ASM Handbook W. Volume 4A Steel Heat Treating Fundamentals and Processes. Prepared under the direction of the ASM International Handbook Committee - PDF

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ASM Handbook W Volume 4A Steel Heat Treating Fundamentals and Processes Prepared under the direction of the ASM International Handbook Committee Volume Editors Jon. L Dossett, FASM, Consultant George E.
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ASM Handbook W Volume 4A Steel Heat Treating Fundamentals and Processes Prepared under the direction of the ASM International Handbook Committee Volume Editors Jon. L Dossett, FASM, Consultant George E. Totten, FASM, Portland State University Editorial Committee and Advisors Madhu Chatterjee, Bodycote Rafael Colás, Universidad Autónoma De Nuevo León Edward (Derry) Doyle, RMIT University Kiyoshi Funatani, IMST Institute (Consultant) Robert J. Gaster, Deere & Company Peter Hodgson, Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University Franz Hoffmann, IWT Bremen D. Scott MacKenzie, Houghton International Michael J. Schneider, The Timken Company ASM International Staff Steve Lampman, Content Developer Vicki Burt, Content Developer Amy Nolan, Content Developer Susan Sellers, Editorial Assistant Madrid Tramble, Manager of Production Kate Fornadel, Senior Production Coordinator Patty Conti, Production Coordinator Diane Whitelaw, Production Coordinator Karen Marken, Senior Managing Editor Scott D. Henry, Senior Manager, Content Development Editorial Assistance Elizabeth Marquard Jo Hannah Leyda Buz Riley Copyright # 2013 by ASM International W All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the copyright owner. First printing, November 2013 This Volume is a collective effort involving hundreds of technical specialists. It brings together a wealth of information from worldwide sources to help scientists, engineers, and technicians solve current and long-range problems. Great care is taken in the compilation and production of this Volume, but it should be made clear that NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PUR- POSE, ARE GIVEN IN CONNECTION WITH THIS PUBLICATION. Although this information is believed to be accurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication is intended for use by persons having technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use are outside of ASM s control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this information. No claim of any kind, whether as to products or information in this publication, and whether or not based on negligence, shall be greater in amount than the purchase price of this product or publication in respect of which damages are claimed. THE REMEDY HEREBY PROVIDED SHALL BE THE EXCLUSIVE AND SOLE REMEDY OF BUYER, AND IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIABLE FOR SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHETHER OR NOT CAUSED BY OR RESULTING FROM THE NEGLIGENCE OF SUCH PARTY. As with any material, evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to specification is essential. Therefore, specific testing under actual conditions is recommended. Nothing contained in this Volume shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale, use, or reproduction, in connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or system, whether or not covered by letters patent, copyright, or trademark, and nothing contained in this Volume shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters patent, copyright, or trademark, or as a defense against liability for such infringement. Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are invited, and should be forwarded to ASM International. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data ASM International ASM Handbook Includes bibliographical references and indexes Contents: v.1. Properties and selection irons, steels, and high-performance alloys v.2. Properties and selection nonferrous alloys and special-purpose materials [etc.] v.23. Materials for Medical Devices 1. Metals Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Metal-work Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. ASM International. Handbook Committee. II. Metals Handbook. TA459.M SAN: ISBN-13: ISBN-10: ASM InternationalW Materials Park, OH Printed in the United States of America Foreword In this 100th anniversary year of ASM International, it is especially fitting to release ASM Handbook, Volume 4A, Steel Heat Treating Fundamentals and Processes. Since its 1913 origin as the Steel Treaters Club, formed by Detroit blacksmith William Park Woodside, ASM International has grown in scope; yet steel heat treating remains a core subject of the Society. Woodside s vision and recognition of the need to exchange information on steel heat treating are further recognized by many successful publications including the renowned Metals Handbook. The ASM Handbook (formerly Metals Handbook) series is being expanded into several volumes on heat treatment. This reflects the roots of ASM International, as well as the Heat Treating Society (An Affiliate Society of ASM International) with its ongoing member contributions in the field of heat treating. ASM International and the Heat Treating Society extend a very special thanks to George E. Totten and Jon Dossett as Volume Editors. Their initiatives and contributions were instrumental in the development of this Volume. We are indebted to them and to the subject editors, authors, and reviewers for this publication. Thomas E. Clements President, Heat Treating Society Gernant E. Maurer President, ASM International Thomas S. Passek Managing Director, ASM International iii Policy on Units of Measure By a resolution of its Board of Trustees, ASM International has adopted the practice of publishing data in both metric and customary U.S. units of measure. In preparing this Handbook, the editors have attempted to present data in metric units based primarily on Système International d Unités (SI), with secondary mention of the corresponding values in customary U.S. units. The decision to use SI as the primary system of units was based on the aforementioned resolution of the Board of Trustees and the widespread use of metric units throughout the world. For the most part, numerical engineering data in the text and in tables are presented in SI-based units with the customary U.S. equivalents in parentheses (text) or adjoining columns (tables). For example, pressure, stress, and strength are shown both in SI units, which are pascals (Pa) with a suitable prefix, and in customary U.S. units, which are pounds per square inch (psi). To save space, large values of psi have been converted to kips per square inch (ksi), where 1 ksi = 1000 psi. The metric tonne (kg 10 3 ) has sometimes been shown in megagrams (Mg). Some strictly scientific data are presented in SI units only. To clarify some illustrations, only one set of units is presented on artwork. References in the accompanying text to data in the illustrations are presented in both SI-based and customary U.S. units. On graphs and charts, grids corresponding to SI-based units usually appear along the left and bottom edges. Where appropriate, corresponding customary U.S. units appear along the top and right edges. Data pertaining to a specification published by a specification-writing group may be given in only the units used in that specification or in dual units, depending on the nature of the data. For example, the typical yield strength of steel sheet made to a specification written in customary U.S. units would be presented in dual units, but the sheet thickness specified in that specification might be presented only in inches. Data obtained according to standardized test methods for which the standard recommends a particular system of units are presented in the units of that system. Wherever feasible, equivalent units are also presented. Some statistical data may also be presented in only the original units used in the analysis. Conversions and rounding have been done in accordance with IEEE/ ASTM SI-10, with attention given to the number of significant digits in the original data. For example, an annealing temperature of 1570 F contains three significant digits. In this case, the equivalent temperature would be given as 855 C; the exact conversion to C would not be appropriate. For an invariant physical phenomenon that occurs at a precise temperature (such as the melting of pure silver), it would be appropriate to report the temperature as C or F. In some instances (especially in tables and data compilations), temperature values in C and F are alternatives rather than conversions. The policy of units of measure in this Handbook contains several exceptions to strict conformance to IEEE/ASTM SI-10; in each instance, the exception has been made in an effort to improve the clarity of the Handbook. The most notable exception is the use of g/cm 3 rather than kg/m 3 as the unit of measure for density (mass per unit volume). SI practice requires that only one virgule (diagonal) appear in units formed by combination of several basic units. Therefore, all of the units preceding the virgule are in the numerator and all units following the virgule are in the denominator of the expression; no parentheses are required to prevent ambiguity. iv Officers and Trustees of ASM International ( ) Gernant E. Maurer President Carpenter Technology Corporation C. Ravi Ravindran Vice President Ryerson University Christopher C. Berndt Immediate Past President Swinburne University of Technology Thomas Passek Managing Director ASM International Robert Fulton Treasurer Hoeganaes Corporation (Retired) Iver Anderson Ames Laboratory Mitchell Dorfman Sulzer Metco (US), Inc. Diana Essock Metamark Inc. James C. Foley Los Alamos National Laboratory David U. Furrer Pratt & Whitney Jeffrey A. Hawk National Energy Technology Laboratory William J. Lenling Thermal Spray Technologies Inc. Members of the ASM Handbook Committee ( ) Vilupanur A. Ravi California State Polytechnic University Linda S. Schadler Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Student Board Members Jennifer L. Breidenich Georgia Institute of Technology Gregory A. Vetterick Drexel University Blake Whitley The University of Alabama Joseph W. Newkirk Chair 2012 Member 2005 Missouri University of Science & Technology George Vander Voort Vice Chair 2012 Member 1997 Vander Voort Consulting Craig D. Clauser Immediate Past Chair Member 2005 Craig Clauser Engineering Consulting Jeffrey A. Hawk Board Liaison and Member Member 1997 U.S. Department of Energy David E. Alman (2011 ) National Energy Technology Laboratory Scott W. Beckwith (2010 ) BTG Composites Inc. Rodney R. Boyer (2010 ) Sarup K. Chopra (2007 ) Consultant Narenra B. Dahotre (2012 ) University of North Texas Craig V. Darragh (1989 ) The Timken Company (Retired) Jon L. Dossett (2006 ) Consultant Alan P. Druschitz (2009 ) Virginia Tech Donald E. Duvall (2010 ) Engineering Systems Inc. Gerald S. Frankel (2010 ) Ohio State University Larry D. Hanke (1994 ) Materials Evaluation and Engineering Inc. Paul D. Jablonski (2011 ) U.S. Department of Energy Kent L. Johnson (1999 ) Applied Materials Technology Inc. Kang N. Lee (2010 ) Rolls Royce Corporation Brett A. Miller (2011 ) IMR Metallurgical Services Dale Newbury (2010 ) National Institute of Standards Toby V. Padfield (2004 ) ZF Sachs Automotive of America Thomas E. Prucha (2010 ) American Foundry Society Elwin L. Rooy (2010 ) Elwin Rooy & Associates Prasan K. Samal (2010 ) North American Höganäs Roch J. Shipley (2012 ) Professional Analysis Consulting Inc. Jeffery S. Smith (2009 ) Material Processing Technology Jaimie S. Tiley (2012 ) US Air Force Research Lab George E. Totten (2012 ) G.E. Totten & Associates Michael K. West (2008 ) South Dakota School of Mines And Technology Charles V. White (2011 ) Kettering University Chairs of the ASM Handbook Committee J.F. Harper ( ) (Member ) W.J. Merten ( ) (Member ) L.B. Case ( ) (Member ) C.H. Herty, Jr. ( ) (Member ) J.P. Gill (1937) (Member ) R.L. Dowdell ( ) (Member ) G.V. Luerssen ( ) (Member ) J.B. Johnson ( ) (Member ) E.O. Dixon ( ) (Member ) N.E. Promisel ( ) (Member ) R.W.E. Leiter ( ) (Member , ) D.J. Wright ( ) (Member ) J.D. Graham ( ) (Member ) W.A. Stadtler ( ) (Member ) G.J. Shubat ( ) (Member ) R. Ward ( ) (Member ) G.N. Maniar ( ) (Member ) M.G.H. Wells (1981) (Member ) J.L. McCall (1982) (Member ) L.J. Korb (1983) (Member ) T.D. Cooper ( ) (Member ) D.D. Huffman ( ) (Member ) D.L. Olson ( ) (Member , ) R.J. Austin ( ) (Member ) W.L. Mankins ( ) (Member 1989 ) M.M. Gauthier ( ) (Member ) C.V. Darragh ( ) (Member 1989 ) Henry E. Fairman ( ) (Member ) Jeffrey A. Hawk ( ) (Member 1997 ) Larry D. Hanke ( ) (Member 1994 ) Kent L. Johnson ( ) (Member 1999 ) Craig D. Clauser ( )( Member 2005 ) Joseph W. Newkirk (2012 ) (Member 2005 ) v Preface The ASM Handbook, Volume 4A, Steel Heat Treating Fundamentals and Processes, represents the first of several Volumes to be published on heat treating. As indicated in the title, Volume 4A focuses on the fundamental aspects of steel heat treating and the many processes of steel heat treating. The Volume 4B, planned for future publication, will cover the heat treating and behavior of the many types of steels and cast irons. As with the last edition of this Volume, the Volume Editors recognized that the researchers, engineers, technicians and students that will use this Volume 4A have different needs with regard to their level of understanding. Articles on the fundamentals provide in-depth background on the scientific principles associated with steel heat treatment, while articles on the various heat treating processes take a more practical approach. The Volume Editors have also tried to present a comprehensive reference that can be of use to the diverse heat treating community. All sections of this Volume have been reviewed to be sure that they reflect the current status of the technology. Many sections have been expanded, such as the sections on fundamentals and processing methods for carburizing and nitriding of steels. Coverage on the hardenability of steels is expanded, and several new articles have been added on quenching fundamentals and processes. Updates have been done as appropriate, and efforts were taken to include charts, examples, and reference information from the substantive archives of the Society and its predecessors the American Society for Metals, and the American Society for Steel Treating. This Volume is especially fitting in the 100th anniversary year of ASM International. We wish to thank our many colleagues who served as editors and authors of the individual articles. In particular, the editors also are indebted to the Heat Treating Society (An Affiliate Society of ASM International) and its members, which give the foundation for this publication and other events, conferences, and educational programs. This Volume would not have been possible without their efforts. Jon Dossett George Totten vi List of Contributors and Reviewers A.B. Ahmed McMaster University Toru (Tohru) Arai Consultant Michael A. Aronov IQ Technologies, Inc Manfred Behnke NÜSSLE GmbH & Co.KG William J. Bernard, III Surface Combustion, Inc. Volker Block Saarstahl AG, Germany Rainer Braun NÜSSLE GmbH & Co.KG Anja Buchwalder Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg Eckhard H. Burgdorf NÜSSLE GmbH & Co.KG Lauralice de C. F. Canale University of São Paulo Charles Caristan Airliquide Madhu Chatterjee Bodycote Brigitte Clausen Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik, Bremen Rafael Colás Universidad Autónoma De Nuevo León James Conybear Metlab Narendra B. Dahotre University of North Texas Craig Darragh The Timken Company (Retired) S. Dilip Fluidtherm Jon Dossett Consultant Edward (Derry) Doyle RMIT University Kevin M. Duffy The Duffy Co. Bernd Edenhofer Ipsen Industries International GmbH (retired) Jan Elwart Bodycote European Holdings GmbH Imre Felde University of Óbuda Allen J. Fuller Jr. Amsted Rail Company, Inc. Kiyoshi Funatani IMST Institute (Consultant) Weimin Gao Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University Winfried Gräfen Hanomag Härtol Gommern Lohnhärterei GmbH, Germany Robert J. Gaster Deere & Company Jianfeng Gu Shanghai Jiao Tong University David Guisbert QA Metallurgical Services LLC M.S. Hamed McMaster University Larry Hanke Materials Evaluation and Engineering, Inc. Volker Heuer ALD Vacuum Technologies Gmbh Peter Hodgson Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University Franz Hoffmann IWT Bremen Ralph Hunger Bodycote European Holdings GmbH Peter Hushek Phoenix Heat Treating Michael Ives Park Metallurgical Corporation Scott Johnston Caterpillar J. Kalucki Nitrex Metal Inc Guldem Kartal Istanbul Technical University Gary D. Keil Caterpillar Inc. John R. Keough Applied Process Inc. Matthew T. Kiser Caterpillar Inc Nikolai Kobasko IQ Technologies, Inc Lingxue Kong Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University Maciej Korecki SECO/WARWICK Corporation Jim Laird Consultant B. Liščić University of Zagreb Thomas Luebben IWT Bremen Xinmin Luo Jiangsu University D. Scott MacKenzie Houghton International Jim Malloy Kolene Corp. Mohammed Maniruzzaman Caterpillar Inc Božidar Matijević Quenching Research Centre Dan McCurdy Bodycote L.L. Meekisho Portland State University E.J. Mittemeijer Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (formerly Max Planck Institute for Metals Research) B. Hernández-Morales Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Aaron Muhlenkamp The Timken Company vii Fahrettin Ozturk Nigde University George Pantazopoulos ELKEME Hellenic Research Centre for Metals S.A. Renata Neves Penha Universidade de São Paulo Joseph A. Powell IQ Technologies, Inc Narayan Prabhu National Institute of Technology, India Mark Ratliff Avion Manufacturing Arthur Reardon The Gleason Works Thomas Risbeck The Timken Company Barbara Rivolta Politecnico di Milano (Polytechnic Institute Milan) Olga K. Rowan Caterpillar Inc. Valery Rudnev Inductoheat Incorporated Satyam S. Sahay John Deere Asia Technology Innovation Center S. Santhanakrishnan Indian Institute of Technology Madras Peter Schiefer Ford-Werke GmbH Michael J. Schneider The Timken Company Juyan Shi Taiyuan University of Technology Mark Sirrine Flame Treating Systems Saša Singer University of Zagreb Richard D. Sisson Jr. Worcester Polytechnic Institute Marcel Somers Technical University of Denmark John G. Speer Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines Heinz-Joachim Spies Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg Bill Stofey National Polymer Laboratories and Development Co. George E. Totten Portland State University Eva Troell Swerea IVF AB André Tschiptschin Universidade de São Paulo David Van Aken Missouri State Univ. Jan Vatavuk Presbiterian University Mackenzie Li Wang Automotive Steel Research Institute, R&D Center Dale Weires Boeing K.M. Winter Process-Electronic GmbH Roger Wright Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (retired) Rolf Zenker Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg Craig Zimmerman Bluewater Thermal Solutions Tim Zwirlein Caterpillar viii Contents Introduction to Steel Heat Treating Introduction to Steel Heat Treatment Introduction... 3 Constitution of Iron Phases of Heat Treated Steel Transformation Diagrams Isothermal Transformation Diagrams Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagrams Thermal and Residual Stresses Hardness and Hardenability of Steels Introduction Jominy End-Quench Testing Quench Severity in Hardenability Evaluation Ideal Critical Diameter Hardenability Correlation Curves Other Hardenability Tests Jominy Equivalence Charts Determining Hardenability Requirements Factors Affecting Hardenability Variability in Jominy Data Sets Calculation of Steel Hardenability Steel Selection for Hardenability Hardenability Limits and H-Steels H-Steels Classified by Hardness at End-Quench Positions Hardenability Calculation of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels with Low or Medium Carbon Introduction Principles of Computational Hardenability Modeling Approaches to Hardenabi
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