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ASM INTERNATIONAL
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    ASM    INTERNATIONAL ® The Materials Information Company  Publication Information and Contributors  Alloy Phase Diagrams  was published in 1992 as Volume 3 of the  ASM Handbook  . The Volume was prepared under the direction of the ASM International Alloy Phase Diagram and the Handbook Committees. Foreword Phase diagrams, thermodynamic data in graphical form, are one of the basic tools of the metallurgist, materials scientist, and materials engineer. They can be used for alloy design, selection of hot-working and fabricating parameters, prediction of performance, guidance in selection of hot-working and fabricating parameters, prediction of performance, guidance in selection of heat-treating process parameters, solving performance problems, including failure analysis, and for many other purposes. The formation of The American Society of Steel Treating, the forerunner of ASM International, was based on better understanding of heat-treating technology; this understanding was, of course, rooted in part in the proper utilization of  phase diagrams. Experimental tools such as metallography were used in those early days, both to determine phase diagrams and to link the heat-treating process with the desired microstructure. In 1978 ASM International joined with the National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards of Technology, or NIST) in an effort to improve the reliability of phase diagrams by evaluating the existing data on a system-by-system basis. ASM raised $4 million from industry and government sources and NIST provided a similar amount of financial and in-kind support for this historic undertaking. An international effort was mounted simultaneously with similar objectives. As a result, all of the important binary systems have been evaluated, and international partners have evaluated more than 2000 ternary systems. ASM actively participates in the Alloy Phase Diagram International Commission (APDIC), which comprises cooperative national or regional committees in 13 countries. APDIC was formed "to set overall objectives, determine priorities for alloy systems to be assessed, coordinate the assessment programs of APDIC members and associate members, establish scope and quality standards for assessment programs in other countries, and assist in the timely dissemination of the resultant phase diagram data." The complete results of the international effort are recorded in various periodical and reference publications. However, we have continued to hear from ASM members that a summary version consisting primarily of phase diagrams should be  published as an ASM Handbook for the practicing engineer. While such a Handbook could not contain all the diagrams and data, careful selection would ensure the inclusion of the most important systems, with references to other more complete sources. The present Handbook is the result of our attempts to meet these criteria and the stated need.  No reference book of this nature could be published without the contributions of literally hundreds of technical and staff workers. On behalf of ASM International, we extend our sincere thanks and appreciation to the category editors, contributors, reviewers, and staff who worked in this international effort. Thanks are also due to the ASM Alloy Phase Diagram and Handbook Committees for their guidance and support of the project. •   Edward H. Kottcamp, Jr. President ASM International •   Edward L. Langer Managing Director ASM International Preface Alloy phase diagrams have long been used successfully by the scientific, engineering, and industrial communities as "road maps" to solve a variety of practical problems. It is, thus, not surprising that such diagrams have always been an important part of ASM Handbooks. The previous ASM compilation of commercially important diagrams appeared in Volume 8 of the 8th Edition of  Metals Handbook.    Shortly after publication of the earlier volume in 1973, recognition of the universal importance of alloy phase diagrams led to the formation of several national phase diagram programs, as well as the International Programme for Alloy Phase Diagrams to act as the coordinating body for these activities. In the U. S., the national program has been spearheaded  jointly by ASM International and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. To meet the pressing need for diagrams, the national programs and the entire International Programme had two main goals: to increase the availability of phase diagrams and to ensure that the diagrams made available were of the highest  possible quality. The specific tasks that were undertaken to accomplish these goals included assembling all   existing data related to alloy phase diagrams, critically evaluating these data, using the data to construct the most up-to-date and accurate diagrams possible, and making the resulting diagrams readily available for use. With the publication of the three-volume set of  Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams,  Second Edition, by ASM in 1991, the  binary alloy portion of this monumental task is virtually complete. In addition, the first-ever truly comprehensive collection of ternary diagrams, the multivolume  Handbook of Ternary Alloy Phase Diagrams,  is scheduled for publication  by ASM in 1994. Information from these two extensive and current diagram sources have been used as the basis of this updated engineering reference book, which reproduces the diagrams of the most commercially important systems (1046  binaries plus 80 ternaries) in a single, convenient volume. These alloy systems are represented by more than 1100 binary diagrams and 313 ternary diagrams, all plotted in weight percent as the primary scale. The binary diagrams reproduced in this Handbook were selected from the 2965 systems covered in  Binary Alloy Phase  Diagrams,  with updated diagrams from literature published since January 1991. Included with the binary diagrams is a complete index of all known alloy phase diagrams from all   sources, listing where each can be found should a problem arise concerning a binary system not covered in this Handbook. Although many of the diagrams listed in this index (and a few of those reproduced in this volume) have not been evaluated under the Programmed, they were selected to represent the best available. Updated binary diagrams from the phase diagram update section of the  Journal of Phase Equilibria  and abstracts of new full-length evaluation from the  Journal of Phase Equilibria  and the Monograph Series on Alloy Phase Diagrams are available from ASM International on a continuing basis through the Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams Updating Service. The ternary diagrams reproduced here were selected from more than 12,000 diagrams being assembled for the ternary handbook. Where available, diagrams from recently published evaluated compilations were selected. The remainder were selected to represent the best available. To aid in the full and effective use of these diagrams to solve practical problems, we have included an Introduction to Alloy Phase Diagrams, which contains sections on the theory and use of phase diagrams, and an Appendix listing the relevant properties of the elements and their crystal structures. While the work of developing additional data, expanding alloy system coverage, and refining existing diagrams must and will continue, the quality checks built into the programme ensure that the diagrams reproduced here are as accurate and reliable as possible. Credit for this belongs to the conscientious work of all the experts involved in the worldwide Programme, especially Prof. Thaddeus B. Massalski and Dr. Alan A. Prince, who coordinated the evaluation efforts during the period of greatest activity. The Editors General Information Officers and Trustees of ASM International Officers   •   LAMET UFRGS   •   Edward H. Kottcamp, Jr. President and TrusteeSPS Technologies •   John G. Simon Vice President and TrusteeGeneral Motors Corporation •   William P. Koster Immediate Past PresidentMetcut Research Associates, Inc. •   Edward L. Langer Secretary and Managing DirectorASM International  •   Leo G. Thompson TreasurerLindberg Corporation Trustees   •   William H. Erickson Canada Centre for Minerals & Energy •   Norman A. Gjostein Ford Motor Company •   Nicholas C. Jessen, Jr. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. •   E. George Kendall  Northrop Aircraft •   George Krauss Colorado School of Mines •   Gernant E. Maurer Special Metals Corporation •   Alton D. Romig, Jr. Sandia National Laboratories •   Lyle H. Schwartz  National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) •   Merle L. Thorpe Hobart Tafa Technologies, Inc. Members of the ASM Alloy Phase Diagram Committee (1991-1992) •   Michael R. Notis (Chairman 1991-; Member 1988-)Lehigh University •   James Brown  (1990-)Ontario Hydro •   Cathleen M. Cotell  (1991-)Naval Research Labs •   Charles E. Ells  (1991-)Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd. •   Gretchen Kalonji  (1991-)University of Washington •   Marc H. LaBranche  (1991-)DuPont •   Vincent C. Marcotte  (1987-)IBM East Fishkill Facility •   T.B. Massalski  (1987-)Carnegie-Mellon University •   Sailesh M. Merchant  (1990-)AT&T Bell Labs •   John E. Morral  (1990-)University of Connecticut •   Charles A. Parker  (1987-)Allied Signal Research & Technology •   Alan Prince  (1987-)Consultant •   Gaylord D. Smith  (1987-)Inco Alloys International Inc. •   Michael S. Zedalis  (1991-)Allied Signal, Inc. Members of the ASM Handbook Committee (1992-1993) •   Roger J. Austin (Chairman 1992-; Member 1984-)Hydro-Lift •   David V. Neff  (Vice-Chairman 1992-; Member 1986-)   Metaullics System •   Ted Anderson  (1991-)Texas A&M University •   Bruce Bardes  (1992-)GE Aircraft Engines •   Robert J. Barnhurst  (1988-)Noranda Technology Centre •   Toni Brugger  (1992-)Phoenix Pipe & Tube Co. •   Stephen J. Burden  (1989-)GTE Valenite •   Craig V. Darragh  (1989-)The Timken Company •   Russell J. Diefendorf   (1990-)Clemson University •   Aicha Elshabini-Riad  (1990-)Virginia Polytechnic & State University •   Gregory A. Fett  (1992-)Dana Corporation •   Michelle M. Gauthier Raytheon Company •   Toni Grobstein  (1990-)NASA Lewis Research Center •   Susan Housh  (1990-)Dow Chemical U.S.A. •   Dennis D. Huffman  (1982-)The Timken Company •   S. Jim Ibarra  (1991-)Amoco Research Center •   J. Ernesto Indacochea  (1987-)University of Illinois at Chicago •   Peter W. Lee  (1990-)The Timken Company •   William L. Mankins  (1989-)Inco Alloys International, Inc.  •   Richard E. Robertson  (1990-)University of Michigan •   Jogender Singh  (1992-)NASA •   Jeremy C. St. Pierre  (1990-)Hayes Heat Treating Corporation •   Ephraim Suhir  (1990-)AT&T Bell Laboratories •   Kenneth B. Tator  (1991-)KTA-Tator, Inc. •   Malcolm Thomas  (1992-)General Motors Corp. •   William B. Young  (1991-)Dana Corporation Staff ASM International staff who contributed to the development of the Volume included Hugh Baker, Editor; Hiroaki Okamoto, Senior Technical Editor; Scott D. Henry, Manager of Handbook Development; Grace M. Davidson, Manager, Production Systems; Mary Anne Fleming, Manager, APD Publications; Linda Kacprzak, Manager of Production; Heather F. Lampman, Editorial/Production Assistant; William W. Scott, Jr., Technical Director; Robert C. Uhl, Director of Reference Publications. Editorial Assistance was provided by Nikki D. Wheaton and Kathleen Mills. Production Assistance was provided by Donna Sue Plickert, Steve Starr, Karen Skiba, Patricia Eland, and Jeff Fenstermaker. Conversion to Electronic Files  ASM Handbook  , Volume 3,  Alloy Phase Diagrams  was converted to electronic files in 1998. The conversion was based on the First Printing (1992). No substantive changes were made to the content of the Volume, but some minor corrections and clarifications were made as needed. ASM International staff who contributed to the conversion of the Volume included Sally Fahrenholz-Mann, Bonnie Sanders, Marlene Seuffert, Scott Henry, and Robert Braddock. The electronic version was prepared under the direction of William W. Scott, Jr., Technical Director, and Michael J. DeHaemer, Managing Director. Copyright Information (for Print Volume) Copyright © 1992 by ASM International All rights reserved  No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the copyright owner. ASM Handbook is a collective effort involving thousands of technical specialists. It brings together in one book a wealth of information from world-wide sources to help scientists, engineers, and technicians solve current and long-range  problems. Great care is taken in the compilation and production of this Volume, but it should be made clear that NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE GIVEN IN CONNECTION WITH THIS PUBLICATION. Although this information is believed to be accurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication is intended for use by persons having technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use are outside of ASM's control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this information. No claim of any kind, whether as to products or information in this publication, and whether or not based on negligence, shall be greater in amount than the purchase price of this product or publication in respect of which damages are claimed. THE REMEDY HEREBY PROVIDED SHALL BE THE EXCLUSIVE AND SOLE REMEDY OR BUYER, AND IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIABLE FOR SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHETHER OR NOT CAUSED BY OR RESULTING FROM THE NEGLIGENCE OF SUCH PARTY. As with any material, evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to specification is essential. Therefore, specific testing under actual conditions is recommended.  Nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale, use, or reproduction, in connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or system, whether or not covered by letters
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