Asm Tt Tool Steel | Heat Treating

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Curso sobre tratamiento térmico de acero herramienta
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  . \ . . : 1. . -  > \: ,.. i, ) -I i --   ., , , : . ../ ~ '  .. , )1 ' J~ HOME STUDY AND EXTENSION COURSES AM ERICAN SOCIETY FOR METALS .. ... .. ' .. . ..; , .. . , ,i , '. -. ' ã ~ 1 ,-  i ' eat Treatment of Tool Steels   , , :-  ' . . ·1·.··· . ~ \ '.~. ~   Course 10 Lenon, Test 14 Course 41 Lesson, Test 13 METALS ENGINEERING INSTITUTE METALS PARK, OHIO trnVI I  ~ ~:: ,. l \' t::~ \ .. ]. , . . ' , : 1; 1 ,   1  .:.; t:~ ' ~ . :   ., . ~, Editor Philip D. Harvey American Society for Metals, MEl .: ., ~ . ,  ~;: ã ~J / :: \ , ~ , l r : . . .. ~ 1 ; , .' , ' . , ,  i t t ' f .. . : ~ · ~ / I I I. I I. , ; Ii I ~ ; , I I I ,', ãã f< .: : ~. . , , ' .. . - . .. Heat Treatment o Tool Steels A definition of tool ste~ can best be reached indirectly by considering how it differs from other metals in the steel classification. Even then the -emphasis depends somewhat on the viewpoint of the individual supplying the definition. To the steel manufacturer, tool steel represents an extra -high quality product, not always used exclusively for tools, which is closely controlled and inspected throughout its manufacture, and is made and sold in relatively small lots. The tool designer or toolmaker, on the other hand, thinks of tool steel as a group of special grades which, after proper heat treatment, will provide the unique combinations of properties required for various tool and die applications. Finally, the metallurgist might explain the unique properties of tool steels as a group by pointing out that many generally tend to have excess carbides in their structure, for improved wear resistance. Summariz in g the above viewpoints, tool steel mi ght be defined as a group of special steels having e xt ra high quality and unique properties aft er heat treatment which particularly a dapt them for use in tools and di es , In speaking of tools, it should be remembered that we are primarily concerned with industrial tools, such as lathe tool bits, milling cutters, drills and forming dies for meta ls and plastics, rather than ordinary household tools which are frequently made from machinery steels. Widely different properties are required of the, sleds ' from which tools, are made.  These greatly' divergent properties are secured by adding vari()us types and amourits of alloy additions to the steel and subjecting the steel to suitable heat -treatments. In some cases, the total alloy content may be nearly 40 7. of the total composition of the steel. ' The presence of such large amounts o alloyirig elements frequently has a pronounced effect on the heating and cooling transformation cha racterfstics , of the steel. Therefore, special procedures gener-ally must be followed. Tool steels are steels of special composition, require special heat treatmerit, and have special properties. Because of their great importance and their special nature in regard to heat treatment, this separate lesson is devoted: to them. Types Of Tool Steels Table IS-I lists compo sitions for the major types of tool steels, classified into 14 groups., In most instances, these steels are identified by both the' American Iron and Steel Institute (A lSI) and the Unified Numbering System (UNS) designations.' Some of the steels listed ar e p' roprietary and do not have an AISI designation. Through the years, tool steels have been developed and assigned, AISI numbers. However, some are no longer listed by This material may not be reproduced in whole or in part in any form whatsoever Fully protected by copyriahl ©  98 American Society for Metal . '   .   ~ ã Table · ~ 5-1. Classlflcallon,and Approximate Composillons 01 Prlnc l al Types 01 Tool Steels , Identifying elements per cent : A:::IS~I U:::N: ::S: -.:C::: ----w-. :~e::::: H-.-r-d-e~ns:: I~-9-T-O-O ::~: s-t-e.-I-s.-:..V--- · ,,:W': '_   _...::.M::O_~Co=-   = :N:...1 : ~ : Wl W2 W5 Sl 52 55 56 57 01 02 06 (b) 07 A2 A3 A4 A6 A7 A8 A9 Al0(b) 02 03 04 OS 07 l2 L6 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P20 P21 Hl0 Hll H12 H13 H14 H19 H21 T72301 0.60-1.40 (a) T72302 0.60-1.40 (a) T72 3Q 5 1.10 ' T41901 T41902 T41905 T41906 T41907 0.50 0.50 0.55 0.45 0.50 Shock·Reslstlng Tool Sleels 1.50 1.00 0.80 2.00 1.40 2.25· 1.50 .. 3.25 0.25 . 2.50 ~ . : 0. 50 . :,. 0.40. ã ;. 0.40 ':. ' 1.40  · f OIl · Hardenlng Cold Work Tool Steels . I . 'i   -   · '. r- .. ~ T31501 T31502 . T31506 T31507 T30102 . T30103 T30104 T30106 T30107 T30108 T30109 T30110 T30402 T30403 T30404 T3040S T30407 T61202 T61206 T51602 T51603 T51604 T51605 T51606 T51620 T51621 T20810 T208 11 T20812 T20813 T208 14 T20819 T20821 . t·, 0.90 0.90 . 1.45 1.20 1.00 0.50 1.60 0.80 1.00 0.75 0.50 ., ã 1.75 Alr·Hardenlng Medlum ·Alloy Cold Work Tool Sleels 1. 00 5.00 1. 25 . 5.00 1.00 1.00 2.00 1.00 0.70 2.00 1.00 2.25 0.55 0.50 1.35 5.25 4.75 3.00 5. 00 1.00 . 1.BO 1.25 .' ' 1.00 (c) 1.25 .. Hlgh · Carbon Hlgh·Chromlum Cold Work Steels 1.50 12.00 1.00 2.25 12.00 2.25 12.00 1.S0 12.00 2.35 12.00 4.00 1.   l,)w ·Alloy Special. Purpose Tool Sleel. 0.50·1.10 (a) 1.00 0.20 0.70 0.75 Mold Sleels 0.07 2.00 0.10 0.60 0.07 5.00 0.10 2.25 0.10 1.50 0. 35 1.70 0.20 1.20 (AI) Chromium Hal Work Tool Sleels 0.40 3.25 0.40 0.35 5.00 0.40 0.35 5,00 0.40 1.50 0.35 5. lJV 1.00 0.40 5.00 5.00 0.40 4.25 .2.00 4.25 lungs en Hot Work Tool Steels 0. 35 3.50 9.00 :.\ 0.25 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.25 1.00 1.25 1.40 1.50 ã I .. 1.00 1.00 1. 00 1. 00 0.25 (c) 0.20 0.75 0.40 2.50 1.50 1. 50 1.50 3. 00 - 4.25 Me tals Engineering Instltule \ ~ 1.50 1.BO 1.50 0. 50 1. 25 3.50 4.00 ~ .. ) . 4 .. i '- )<~ )
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