatings Polymer emulsions, adhesives and glues Construction chemicals, building materials Inks Personal Care Detergents and Household Hygiene Fuel Metalworking Fluids Paper Water Membrane Processing Waste Water Treatment Water Potabilization Industrial water treatment PRODUCTS WE PROVIDE Biocides Performance Additives Preservatives Biocides Biocides Biocides Performance and Process Additives Biocides and cleansing products Chemicals for water processing TECHNICAL-SALES CENTRES AND GLOBAL NETWORK Spain (EU) Head office, technical center and main manufacturing plant in Barcelona. Egypt (MEA) Technical-sales Unit and manufacturing (2010) plant. India Technical-sales Unit and manufacturing. Mexico Technical-sales Unit and manufacturing unit. China Technical-sales Unit guide Coagulants and Flocculants for Water Treatment 2 Introduction Flocculants are polymers of high molecular, anionic character, cationic or non ionic that are used to increase the efficacy of sedimentation, clarification and de-hydratation operations. In this contest, flocculation is defined as the process in which the individual particles that are in suspension conforms larger aggregates and consequently the speed of liquid-solid separation is increased. In the water treatment industry, the terms flocculation and coagulation they imply different mechanisms, although several of the compounds used present simultaneously both effects. Coagulation The size of colloidal particles normally is inferior to on micron and is subject to the Brownian motion. The energy of this movement is sufficient to avoid the sedimentation of particles by action of the gravity remaining in suspension during long time periods. Colloidal suspensions can be stable or unstable. The coagulation is the process in which the destabilization is achieved by adding salts that reduces, neutralizes or revert the electrical repulsion between particles (Zeta Potential). The majority of coagulants are mineral compounds (alumina sulfate, ferric chloride, lime, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, etc.) that act reacting with the surface charge of the suspended materials. Flocculation The term flocculation is used to describe the action of the polymeric materials that forms bridge unions between particles. These unions form when parts of a polymeric chain adsorb different particles and help to aggregate with them. The majority such polymers have high molecular and reactive groups of inverse charge to the suspension to treat. Flocculants adsorb particles and cause destabilization as much by unions as by neutralization charge. Anionic flocculants reacts in a suspension with positive charge (positive Zeta Potential). This is the case of hydroxides metallic salts. Cationic flocculants reacts in front a suspension electronegative (i.e.; silica or organic compounds). However, this is not a general rule, since the Van der Waals force can be preponderant in the flocculation process. For example: anionic flocculants bond clays that are electronegative. Flocculants can be classified in the following three different groups. 1. Mineral flocculants Mineral flocculants are highly colloidal compounds that work as much by adsorption as by charge neutralization. Among the principal types we can mention: - Activated silica - Some colloidal clays such as bentonies - Metallic hydroxides with polymeric structure (alumina, iron hydroxide, etc) guide Coagulants and Flocculants for Water Treatment 3 2. Natural flocculants Natural flocculants are water soluble polymers with anionic, cationic or non ionic character. In the last case of non ionic, react by adsorption. Among the most known can be mentioned: - Starch derivatives, which in most of the cases are pre-gelatinized and therefore are soluble in water: are corn starch and potato starch. Can be neutral, anionic oxidized or cationized with amines. These products are progressively less used in water treatment but shows good results in paper industry. - Polysaccharides: most of them are guar rubber extracted from the carob beans. Are ionic and mainly are used in acidic media. - Alginates: are extracted form algae. They have anionic character and in some places are used for potable water treatment. 3. Synthetic flocculants The most common synthetic flocculants are those based in polyacrylamides which are non ionic polymers. Its effect is due to union formation between the polymeric chains. The function of the amide, very polar, allows formation of bonds between particles by Van der Waals unions. From that base structure has been prepared a range of copolymerization derivatives: - Copolymerization of the acrylamide with acidic compounds, mainly acrylic acid, obtaining anionic copolymers. - Copolymerization of the acrylamide with amine based compounds, such as dimethylaminoethyl acrylate (ADAME), obtaining cationic copolymers. All these products are distinguished among them by the type and proportion of ionic monomer contained in it (which gives certain ionic grade), by medium molecular (polymer chain length) and by molecular distribution. For each suspension is convenient a certain grade of anionic character, cationic or non ionic. As a general rule, in addition, el flocculation capacity is increased by the molecular. The higher molecular s obtained until today in the synthesis chemical industry are around 10 to 20 million. Other polymer types with specific properties are also used. Among them we can mention: - Polyethyleneimines: highly cationic and relatively low molecular. Basically are used as off-dripping agents in paper industry. - Polyamides amines: are condensed of adipic-diethylentriamine-epichlorhyrine acid of low molecular and are basically used in paper industry. - Polyamines: condensed halogenated compounds (dichloroethane, epichlorohydrina) with polyamines. - Poly oxides of ethylene: have high molecular (2-5 millions) and anionic character in spite of not having electric charge. Are specific for silica flotation. - Sulfonated compounds (polyesthyrene-sodium sulfonate or sodium polyvinylsulfonate). Exist other compounds that until now have not found industrial application, in spite of showing good flocculating properties, due to its high manufacturing costs or of its limited efficacy to very specific applications. guide Coagulants and Flocculants for Water Treatment 4 Dissolution of flocculants Solutions of flocculants are highly viscous and therefore are difficult to prepare them in concentrate form. On the other hand, should be considered that these solutions suffer degradation along the time, being reduced its efficacy. For the preparation of these solutions is recommended drop slowly the flocculant in powder form on water, maintaining it in agitation by means of magnetic or mechanic movement. It is essential disperse the powder without any agglomeration to achieve a quick dissolution. Under standard conditions the complete dissolution is obtained after one or two hours. Techniques of industrial application: dissolution Industrial dissolution of flocculants require procedures that have to be adapted to the flocculants characteristics: - Concentration: flocculants solutions are very viscose even diluted. - Agitation: should be avoided excessively strong during its preparation. - The particles of flocculants tend to agglomerate forming groups that are dissolved with difficulty if the products are not correctly dispersed. - Residual dry product scattered in the ground are highly slippery. Dissolution facilities include the following elements: - Dispersion system that ensures correct humectation of each individual particle. - Dissolution vessel. - Transfer pump. - Stock deposit. - Metering pump provided with filtration system. It is convenient prepare the solutions of flocculants at the highest possible concentration compatible with the installation and dilute the polymer after the metering pump. In the characteristics of each product we indicate the maximum recommended concentration. Flocculants solutions are thixotropic (viscosity increases when agitation speed is reduced). Use of industrial facilities Flocculants should be used correctly with the objectives to ensure its maximum efficacy. Its use is related to a certain number of physic chemical phenomena that can alter the expected results and only the practical experience is useful in such occasions. The main factors that can affect the efficacy of the flocculants are: - Correct selection of the injection point, which has to have enough turbulence as to ensure the correct distribution of the product throughout the system and not excessive in order to avoid brake the formed floccules. - The distribution of the flocculant in two or three injection points usually it reports an improvement of the effectiveness. - Higher dilution of the flocculant allows better distribution and usually it improves the results. guide Coagulants and Flocculants for Water Treatment 5 Application fields - Aluminum industry - Mining industry - Sugar industry - Iron and steel industry - Automotive industry - Pharmaceutical industry - Paper and cellulose industry - Tanning leather industry - Electrolysis chlorine-soda - ion of clays and kaolins - Beer industry - Ceramics industry - Galvanized industry - Textile industry - Adhesives and glues industry - Water treatment industry - Coal laundries - Food industry - ion of cheese and lactic - ion of sands and gravel - Zinc industry - Urban wastewater treatment, industrial and mixed wastewater - Latex and synthetic rubber industry - Asbestoses industry guide Coagulants and Flocculants for Water Treatment 6 guide Coagulants and Flocculants for water treatment industry Chemipol coagulants and flocculants are used in a wide variety of wastewater treatment facilities, contributing an excellent coagulation and flocculation for later mud decantation and/or dehydration. CHEMIFLOC family includes a wide range of coagulants and flocculants, linear and cross-linking, in solid and liquid form with different molecular s and ionicity. Chemipol manufactures and supplies chemical specialties for decantation, clarification and dehydration of wastewater and residual mud. Our expert technical services for you, provides outstanding expertise in the application of water treatment solutions improving processes and supporting the industry. family Description CHEMIFLOC AM series Anionic polyelectrolytes in solid form with linear chain with medium molecular. CHEMIFLOC AH series Anionic polyelectrolytes in solid form with linear chain with high molecular. CHEMIFLOC AV series Anionic polyelectrolytes in solid form with linear chain with very high molecular. CHEMIFLOC ANS series Anionic polyelectrolytes in solid form with linear chain with medium molecular. CHEMIFLOC AVS series Anionic polyelectrolytes in solid form with linear chain with high molecular. CHEMIFLOC AHP Anionic polyelectrolytes in solid form with linear chain with very high molecular. guide Coagulants and Flocculants for Water Treatment 7 CHEMIFLOC AL series Anionic polyelectrolytes in oil emulsion form with linear chain with high molecular. CHEMIFLOC N series Non-ionic polyelectrolytes in solid form with linear chain with medium-high molecular. CHEMIFLOC CM series Cationic polyelectrolytes in solid form with linear chain with medium molecular. CHEMIFLOC CH series Cationic polyelectrolytes in solid form with linear chain with high molecular. CHEMIFLOC CV series Cationic polyelectrolytes in solid form with linear chain with very high molecular. CHEMIFLOC CP series Cationic polyelectrolytes in solid form with graft chain with high molecular. CHEMIFLOC CWP series Cationic polyelectrolytes in solid form with graft chain with high molecular. Mud dehydratation in water purification plants. CHEMIFLOC CL series Cationic polyelectrolytes in oil form with graft chain with very high molecular. CHEMIFLOC CLK series Cationic polyelectrolytes in oil form with graft chain with very high molecular. CHEMIFLOC CLD series Cationic polyelectrolytes in oil form with graft chain with very high molecular. CHEMIFLOC DWC series Cationic polyelectrolytes in water-based liquid form with linear chain with medium molecular. guide Coagulants and Flocculants for Water Treatment 8 CHEMIFLOC DWCH series Cationic polyelectrolytes in water-based liquid form with linear chain with high molecular. CHEMIFLOC DWA series Anionic polyelectrolytes in water-based liquid form with linear chain with high molecular. CHEMIFLOC DKLD series Cationic polyelectrolytes dehydrated in oil emulsion form with graft chain with very high molecular. CHEMIFLOC DKH series Cationic polyelectrolytes dehydrated in oil emulsion form with linear chain with high molecular. CHEMIFLOC MA/MC Anionic/Cationic multicompound based on poliacrylamide and inorganic compound. It is especially developed for the flocculation of water. CHEMIFLOC PA series Organic coagulants with different molecular s. CHEMIFLOC FC series Combination of organic and organic coagulants. CHEMIFLOC PF series Combination of organic and organic coagulants. CHEMIFLOC COLOR series Organic coagulants reducing of color. CHEMIFLOC SV series Organic coagulants with higher coagulation strength. guide Coagulants and Flocculants for Water Treatment 9 Our recommendations regarding our products are based on in-depth tests developed by our Technical Department. They are given in good faith and no liability can be derived from them. Use biocides and additives safely. Always read the label and product information before use. Technical Data Sheets and Material Safety Data Sheets are available under request in your closed Chemipol technical-sales centre. Joan Monpeó TERRASSA Barcelona Spain Tel Fax guide Coagulants and Flocculants for Water Treatment 10 CHEMIFLOC ANIONIC FLOCULANTS Series AM CHEMIFLOC AM 08 Low Medium 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC AM 20 Medium Medium 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC AM 33 Medium-high Medium 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC AM 45 High Medium 0,5% 1 h Series AH CHEMIFLOC AH 08 Low High 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC AH 20 E Medium High 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC AH 33 Medium-high High 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC AH 45 High High 0,5% 1 h Series AV CHEMIFLOC AV 09 Low Very high 0,5% 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC AV 21 Medium Very high 0,5% 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC AV 35 Medium-high Very high 0,5% 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC AV 45 High Very high 0,5% 1,5 h Series ANS Max. Conc. Maturation time CHEMIFLOC AN 870 S Low High 0,5% 1 h. CHEMIFLOC AN 270 S Medium High 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC AN 370 S Medium-high High 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC AN 470 S High High 0,5% 1 h guide Coagulants and Flocculants for Water Treatment 11 CHEMIFLOC ANIONIC FLOCULANTS Series AVS CHEMIFLOC AV 1870 S Low Very high 0,5% 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC AV 1270 S Medium Very high 0,5% 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC AV 1370 S Medium-high Very high 0,5% 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC AV 1470 S High Very high 0,5% 1,5 h Series AHP CHEMIFLOC AH 04 P Low High 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC AH 20 P Medium High 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC AH 33 P Medium-high High 0,5% 1 h Series AL CHEMIFLOC A 10 L Low alto 1% 5-15 min. CHEMIFLOC A 20 L Medium alto 1% 5-15 min. CHEMIFLOC A 30 L Medium-high alto 1% 5-15 min. Series DWA CHEMIFLOC DW 30 A Medium High 2% 5 min. guide Coagulants and Flocculants for Water Treatment 12 CHEMIFLOC NON IONIC FLOCULANTS Series N CHEMIFLOC NM 03 Non ionic Medium 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC NH 03 Non ionic High 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC NV 03 Non ionic Very high 0,5% 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC NH 03 P Non ionic High 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC N 01 L Non ionic High 1% 5-15 min guide Coagulants and Flocculants for Water Treatment 13 CHEMIFLOC CATIONIC FLOCULANTS Series CM CHEMIFLOC CM 10 Low Medium 0,5% 1 h. CHEMIFLOC CM 15 Low-medium Medium 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC CM 25 Medium Medium 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC CM 30 Medium-high Medium 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC CM 50 High Medium 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC CM 80 Very high Medium 0,5% 1 h Series CH CHEMIFLOC CH 10 Low High 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC CH 15 Low-medium High 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC CH 25 Medium High 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC CH 30 Medium-high High 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC CH 50 High High 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC CH 80 Very high High 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC CH 31 Medium-high High 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC CH 51 High High 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC CH 82 Very high High 0,5% 1 h guide Coagulants and Flocculants for Water Treatment 14 CHEMIFLOC CATIONIC FLOCULANTS Series CV CHEMIFLOC CV 100 Low Very high 0,3 % 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC CV 150 Low-medium Very high 0,3 % 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC CV 250 Medium Very high 0,3 % 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC CV 300 Medium-high Very high 0,3 % 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC CV 500 High Very high 0,3 % 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC CV 625 High Very high 0,3 % 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC CV 850 Medium-high Very high 0,3 % 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC CV 110 Low Very high 0,3 % 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC CV 2015 Low-medium Very high 0,3 % 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC CV 270 Medium Very high 0,3 % 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC CV 310 Medium-high Very high 0,3 % 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC CV 1050 High Very high 0,3 % 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC CV 635 High Very high 0,3 % 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC CV 860 Very high Very high 0,3 % 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC CV 1515 Low-medium Very high 0,3 % 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC CV 3050 High Very high 0,3 % 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC CV 4060 High Very high 0,3 % 1,5 h CHEMIFLOC CV 4080 Very high Very high 0,3 % 1,5 h Series CP CHEMIFLOC CP 8 High Medium 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC CP 8 H High High 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC CP 81 High Medium 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC CP 81 H High High 0,5% 1 h guide Coagulants and Flocculants for Water Treatment 15 CHEMIFLOC CATIONIC FLOCULANTS Series CWP CHEMIFLOC CW 15 P Very low High 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC CW 07 P Low High 0,5% 1 h CHEMIFLOC CW 25 P Medium High 0,5% 1 h Series CL Max. Conc. Maturation time CHEMIFLOC C 01 L Low High 1% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC C 05 L Low High 1% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC C 10 L Low-medium High 1% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC C 15 L Low-medium High 1% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC C 20 L Medium High 1% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC C 30 L Medium High 1% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC C 40 L Medium-high High 1% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC C 60 L High High 1% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC C 80 L Very high High 1% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC C 100 L Very high High 1% 5-15 min Series CLD Max. Conc. Maturation time CHEMIFLOC C 44 LD Medium-high High 1% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC C 54 LD High High 1% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC C 64 LD High High 1% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC C 84 LD Very high High 1% 5-15 min guide Coagulants and Flocculants for Water Treatment 16 CHEMIFLOC CATIONIC FLOCULANTS Series CLK Max. Conc. Maturation time CHEMIFLOC C 01 LK Low Very high 1% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC C 05 LK Low Very high 1% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC C 10 LK Low-medium Very high 1% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC C 15 LK Low-medium Very high 1% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC C 20 LK Medium Very high 1% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC C 30 LK Medium Very high 1% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC C 40 LK Medium-high Very high 1% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC C 60 LK High Very high 1% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC C 80 LK Very high Very high 1% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC C 100 LK Very high Very high 1% 5-15 min Series DWC CHEMIFLOC DW 10C Low-medium Medium 2% 5 min. CHEMIFLOC DW 35C Medium Medium 2% 5 min. CHEMIFLOC DW 80C Very high Medium 2% 5 min. Series DWCH CHEMIFLOC DW 11CH Low-medium High 2% 5 min CHEMIFLOC DW 31CH Medium High 2% 5 min CHEMIFLOC DW 81CH Very high High 2% 5 min guide Coagulants and Flocculants for Water Treatment 17 CHEMIFLOC CATIONIC FLOCULANTS Series DKLD CHEMIFLOC DK 62 LD High High 2% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC DK 82 LD Very high High 2% 5-15 min Series DKH CHEMIFLOC DK 35 H Medium Very high 2% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC DK 65 H High Very high 2% 5-15 min CHEMIFLOC DK 85 H Very high Very high 2% 5-15 min Series M CHEMIFLOC MC Medium High -* -* CHEMIFLOC MA Medium High -* -* *These products don t have a max. concentration. *these products don t need maturation time. guide Coagulants a
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