ASM Handbook Vol 2 - Properties of Wrought Aluminum

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Properties of Wrought Aluminum
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  Properties of Wrought luminum and luminum lloys 1050 99 5 AI min Specifications ASTM. B 491 UNS number. A91050 Foreign. Canada: CSA 9950. France: NF A5. United Kingdom: BS lB. West Germa- ny: DIN A199.5 Chemical Composition Composition limits. 99.50 A1 min, 0.25 Si max, 0.40 Fe max, 0.05 Cu max, 0.05 Mn max, 0.05 Mg max, 0.05 V max, 0.03 max other (each) Applications Typical uses. Extruded coiled tube for equipment and containers for food, chemi- cal, and brewing industries; collapsible tubes; pyrotechnic powder echanical Properties Tensile properties. See Table 1. Mass haracteristics Density. 2.705 g/cm 3 (0.0977 ib/in. 3) at 20 °C (68 °F) Thermal Properties Liquidus temperature. 657 °C (1215 °F) Solidus temperature. 646 °C (1195 °F) Coefficient of thermal expansion. Linear: Temperature range I 1-- Average coefficient I 7 *C OF ~tm/m ã K p.in./in. ã oF --50 to 20 --58 to 68 ......... 21.8 12.1 20 to 100 68 to 212 ........ 23.6 13.1 20 to 200 68 to 392 ........ 24.5 13.6 20 to 300 68 to 572 ........ 25.5 14.2 Volumetric: 68.1 x 10 -6 m3/m 3 ã K (3.78 x 10 -5 in.3/in. 3 ã OF) Specific heat. 900 J/kg. K (0.215 Btu/lb ã °F) at 20 °C (68 °F) Thermal conductivity. 0 temper, 231 W/m ã K (133 Btu/ft ã h ã °F) at 20 °C (68 °F) Electrical Properties Electrical conductivity. Volumetric. O tem- per, 61.3% IACS at 20 °C (68 °F) Electrical resistivity. 0 temper: 28.1 nO ã m at 20 °C (68 °F); temperature coefficient, 0.1 nO ã m per K at 20 °C (68 °F) 1060 99 60 AI min Specifications AMS. Sheet and plate: 4000 ASME. See Table 2. ASTM. See Table 2. SAC. J454 UNS number. A91060 Chemical Composition Composition limits. 99.60 AI min, 0.25 Si max, 0.35 Fe max, 0.05 Cu max, 0.03 Mn max, 0.03 Mg max, 0.05 Zn max, 0.05 V max, 0.03 Ti max, 0.03 max other (each) Applications Typical uses. Applications requiring very good resistance to corrosion and good form- ability, but tolerate low strength. Chemical process equipment is typical. echanical Properties Tensile properties. See Tables 3 and 4. Hardness. See Table 3. Poisson s ratio. 0.33 at 20 °C (68 °F) Elastic modulus. Tension, 69 GPa (10 x 106 psi) Table 1 Typical mechanical properties of 1 5 aluminum Tensile strength Yield strength Elongation, Shear strength Temper MPa ksi MPa ksi % MPa ksi O .................... 76 11 28 4 39 62 9 H14 .................. 110 16 103 15 10 69 10 H16 .................. 131 19 124 18 8 76 11 HI8 .................. 159 23 145 21 7 83 12 Fatigue strength. See Table 3. Mass haracteristics Density. 2.705 g/cm 3 (0.0977 lb/in. 3) at 20 °C (68 °F) Thermal Properties Liquidus temperature. 657 °C (1215 °F) Solidus temperature. 646 °C (1195 °F) Coefficient of thermal expansion. Linear: Temperature range [ ~-- Average coefficient -I I C F ixm/m ã K pin./in. ã F -50 to 20 -58 to 68 ......... 21.8 12.1 20 to 100 68 to 212 ........ 23.6 13.1 20 to 200 68 to 392 ........ 24.5 13.6 20 to 300 68 to 572 ........ 25.5 14.1 Volumetric: 68 x 10 -6 m3/m 3 ã K (3.8 x 10 -5 in.3/in. 3 ã °F) Specific heat. 900 J/kg K (0.215 Btu/lb ã °F) at 20 °C (68 °F) Thermal conductivity. 234 W/m ã K (135 Btu/ft ã h ã °F) at 25 °C (77 °F) Electrical Properties Electrical conductivity. Volumetric at 20 °C (68 °F): O temper, 62% IACS: H18 temper, 61% IACS Electrical resistivity. At 20 °C (68 °F): O temper, 27.8 nil ã m; H18 temper, 28.3 nl-I ã m. Temperature coefficient, O and HI8 tempers, 0.1 nll ã m per K at 20 °C (68 °F) Electrolytic solution potential. -0.84 V ver- sus 0.1 N calomel electrode in aqueous Table 2 ASME and ASTM specifications for 1 6 aluminum Specification number Mill form and condition ASME ASTM Sheet and plate ................ SB209 B 209 Wire, rod, and bar (rolled or cold finished) ..................... ã ã ã B 211 Wire, rod, bar, shapes, and tube (extruded) ................... SB221 B 221 Pipe (gas and oil transmission)... ã . ã B 345 Tube (condenser) ............... SB234 B 234 Tube (condenser with integral fins) ........................ ã ã ã B 404 Tube (drawn) .................. ã ã ã B 483 Tube (drawn, seamless) ......... SB210 B 210 Tube (extruded, seamless) ....... SB241 B 241 ASM Handbook, Volume 2: Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials ASM Handbook Committee, p 62-122 DOI: 10.1361/asmhba000 1060 Copyright © 19 90 ASM International® All rights reserved. www.asminternational.org  Properties of Wrought Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys / 63 Table 3 Typical mechanical properties of 1060 aluminum Tensile Yield Shear strength strength Elongation(a), Hardness, strength Fatigue limit(c) Temper MPa ksi MPa ksi % HBID) MPa ksi MPa ksi O ................ 69 10 28 4 43 19 48 7 21 3 HI2 ............. 83 12 76 11 16 23 55 8 28 4 H14 ............. 97 14 90 13 12 26 62 9 34 5 H16 ............. 110 16 103 15 8 30 69 10 45 6.5 H18 ............. 131 19 124 18 6 35 76 11 45 6.5 (a) l.6 mm (~6in.)thick specimens.(b) 500kgload;10 mm diam ball.(c) At5 × 10 cycles; R.R. Moore type test Table 4 Tensile-property limits for 1060 aluminum I Tensile strength ] Yield strength Elongation Minimum Maximum (min), Temper MPa ksi MPa ksi M[~p (ann) ~ %(a) Sheet and plate O ............................. 55 8.0 H12 ........................... 75 11.0 HI4 ........................... 83 12.0 H18 ........................... 110 16.0 HII2 0.250-0.499 in. thick .......... 75 11.0 0.500-1.000 in. thick .......... 70 10.0 1.001-3.000 in. thick .......... 62 9.0 Drawn tube (0.010-0.500 in. wall thickness) O ............................. 58 8.5 HI2 ........................... 70 10.0 HI4 ........................... 83 12.0 HI8 ........................... 110 16.0 HI12 .......................... 58 8.5 Extruded tube O ............................. 58 8.5 HlI2 .......................... 58 8.5 Heat-exchanger tube (0.010-0.200 in. wall thickness) HI4 ........................... 83 12.0 95 110 115 14.0 16.0 17.0 17 2.5 15-25 62 9.0 6-12 70 10.0 1-10 83 12.0 1-4 ...... 10 ...... 20 ...... 25 17 2.5 28 4.0 70 10.0 90 13.0 17 2.5 95 14.0 17 2.5 95(b) 14.0(b) 17 2.5 70 10.0 30(b) (a) In 50 mm (2 in.) or 4d, where d is diameter of reduced section of tensile test specimen. Where a range of values appears in this column, specified minimum elongation varies with thickness of the mill product. (b) Applicable only to tube 25.4 to 114.3 mm (1.0~X) to 4.51)0 in.) diam by 1.27 to 4.29 mm (0.050 to 0.169 in.) wall thickness Table 5 Standard specifications for 1100 aluminum [ Specification number I Mill form and condition AMS ASME ASTM Government Sheet and plate ............................. 4001, 4003 Wire, rod, and bar (rolled or cold finished) ..... 4102 Wire, rod, bar, shapes, and tube (extruded) .... ã - ã Tube (extruded, seamless) ................... . ã . Tube (extruded, coiled) ...................... - - - Tube (drawn) ............................... . . . Tube (drawn, seamless) ...................... 4062 Tube (welded) .............................. ã ã ã Rivet wire and rod .......................... . ã . Spray gun wire ............................. 4180 Forgings and forging stock ................... ã ã ã Welding rod and electrodes (bare) ...... ~ ..... ã ã ã Impacts .................................... . ã - Foil ....................................... . ã . SB209 SB221 SB241 B 209 QQ-A-250/I B 211 QQ-A-225/1 B 221 ... B 241 ... B 491 ... B 483 ... B 210 WW-T-700/I B313, B547 ..- B 316 QQ-A-430 ..- MIL-W-6712 B 247 ... ã .. QQ-R-566, MIL-E-16053 ... M1L-A-12545 ..- QQ-A-1876 solution containing 53 g NaC1 plus 3 g H202 per liter Fabrication Characteristics Annealing temperature. 345 °C (650 °F) 1100 99.00AI min)-0.12Cu Commercial Names Common name. Aluminum Specifications AMS. See Table 5. ASME. See Table 5. ASTM. See Table 5. SAE. J454 UNS number. A91100 Government. See Table 5. Foreign. Canada: CSA 990C. France: NF A45. ISO: A199.0Cu hemical omposition Composition limits. 99.00 A1 min, 1.0 Si max + Fe, 0.05 to 0.20 Cu, 0.05 Mn max, 0.10 Zn max, 0.05 max other (each), 0.15 max others (total), 0.0008 Be max (welding electrode and filler wire only) Applications Typical uses. Applications requiring good formability and high resistance to corrosion where high strength is not necessary. Food and chemical handling and storage equip- ment, sheet metal work, drawn or spun hollowware, welded assemblies, heat ex- changers, litho plate, nameplates, light re- flectors Mechanical Properties Tensile properties. See Tables 6, 7, and 8. Hardness. See Table 6. Poisson s ratio. 0.33 at 20 °C (68 °F) Elastic modulus. Tension, 69 GPa (10 x 106 psi); shear, 26 GPa (3.75 x 106 psi) Mass Characteristics Density. 2.71 g/cm 3 (0.098 lb/in. 3) at 20 °C (68 °F) Thermal Properties Liquidus temperature. 657 °C (1215 °F) Solidus temperature. 643 °C (1190 °F) Coefficient of thermal expansion. Linear: Table 6 Typical room-temperature mechanical properties of 1100 aluminum 1~ Elongation, % Tensile Yield /16 in. 1/2 in. Shear Fatigue strength strength thick thick Hardness, strength limit(h) Temper MPa ksi MPa ksi specimens specimens HB(a) MPa ksi MPa ksi O ............ 90 13 34 5 35 45 23 62 9 34 5 H12 .......... 110 16 103 15 12 25 28 69 10 41 6 H14 .......... 124 18 117 17 9 20 32 76 11 48 7 H16 .......... 145 21 138 20 6 17 38 83 12 62 9 H18 .......... 165 24 152 22 5 15 44 90 13 62 9 (a) 500kgload;10 mm ball.(b) At5 z 10 cycles; R.R. Moore type test Temperature range I F Average coefficient *C *F '~tm/m ã K Itin./in. vF -50 to 20 -58 to 68 ......... 21.8 12.1 20 to 100 68 to 212 ........ 23.6 13.1 20 to 200 68 to 392 ........ 24.5 13.6 20 to 300 68 to 572 ........ 25.5 14.1 Volumetric: 68 x 10 6 m3/m 3 . K (3.8 x 10 -5 in.3/in. 3 . OF) Specific heat. 904 J/kg- K (0.216 Btu/lb - °F) at 20 °C (68 °F) Thermal conductivity. 0 temper, 222 W/m ã  64 / Specific Metals and Alloys Table 7 Tensile property limits for 1100 aluminum Temper I Tensile strength [ Minimum Maximum MPa ksi MPa ksi Yield strength (min) MPa ksi Elongation (min), (a) Sheet and plate O ............................. 75 11.0 H12 ........................... 95 14.0 HI4 ........................... 110 16.0 H16 ........................... 130 19.0 H18 ........................... 150 22.0 H112 0.250-0.499 in. thick .......... 90 13.0 0.500-2.000 in. thick .......... 83 12.0 2.001-3.000 in. thick .......... 80 11.5 Wire, rod, and bar (rolled or cold finished) O ............................. 75 11.0 H112 .......................... 75 11.0 Hl2(b) ........................ 95 14.0 Hl4(b) ........................ 110 16.0 HI6(b) ........................ 130 19.0 Hl8(b) ........................ 150 22.0 Wire, rod, bar, and shapes (extruded) O ............................. 75 11.0 H112 .......................... 75 11.0 Wire and red(rivet and cold heading grade) O(c) .......................... - ..... Hl4(c) .......................... ll0 16.0 Drawn tube(0.014to0.500in, wall thkkness) O ............................. - ..... H12 ........................... 95 14.0 H14 ........................... 110 16.0 H16 ........................... 130 19.0 HI8 ....... .................... 150 22.0 Extruded tabe O ............................. 75 11.0 HlI2 .......................... 75 11.0 105 15.5 25 3.5 15-28 130 19.0 75 11.0 3-12 145 21.0 95 14.0 1-10 165 24.0 115 17.0 1-4 ........... 1-4 1 5 I 5 105 145 15.5 15.5 15.5 21.0 105 15.5 50 35 30 20 20 20 20 7.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 9 14 20 25 25 105 15.5 20 3.0 25 ...... 20 3.0 25 (a) In 50 mm (2 in.) or 4d, where d is diameter of reduced section of tensile test specimen. Where a range of values appears in this column the specified m n mum e ongat on var es w th thickness of the mill product. (b) Nominal thickness up through 9.5 mm (0.374 in.). (c) Nominal diameter up through 25.4 mm (l.000 in.) K (128 Btu/ft ã h ã °F); Hl8 temper, 218 W/m ã K (126 Btu/ft ã h ã °F) Electrical Properties Electrical conductivity Volumetric at 20 °C (68 °F): O temper, 59% IACS; H18 temper, 57% IACS Electrical resistivity At 20 °C (68 °F): O temper, 29.2 nO - m; H18 temper, 30.2 nl~ ã m. Temperature coefficient at 20 °C (68 °F): O and H18 tempers, 0.1 nO ã m per K Electrolytic solution potentialã All tempers, -0.83 V versus 0.1 N calomel electrode in aqueous solution containing 53 g NaCl plus 3 g H20 2 per liter at 25 °C (77 °F) Optical Properties Reflectance Brightly polished or diffusely etched reflector: 86% for light from tung- sten filament; 84% for light having a wave- length of 250 nm. See also Fig. 1. Emittance See Fig. 2. Fabrication Characteristics Annealing temperature 343 °C (650 °F) 1145 99 45 AI min Specifications AMS 4011 ASTM B 373 Government QQ-A-1876 Chemical Composition Composition limits 99.45 A1 min, 0.55 Si max + Fe, 0.05 Cu max, 0.05 Mn max, 0.05 Mg max, 0.05 Zn max, 0.05 V max, 0.03 Ti max, 0.03 max other (each) pplications Typical uses Foil for packaging, insulating, and heat exchangers Mechanical Properties Tensile properties See Table 9. Mass Characteristics Density 2.705 g/cm 3 (0.0977 lb/in. 3) at 20 °C (68 °F) Thermal Properties Liquidus temperature 657 °C (1215 °F) Solidus temperature 646 °C (1195 °F) 95 90 80 cc 75 7O 0 Fig 1 Specular eflector I - Diffuse reflector 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 Oxide thickness, mils Reflectivity of 1100 aluminum as a function of aluminum oxide coating thickness 100 v AI203 80 coating ~ ~ so // 20 ~z, 0 ''~l / ~,,,.. ~.,,~ ,,4 Lacquer coating zx Production oil ã Mill finish sheet I I I 0 0.1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 Coating hickness, mils Emissivity of 1100 aluminum foil as a function .',~ 2 HiS of coating thickness Coefficient of thermal expansionã Linear: Temperature range I I-- Average coefficient I 7 °C *F 'p.m/m ã K p.inã/in. ã ~F --50 to 20 --58 to 68 ......... 21.8 12.1 20 to 100 68 to 212 ........ 23.6 13.1 20 to 200 68 to 392 ........ 24.5 13.6 20 to 300 68 to 572 ........ 25.5 14.1 Volumetric: 68 × 10 -6 m3/m 3 ã K (3.8 x 10 -5 in.3/in. 3 OF) Specific heat 904 J/kg- K (0.216 Btu/lb ã °F) at 20 °C (68 °F) Thermal conductivity At 20 °C (68 °F): O temper, 230 W/m- K (133 Btu/ft ã h. °F); H18 temper, 227 W/m ã K (131 Btu/ft ã h ã °F) Electrical Properties Electrical conductivity Volumetric at 20 °C (68 °F): O temper, 61% IACS; Hl8 temper, 60% IACS Electrical resistivity At 20 °C (68 °F): O temper, 28.3 nl~ ã m; H18 temper, 28.7 nf~ ã m. Temperature coefficient at 20 °C: O and H18 tempers, 0.1 nO ã m per K Optical Properties Reflectance 95 to 97% for h = 0.3 to 10 I~m Emittance 3 to 5% for k = 9.3 l~m at 20 °C (68 °F) Fabrication Characteristics Annealing temperature 345 °C (650 °F) 1199 99 99 AI min Commercial Names Trade name Super-purity aluminum, Raffi- nal  Properties of Wrought Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 65 Table 8 Typical tensile properties of 1100 aluminum at various temperatures 1-- Temperature ] Tensile strength Yield strength *C *F MPa ksi MPa ksi Elongation, % O temper -195 -80 -28 24 100 149 204 260 316 371 H14 temper -196 -80 -28 24 100 149 2O4 26O 316 371 H18 temper -196 -80 -28 24 100 149 204 260 316 371 -320 .................. 170 -112 .................. 105 -18 .................. 97 75 .................. 90 212 .................. 69 300 .................. 55 400 .................. 41 500 .................. 28 600 .................. 20 700 .................. 14 -320 .................. 205 -112 .................. 140 -18 .................. 130 75 .................. 125 212 .................. 110 300 .................. 97 400 .................. 69 500 .................. 28 600 .................. 20 700 .................. 14 25 41 6 50 15 38 5.5 43 14 34 5 40 13 34 5 40 10 32 4.6 45 8 29 4.2 55 6 24 3.5 65 4 18 2.6 75 2.9 14 2.0 80 2.1 11 1.6 85 30 140 20 45 20 125 18 24 19 115 17 20 18 115 17 20 16 105 15 20 14 83 12 23 10 52 7.5 26 4 18 2.6 75 2.9 14 2ã0 80 2.1 11 1.6 85 -320 .................. 235 34 180 26 -112 .................. 180 26 160 23 - 18 .................. 170 25 160 23 75 .................. 165 24 150 22 212 .................. 145 21 130 19 300 .................. 125 18 97 14 400 .................. 41 6 24 3.5 500 .................. 28 4 18 2.6 600 .................. 20 2.9 14 2.0 700 .................. 14 2.1 11 1.6 30 16 16 15 15 20 65 75 80 85 Table 9 Tensile properties of 1145 aluminum foil Temper [ MPa Tensile strength --]ksi M~PaYield strength ~ksi Elongation,% Typical properties O ......................... 75 11 H18 ....................... 145 21 Tensile strength limits(a) O ......................... 95 max 14 max H19 ....................... 140 min 20 rain (a) Unmounted foil 0.02 to 0.15 mm (0.0007 to 0.0059 in.) thick 34 5 40 117 17 5 Table 10 Typical tensile properties of 1199 aluminum Reduction by cold 1~ strength ~ I~ Yield strength Elongation, rolling, % MPa Tensile ksi 'MPa ksi % 0 (annealed) .................. 45 6.5 10 1.5 50 10 ............................ 59 8.6 57 8.2 40 20 ............................ 77 11.1 75 10.8 15 40 ............................ 96 13.9 91 13.2 11 60 ............................ 110 15.9 105 15.1 6 75 ............................ 120 17.5 113 16.4 5 Common name Super-purity aluminum, re- fined aluminum Chemical Composition Composition limits 99.99 A1 rain, 0.006 Si max, 0.006 Fe max, 0.006 Cu max, 0.002 Mn max, 0.006 Mg max, 0.006 Zn max, 0.002 Ti max, 0.005 V max, 0.005 Ga max, 0.002 max other (each) Consequence of exceeding impurity limits See Fig. 3. Applications Typical uses Electrolytic capacitor foil, va- por deposited coatings for optically reflect- ing surfaces Mechanical Properties Tensile properties See Table 10 and Fig. 3. Hardness 0 temper, 15 HB; H18 temper, 27 HB. (500 kg load; 10 mm dial ball). See also Fig. 3. Elastic modulus Tension, 62 GPa (9.0 × 106 psi); shear, 25.0 GPa (3.62 x 106 psi Mass Characteristics Density 2.70 g/cm 3 (0.0975 lb/in. 3) at 20 °C (68 °F Thermal Properties Melting point 660 °C (1220 °F) Coefficient of thermal expansion Linear: Temperature range 1 ~-- Average coefficient [ *C *E pm/m - K pln,fin. - *F -50 to 20 -58 to 68 ......... 21.8 12.1 20 to 100 68 to 212 ........ 23.6 13.1 20 to 200 68 to 392 ........ 24.5 13.6 20 to 300 68 to 572 ........ 25.5 14.2 Specific heat 900 J/kg ã K at 25 °C (77 °F) Heat of fusion 390 kJ/kg ã K Thermal conductivityã 0 temper, 243 W/m. K (140 Btu/ft ã h - °F) at 20 °C (68 °F) Electrical Properties Electrical conductivity Volumetric, O tem- per: 64.5% IACS at 20 °C (68 °F) Electrical resistivity 0 temper: 26.7 nf~ ã m at 20 °C (68 °F); temperature coefficient, O temper: 0.1 n~ ã m per K at 20 °C (68 °F) Optical Properties Reflectivity 85 to 90% to visible light for an electrolytically brightened surface 1350 99 50 AI rain Commercial Names Common name Electrical conductor grade EC) Specifications ASTM Aluminum conductor steel rein- forced B 232, B 401. Bus conductors: B 236. Communication wire: B 314. Rolled redraw rod: B 233. Round wire: B 230, B 609. Wire, rectangular and square: B 324. Round solid conductors: B 544. Stranded conductors: B 231, B 400 Foreign France: NF AS/L. Spain: UNE AL99.5E. United Kingdom: BS1E. West Germany: DIN E-A199.5 Chemical Composition Composition limits 99.50 A min, 0.10 Si max, 0.40 Fe max, 0.05 Cu max, 0.01 Mn max, 0.01 Cr max, 0.05 Zn max, 0.03 Ga max, 0.02 V max + Ti, 0.05 B max, 0.03 max other (each), 0.10 max others (total) Consequence of exceeding impurity limitsã Impurity elements in excess of limits de- grade electrical conductivity. Applications Typical uses Wire, stranded conductors, bus conductors, transformer strip
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