Assessing sector performance and inequality in education

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This book gathers in one volume all the information related to Automated DEC [Development Economics - Vice Presidency at the World Bank] Poverty Tables (ADePT) Edu, the software platform created by the World Bank for reporting and analyzing education indicators and education inequality. It includes a primer on the availability of education data, an operating manual for using the ADePT software, a technical explanation of all the education indicators ADePT generates, and an overview of global education inequality using ADePT Edu. Chapter one is an introduction to ADePT Edu. It describes its origin and intended use and familiarizes readers with educational statistics. Chapter two is intended for users unfamiliar with the different datasets that contain education statistics and household-level data that contain information on education. Chapter three is a step-by-step technical guide for potential users. In addition to identifying the hardware and operating system requirements, it provides graphic examples of each of the steps needed to install and operate the software. Chapter four describes the outputs of ADePT and the definitions of all the indicators it generates. Chapter five provides a global and regional overview of education inequality, using ADePT Edu outputs obtained from household survey data. It analyzes inequality in school participation, progression, and attainment. Chapter 5 also illustrates how ADePT Edu can be used to readily analyze data from any household survey, a feature that makes this software unique. The analysis of education inequality serves as a backdrop for the potential use of household surveys for analyzing the demand side of education.
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STREAMLINED ANALYSIS WITH ADePT SOFTWARE 63252 Assessing Sector Performance and Inequality in Emilio Porta Gustavo Arcia Education Kevin Macdonald Sergiy Radyakin Michael Lokshin Assessing Sector Performance and Inequality in Education STREAMLINED ANALYSIS WITH ADePT SOFTWARE Assessing Sector Performance and Inequality in Education Emilio Porta Gustavo Arcia Kevin Macdonald Sergiy Radyakin Michael Lokshin © 2011 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank 1818 H Street, NW Washington, DC 20433 Telephone: 202-473-1000 Internet: www.worldbank.org All rights reserved 1 2 3 4 14 13 12 11 This volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this volume do not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive Directors of The World Bank or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judge- ment on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. Rights and Permissions The material in this publication is copyrighted. Copying and/or transmitting portions or all of this work without permission may be a violation of applicable law. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank encourages dissemination of its work and will normally grant permission to reproduce portions of the work promptly. For permission to photocopy or reprint any part of this work, please send a request with complete information to the Copyright Clearance Center Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA; telephone: 978-750-8400; fax: 978-750-4470; Internet: www.copyright.com. All other queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed to the Office of the Publisher, The World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; fax: 202-522-2422; e-mail: pubrights@worldbank.org. ISBN: 978-0-8213-8458-9 eISBN: 978-0-8213-8717-7 DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8458-9 Cover photo: Scott Wallace/World Bank (schoolgirl); ©iStockphoto.com/Olga Altunina (background image) Cover design: Kim Vilov Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Assessing sector performance and inequality in education : streamlined analysis with ADePT software / by Emilio Porta . . . [et al.]. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-8213-8458-9 — ISBN 978-0-8213-8717-7 (electronic) 1. Educational indicators—Data processing. 2. Educational equalization—Data processing. I. Porta, Emilio. LB2846.A76 2011 379.2'60285—dc23 2011015 Contents Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xv Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xvii Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xix Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Chapter 1 Introduction to ADePT Edu: Broadening Access to School and Household Data in Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 The Need for Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Complementing ADePT Edu: Broadening the Availability of Education Projections Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Education Projections Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 World Bank Education Projects Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Public Expenditure Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 ADePT Edu As a Tool for Analyzing Education Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 v Contents Chapter 2 Using Household Survey Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Use of Household Surveys to Analyze Educational Inequality and Education Sector Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Main Household Surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 The Living Standards Measurement Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 The Demographic and Health Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Which Survey Is Best for Analyzing Education Inequality? A Quick Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Advantages and Limitations of Using Household Surveys in Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Enrollment versus Attendance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Level of Education Reported in Household Surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Age, Timing, and Duration of Household Surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Standard Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Poverty Quintiles and Poverty Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Missing and Contradictory Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Chapter 3 Using ADePT Edu: A Step-by-Step Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Hardware Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Software Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Installing ADePT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Using ADePT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Starting and Closing ADePT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 ADePT’s Computation Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Loading Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Specifying Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Using Compound Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Generating Tables and Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Choosing a Reporting Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Performing Common Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Generating Tables on a Subsample of Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 vi Contents Generating Tables with Standard Errors and Tables of Frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Describing a Complex Survey Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 Defining Missing Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 Specifying Expressions in Variables Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 Running Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 Adjusting Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Changing the Screen and Output Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Selecting the Computational Engine and Output Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 Working with Projects in ADePT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 Using ADePT Project Files on a Different Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 Replicating Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 Using ADePT in a Batch Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Updating ADePT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Troubleshooting ADePT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 Resolving Problems Encountered during Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 Using the Debug Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Chapter 4 Generating and Interpreting Output Tables and Graphs . . . . . . . . . . .81 Output Information Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 The Contents Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 The Notifications Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 Original Data Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87 School Participation Indicator Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Table A1: School Attendance Ratios and Out of School, by Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Table A2: Primary Grade 1 Intake, Over-Age in First Grade, and Survival Rate to Grade 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 Table A3: On-Time, Under-Age, and Over-Age in Primary Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 Table A4: On-Time, Under-Age, and Over-Age by Single Grade of Primary Education, according to Background Characteristics . . . . . . .98 Table A5: Percentage of the Population That Has Ever Attended School, by Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99 Table A6: Out-of-School Reasons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99 Table A7: Typology of Out of School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 vii Contents School Progression Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 Table B1: Promotion, Repetition, Dropout, and Completion Rates by Level, and Transition Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 Table B2: Promotion, Repetition, and Dropout Rates by Single Grade of Primary Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 Table B3: Promotion, Repetition, and Dropout Rates by Single Grade of Secondary Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 School Attainment Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 Table C1: School Attainment of Adult Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 Tables C2–C5: Proportion of Adult Population That Completed Each Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 Table C6: Proportion of 10- to 19-Year-Olds Expected to Complete Each Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 Table C7: Inequality in Years of Schooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 Education Expenditure Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118 Table D1: Primary Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119 Table D2: Secondary Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119 Table D3: Postsecondary Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 Labor Market Outcome Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 Table E1: Earning Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 Tables E2, E2a, and E2b: Employment for Youth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123 Table E3: Employment by Sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 Table E4: Earnings by Education Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127 Table E5: Economic Independence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 Table E6: Returns to Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 ADePT Education Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140 Chapter 5 Analyzing Education Inequality with ADePT Edu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141 Reporting Education Inequality with ADePT Edu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143 Global Educational Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144 The Gini Coefficient in Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144 Correlation between Inequality in Income and Inequality in School Attainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145 viii Contents Correlation between Inequality in School Attendance and Inequality in School Attainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146 Correlation between School Completion and Inequality in School Attainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148 Correlation between Extreme Poverty and Inequality in School Attainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149 How Has Inequality in Educational Attainment Changed over Time? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150 Educational Inequality and Internal Efficiency in the Education Sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152 Disparity in School Participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153 Disparity in School Progression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154 Disparity in the Number of Years of Schooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155 Educational Inequality across Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156 Regional Disparity in School Participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157 Regional Disparity in School Progression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164 Regional Disparity in School Attainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167 Concluding Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177 About the Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 Box 4.1: UNESCO’s Method for Estimating the Percentage of Children Out of School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101 Figures 1.1: Percentage of Countries Reporting Data on Education, 1990–2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 1.2: Global Availability of Data Needed to Estimate MDG Indicators for Education, 1990–2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 4.1: Estimates of Percentage of Out-of-School Children, by Type . . . . . . .102 ix Contents 5.1: The Education Lorenz Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145 5.2: Relationship between Gini Coefficient of School Attainment and Gini Coefficient of Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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