ASM Handbook Volume 15: Casting (#05115G)

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ASM Handbook W Volume 15 Casting Prepared under the direction of the ASM International Handbook Committee Editorial Committee Srinath Viswanathan, University of Alabama, Chair Diran Apelian, Worcester
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ASM Handbook W Volume 15 Casting Prepared under the direction of the ASM International Handbook Committee Editorial Committee Srinath Viswanathan, University of Alabama, Chair Diran Apelian, Worcester Polytechnic Institute Raymond J. Donahue, Mercury Marine Babu DasGupta, National Science Foundation Michael Gywn, ATI Inc John L. Jorstad, J.L.J. Technologies, Inc Raymond W. Monroe, Steel Founders Society of America Mahi Sahoo, CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory Thomas E. Prucha, American Foundry Society Daniel Twarog, North American Die Casting Association Steve Lampman, Project Editor Charles Moosbrugger, Editor Eileen DeGuire, Editor Madrid Tramble, Senior Production Coordinator Ann Britton, Editorial Assistant Diane Whitelaw, Production Coordinator Kathryn Muldoon, Production Assistant Scott D. Henry, Senior Product Manager Bonnie R. Sanders, Manager of Production Editorial Assistance Elizabeth Marquard Heather Lampman WPR Indexing Service Materials Park, Ohio Copyright # 2008 by ASM International W All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the copyright owner. First printing, December 2008 This book is a collective effort involving hundreds of technical specialists. It brings together a wealth of information from worldwide sources to help scientists, engineers, and technicians solve current and long-range problems. Great care is taken in the compilation and production of this Volume, but it should be made clear that NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE GIVEN IN CONNECTION WITH THIS PUBLICATION. Although this information is believed to be accurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication is intended for use by persons having technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use are outside of ASM s control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this information. No claim of any kind, whether as to products or information in this publication, and whether or not based on negligence, shall be greater in amount than the purchase price of this product or publication in respect of which damages are claimed. THE REMEDY HEREBY PROVIDED SHALL BE THE EXCLUSIVE AND SOLE REMEDY OF BUYER, AND IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIABLE FOR SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHETHER OR NOT CAUSED BY OR RESULTING FROM THE NEGLIGENCE OF SUCH PARTY. As with any material, evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to specification is essential. Therefore, specific testing under actual conditions is recommended. Nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale, use, or reproduction, in connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or system, whether or not covered by letters patent, copyright, or trademark, and nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters patent, copyright, or trademark, or as a defense against liability for such infringement. Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are invited, and should be forwarded to ASM International. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data ASM International ASM Handbook Includes bibliographical references and indexes Contents: v.1. Properties and selection irons, steels, and high-performance alloys v.2. Properties and selection nonferrous alloys and special-purpose materials [etc.] v.21. Composites 1. Metals Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Metal-work Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. ASM International. Handbook Committee. II. Metals Handbook. TA459.M SAN: ISBN-13: ISBN-10: X ASM International W Materials Park, OH Printed in the United States of America Multiple copy reprints of individual articles are available from Technical Department, ASM International. Dedicated to the memory of JOSEPH R. DAVIS ( ) Editor, Metals Handbook, Foreword In this revision of ASM Handbook W Volume 15 on casting, ASM International is indebted to the volunteer efforts of the Volume 15 Editorial Committee and over 150 participants who helped as authors or reviewers. Their professional commitment and efforts represent a continuing devotion to the practice of metalcasting and the publication of peer consensus information on it. Special thanks are extended to Srinath Viswanathan, University of Alabama, for recruiting an outstanding Editorial Committee with Diran Apelian, Worcester Polytechnic Institute; Babu DasGupta, National Science Foundation, Raymond J. Donahue, Mercury Marine; Michael Gywn, ATI Inc.; John L. Jorstad, J.L.J. Technologies, Inc.; Raymond W. Monroe, Steel Founders Society of America; Thomas E. Prucha, American Foundry Society; Kumar Sadayappan and Mahi Sahoo, CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory; Edward S. Szekeres, Casting Consultants Incorporated; and Daniel Twarog, North American Die Casting Association. We thank them and the other contributors for this publication. Dianne Chong President ASM International Stanley C. Theobald Managing Director ASM International iv Policy on Units of Measure By a resolution of its Board of Trustees, ASM International has adopted the practice of publishing data in both metric and customary U.S. units of measure. In preparing this Handbook, the editors have attempted to present data in metric units based primarily on Système International d Unités (SI), with secondary mention of the corresponding values in customary U.S. units. The decision to use SI as the primary system of units was based on the aforementioned resolution of the Board of Trustees and the widespread use of metric units throughout the world. For the most part, numerical engineering data in the text and in tables are presented in SI-based units with the customary U.S. equivalents in parentheses (text) or adjoining columns (tables). For example, pressure, stress, and strength are shown both in SI units, which are pascals (Pa) with a suitable prefix, and in customary U.S. units, which are pounds per square inch (psi). To save space, large values of psi have been converted to kips per square inch (ksi), where 1 ksi = 1000 psi. The metric tonne (kg 10 3 ) has sometimes been shown in megagrams (Mg). Some strictly scientific data are presented in SI units only. To clarify some illustrations, only one set of units is presented on artwork. References in the accompanying text to data in the illustrations are presented in both SI-based and customary U.S. units. On graphs and charts, grids corresponding to SI-based units usually appear along the left and bottom edges. Where appropriate, corresponding customary U.S. units appear along the top and right edges. Data pertaining to a specification published by a specification-writing group may be given in only the units used in that specification or in dual units, depending on the nature of the data. For example, the typical yield strength of steel sheet made to a specification written in customary U.S. units would be presented in dual units, but the sheet thickness specified that specification might be presented only in inches. Data obtained according to standardized test methods for which the standard recommends a particular system of units are presented in the units of that system. Wherever feasible, equivalent units are also presented. Some statistical data may also be presented in only the original units used in the analysis. Conversions and rounding have been done in accordance with IEE/ ASTM SI-10, with attention given to the number of significant digits in the original data. For example, an annealing temperature of 1570 F contains three significant digits. In this case, the equivalent temperature would be given as 855 C; the exact conversion to C would not be appropriate. For an invariant physical phenomenon that occurs at a precise temperature (such as the melting of pure silver), it would be appropriate to report the temperature as C or F. In some instances (especially in tables and data compilations), temperature values in C and F are alternatives rather than conversions. The policy of units of measure in this Handbook contains several exceptions to strict conformance to IEEE/ASTM SI-10; in each instance, the exception has been made in an effort to improve the clarity of the Handbook. The most notable exception is the use of g/cm 3 rather than kg/m 3 as the unit of measure for density (mass per unit volume). SI practice requires that only one virgule (diagonal) appear in units formed by combination of several basic units. Therefore, all of the units preceding the virgule are in the numerator and all units following the virgule are in the denominator of the expression; no parentheses are required to prevent ambiguity. v Preface From the preceding Volume 5 (1970) of the 8 th Edition Metals Handbook and the 9 th Edition Metals Handbook Volume 15 (1988) on casting, this Handbook provides an update on the continuing advances in casting technologies and applications. Casting, as both a science and practical tool in art and technology, is enormously varied in scope. It is impossible to capture the full scope of casting technology in one volume. The main focus of this Volume is on the products and processes of foundry (shape) casting, although primary (ingot or continuous casting) of steel and aluminum are also covered. In addition, continuous casting of copper is described in an article, as copper continuous casting was a precursor to steel and aluminum continuous casting in some respects. Some of the articles on melt processing, such as the articles on Electric Arc Furnace Melting and Steel Melt Processing, also briefly describe primary production of cast metal. Shape casting of metal is dominated by cast iron, which constitutes just over 70% of the worldwide production of castings on a tonnage basis (See Table 2 in the first article History and Trends of Metal Casting ). This is followed by steel, copper-alloy, and aluminum-alloy castings, which make up about 25% on the worldwide tonnage of casting production. Magnesium and zinc are on the order of 1% or less. The dominance of just a few alloys in shape casting is due to the fact that successful and economic shape casting typically involves alloy compositions near a eutectic. The lower melting points and narrower freezing range of near-eutectic compositions promote better castability. Since the 1988 edition of Volume15, several developments have occurred (see Table 5 in the first article History and Trends of Metal Casting ). Of these developments, computer technology continues to shorten development time and help simulate the casting process. Automation and robotic technology also has improved the productivity and process control of casting. In terms of processes, semisolid processing, squeeze casting, lost-foam, vacuum molding, and various dies casting technologies continue to improve and finds new applications. These important topics are updated in this Volume. For nonferrous alloys, high-pressure die casting of aluminum is a major area of expansion and update in this volume. In addition, coverage on sand casting is expanded and consolidated in this Volume with major articles on Green Sand Molding, No-Bake Sand Molding, and Shell Molding and Shell Coremaking. Bonded sand mold casting, although well-established for many years, is the most widely used method of casting on a tonnage basis. Improvement in methods and materials continue to provide better yields, productivity, and product quality. The sand system is also a major factor in the economics of large-volume, production casting. Coverage on sand casting is expanded relative to the previous edition with the intention of providing a reference that may be helpful as a communication tool between product designers and metalcasters in developing successful and economical products. This Volume consists of 18 sections. The first section introduces the historical development of metal casting, as well as to the advantages of castings over parts produced by other manufacturing processes, their applications, and the current market size of the industry. This includes an article on Metalcasting Technology and the Purchasing Process written by Al Spada and the technical staff of the American Foundry Society. Then, the principles and practice of melt processing are described in the next three sections followed by a section on principles of solidification including nucleation kinetics, fundamentals of growth, transformation behavior, and microstructure development. Solid-state processing of casting, such as heat treat treatment and hot isostatic pressing, are also introduced. This is followed by a section on the Modeling and Analysis of Casting Processes. Like the previous edition, traditional subjects such as patterns, molding and casting processes, foundry equipment, and processing considerations are extensively covered in the next sections. As noted, coverage on sand casting has been consolidated and expanded. For example, the major method of shell molding is described in an article based on an update of a still largely valid 1970 handbook (Volume 5) article. New updates are also provided on processes growing in use, such as squeeze casting, lost-foam casting, semisolid metal forming, and low-pressure casting. The latter is particularly important in producing quality products, as described by John Campbell in the article Filling and Feeding Concepts. Finally, the last five sections describe the major types of cast alloys in term of processing and the properties and characteristics of cast ferrous and nonferrous alloys. Emphasis is placed on cast iron, cast steel, aluminum, copper, and zinc. The last section covers the quality aspects of cast products and the processing of castings. It is hoped that this Handbook is a useful work of peer-consensus reference information for the producers, designers, and buyers of castings. Many thanks are extended to all the contributors and the editors who worked on this Volume. This publication would not have been possible without their commitment and effort. Srinath Viswanathan University of Alabama Chair, Volume 15 Editorial Committee vi Officers and Trustees of ASM International ( ) Dianne Chong President and Trustee The Boeing Company Roger J. Fabian Vice President and Trustee Bodycote Thermal Processing Lawrence C. Wagner Immediate Past President and Trustee Texas Instruments Inc (retired) Paul L. Huber Treasurer and Trustee Seco/Warwick Corporation Stanley C. Theobald Secretary and Managing Director ASM International Trustees Sue S. Baik-Kromalic Honda of America Christopher C. Berndt Swinburne University of Technology Brady G. Butler University of Utah Danniel P. Dennies The Boeing Company Leigh C. Duren Worcester Polytechnic Institute Pradeep Goyal Pradeep Metals Ltd. Digby D. Macdonald Penn State University Subhash Mahajan Arizona State University Charles A. Parker Honeywell Aerospace Megan M. Reynolds Washington State University Mark F. Smith Sandia National Laboratories Jon D. Tirpak ATI Members of the ASM Handbook Committee ( ) Larry D. Hanke (Chair 2006 ; Member 1994 ) Materials Evaluation and Engineering Inc. Kent L. Johnson (Vice Chair 2006 ; Member 1999 ) Engineering Systems Inc. Viola L. Acoff (2005 ) University of Alabama David E. Alman ( ) National Energy Technology Laboratory Tim Cheek (2004 ) DELTA (v) Forensic Engineering Lichun Leigh Chen (2002 ) Technical Materials Incorporated Sarup K. Chopra (2007 ) Nook Industries Craig Clauser (2005 ) Craig Clauser Engineering Consulting Incorporated Craig V. Darragh (1989 ) The Timken Company Jon L. Dossett (2006 ) Consultant David U. Furrer (2006 ) Rolls-Royce Corporation Lee Gearhart ( ) Moog Inc. Ernest W. Klechka (2006 ) Lloyd Register Capstone Inc. Alan T. Male (2003 ) University of Kentucky William L. Mankins (1989 ) Metallurgical Services Inc. Dana J. Medlin ( ) South Dakota School of Mines and Technology Joseph W. Newkirk (2005 ) University of Missouri-Rolla Cory J. Padfield (2006 ) Hyundai America Technical Center Inc. Chairs of the ASM Handbook Committee Toby V. Padfield (2004 ) ZF Sachs Automotive of America Charles A. Parker (2007 ) Honeywell Aerospace Elwin L. Rooy (2007 ) Elwin Rooy & Associates Karl P. Staudhammer (1997 ) Los Alamos National Laboratory Kenneth B. Tator (1991 ) KTA-Tator Inc. George F. Vander Voort (1997 ) Buehler Ltd. J.F. Harper ( ) (Member ) W.J. Merten ( ) (Member ) L.B. Case ( ) (Member ) C.H. Herty, Jr. ( ) (Member ) J.P. Gill (1937) (Member ) R.L. Dowdell ( ) (Member ) G.V. Luerssen ( ) (Member ) J.B. Johnson ( ) (Member ) E.O. Dixon ( ) (Member ) N.E. Promisel ( ) (Member ) R.W.E. Leiter ( ) (Member , ) D.J. Wright ( ) (Member ) J.D. Graham ( ) (Member ) W.A. Stadtler ( ) (Member ) G.J. Shubat ( ) (Member ) R. Ward ( ) (Member ) G.N. Maniar ( ) (Member ) M.G.H. Wells (1981) (Member ) J.L. McCall (1982) (Member ) L.J. Korb (1983) (Member ) T.D. Cooper ( ) (Member ) D.D. Huffman ( ) (Member 1982 ) D.L. Olson ( ) (Member , ) R.J. Austin ( ) (Member ) W.L. Mankins ( ) (Member 1989 ) M.M. Gauthier ( ) (Member ) C.V. Darragh ( ) (Member 1989 ) Henry E. Fairman ( ) (Member 1993 ) Jeffrey A. Hawk ( ) (Member 1997 ) Larry D. Hanke ( ) (Member 1994 ) vii Authors and Contributors Kevin R. Anderson Mercury Marine Princewill N. Anyalebechi Padnos College of Engineering & Computing, Grand Valley State University Diran Apelian Metal Processing Institute, Worcester Polytechnic Institute Lars Arnberg Norwegian University Of Science & Technology Henry Bakemeyer Die Casting Design and Consulting Bryan Baker Vulcan Engineering Co. Stewart A Ballantyne Allvac Allegheny Technologies Company Scott A. Balliett Latrobe Specialty Steel Company Christoph Beckermann University Of Iowa, The Michel Bellet Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre de Mise en Forme des Matériaux (CEMEF) Joe Bigelow CONTECH U. S. LLC. Ron Bird Stainless Foundry & Engineering Malcolm Blair Steel Founders Society of America William Boettinger NIST James A. Brock Sr. Alcoa Harold D. Brody University Of Connecticut Craig C. Brown Stork Technimet, Inc. Zach Brown CONTECH U.S. LLC Andreas Buhrig-Polackzek Gieberei-Institut, Germany Willam A. Butler General Motors (Retired) John Campbell University of Birmingham, UK Paul G Campbell Metaullics Systems Division Pyrotek, Inc. Robert D Carnahan Thixomat Inc. Sujoy Chaudhury Honeywell International, Inc. K. K. Chawla University of Alabama At Birmingham Leigh Chen Technical Materials Incorporated Yeou-Li Chu Ryobi Die Casting Craig D. Clauser Craig Clauser Engineering Consulting Incorporated Steve L. Cockroft The University of British Columbia Chris Cooper Vulcan Engineering Co. James D. Cotton The Boeing Co. Randall Counselman Oldenburg Group Incorporated Jonathan A. Dantzig University of Illinois-Urbana Atef Daoud Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Cairo, Egypt Craig V. Darragh The Timken Company Babu DasGupta National Science Foundation Bob Dawson Honeywell Aerospace MCOE Raymond Decker Thixomat Incorporated Raymond J Donahue Mercury Marine Daniel Dos Santos Gießerei Institut der RWTH Aachen Jon Dossett Metallurgical Consultant Jean Marie Drezet Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Alan P. Druschitz University of Alabama at Birmingham Cor van Ettinger Gieterij Doesburg Henry Ed Fairman Cincinnati Metallurgical Consultants Edward W. Flynn General Motors Jim Frost ACIPCO (American Cast Iron Pipe Company) Richard Fruehan Carnegie Mellon University Rafael Gallo Foseco Metallurgical Charles-André Gandin Centre de Mise en Forme des Matériaux (CEMEF) George Giles Morganite Crucible Inc Peter C. Glaws The Timken Company Martin E. Glick
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