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  29geometry,variable,RDFanalysis3964- 2-pyridylazo)-resorcino PAR)reagent,useinionchromatography661S-hydroxyquinolineasprecipitant170assolventextractant.170S-quinolinol,asprecipitant.16914-MeVfastneutronactivationanalysis,elementalconcentrationsinNBSflyashdetermined using.  23932pointgroups.See Crystalclasses. A a-j3alloy,SCCenvironment,AESanalysis563-564 a and j3-fibers,inrolledcopper363 a brass alloy,Augeranalysis563 a phase alloy,SCCenvironment,AESanalysis563-564 a. See Crystallatticelengthalongthe a axis.   See Absorbance. AAS.See Atomicabsorptionspectrometry. Abbreviations,andsymbols689-692Aberrationchromatic,defined670defined668spherical682Ablation,laser,forsolidsampleanalysis36 Abraded ribbons,FMRstudyof274Abrasion,inXPSsamples575Abrasivecutoffmachine,foropticalmetallographyspecimenpreparation300Absolute depth scale,byFIMIAP593Absolutemethanol,andbromine,toisolateinclusionsinsteel.176Absorbanceabbreviationfor689defined668asfunctionofwavelength63inIRquantitativeanalysis117inIRspectra110optimum, UVNIS 68vsradiationenergy85-86 UVNIS asfunctionofsampleconcentration62-64Absorbance-subtractiontechniquesasIRqualitativeanalysis116forpolymercuringreactions120Absorbeddose,SIderivedunitandsymbolfor685Absorption.Seealso K-edge;X-rayabsorption. characteristics,comparedwithneutronandx-rayscattering.421contrast,AEM .444-445correction,EPMA524crosssection,M6ssbauereffect.288crosssection,M6ssbauerspectroscopy288curve,foruranium,asfunctionofwavelength85  n ex defined84,668edges85-86effectinAAS.43effectoflowneutron.423-emission,modelapproximationsof97enhancementeffects,interelement97inferromagneticresonance267andfluorescencespectra,N-phenylcarbazole75jump85-86oflight,effectofsamplethickness61lineshapes,NMR280andLorentzpolarization,insurfacestressmeasurement385-386matrix,asXRPDsourceoferror341measuredasfunctionofappliedmagneticfield,FMR267micro-,asXRPDsourceoferror341molecular,andde-excitationprocesses,MFSJablonskydiagramfor73molecular,of UVNIS radiation,asrequirementforfluorescence73negative98particle,asXRPDsourceoferror.341andphotoelectriceffect97photoelectric,inEXAFS.409ofaphoton61probability,fluorescenceintensityasmeasureof..411spectra,ESR260spectra,M6ssbauerspectroscopy294spectrum,K-edge,ofkryptongas.410total,aboveabsorptionedge.409x-ray,ascauseofinterelementeffects97x-ray,effectinAEM-EDSmicroanalysis..448x-ray,inXRS84Absorption contrast AEM.444-445defined668Absorptioncorrection A),inEPMAanalysis524Absorptiondiffractionmethod,XRPDanalysis339-340Absorptionedge,defined668Absorptionspectroscopy,defined668Absorptivitydefined.............................668molar62-63in UVNIS 62Abundance, natural andatomicmass,fornaturallyoccurringisotopes643ac,See Alternatingcurrent. Acceleratingvoltage,defined668Accelerationangular,SIderivedunitandsymbolfor   685potential,electron,effectinx-rayemission84SIderivedunitandsymbolfor685Accelerators,combustion,useinhigh-temperaturecombustion221-222Accuracydefined668ofmicroanalysis,standardsfor530andprecision,compared525ofradioanalysis246-247ofsingle-crystalanalysis352in UVNIS 70Acetylacetone,assolventextractant161Achromatic,defined668Achromaticlens,defined668Acidattack,inqualitativeclassicalwetmethods168Acid-baseindicators,common172Acid-basetitrationsequilibriumin163ofindustrialmaterials172-173Aciddigestionbomb165oxidizingornonoxidizing165-166forresidueisolation176Acidgases,assamplesingasanalysisbymassspectroscopy152Acidpicklingbathsacidity-basicitymeasured172wetchemicalanalysisof165Acidsanalyticmethodsfor.7-baseindicators172-basesolutions,conductometrictitrationusedin203-basetitrations172-173concentrated,analysisofsolutionsin35determined215-216equivalentweightofanunknown216functionalgroupanalysisof.215-216isolation,assecond-phasetestmethod   177mixtures,forsampledissolutions165,166purityof216acnoncapacitive are defined668ACO,assynchrotronradiationsource.413Acousticelectronspinresonance,asESRsupplementaltechnique258Acronyms,foranalyticaltechniques689ActinidesICP-MSanalysisof.40laser-inducedresonanceionizationmassspectrometryfor142inperiodictable688Activated carbon AmocoPX-21,diffractiondata399RDFanalysisof399-400Activatedcharcoal,Ramananalysis132Activationanalysis.Seealso Promptgammaactivationanalysis PGAA . chemicalelementsmeasuredby243defined668ActivationenergyESRanalysis266RBSanalysis628Activity ofradionuclides),SIderivedunitandsymbolfor685ADC.See Analog-to-digitalconverter. Additiontechniques,potentiometricmembraneelectrodes183Additives,  IMS analysisof639  ASM Handbook, Volume 10: Materials Characterizations (#06358G) Copyright © 1986 ASM International ®  All rights reserved. www.asminternational.org  69 lndex Add-onSIMS instrument forqualitativeanalysis613Adhesiontheoryoffriction,AESanalyses565Adiabaticfastpassage,definedasESRsupplementaltechnique258Admiraltyalloy,SCCenvironment,AESanalysisof563-564ADONE,assynchrotronradiationsource.413Adsorbed surfactants IRanalysisof109Adsorptionascontaminationofgravimetricsamples   163isotherms,forsurfacespecies,Ramananalysisasprobefor134LEEDanalysisof536ofmolecularspecies,IRidentificationof..109pyridine,Ramanstudies134surface,FIMIAPstudyof583Adsorption chromatography Seealso Liquid solidchromatography. defined668Advantage,Fellgett sormultiplex129 AEM See Analyticalelectronmicroscopy. Aerosolsamplesatmospheric,PIXEparticlesizeanalysisof.102collection94AES.See Augerelectronspectroscopy;Atomicemissionspectrometry. AFC See Automaticfrequencycontrol. AFS.See Atomicfluorescencespectrometry. Aggregatesmolecular,incomplexometrictitrations   164polycrystalline,x-raytopographicanalysis365x-raypowderdiffractionanalysisof   333-343Agingeffectsiniron-chromium-cobaltalloy,autocorrelogramsfor599,600materials,FIMIAPstudyofnucleation,growth,andcoarseningofprecipitatesin583over-,kineticsof317polymer,liquidchromatographymonitoringofstabilityduring649precipitates,ingravimetricsamplepreparation163Agriculturalmaterials.Seealso Foodproducts. useofICP-AESfor31Air.Seealso Oxygen. analyticmethodsfor.8assay,fortoxicelements,NAAfor233directsamplingbyAAS.43pollutants,GFAASanalysis58UVIVIStraceanalysisof60Air-acetyleneflameatomizer.48AirfiltersGFAASatomizersas58PIXEanalysisof 102Air-fired fracture surface,XPSsurvey577Alcohols,determinedbyEFG216-217Aldehydesfunctionalgroupanalysisof217andketones,determined217Alignmentofsiliconboule,forcuttingalongcrystallographicplanes342Aliquot,defined668AlkalihalidesESRstudied263assampleinRamananalysisofmetaloxides131Alkalimetalseluentsuppressiontechniquefor660flamesourceemissionsfortraceanalyses29-30opticalemissionspectroscopy21,29-30solventextractantsfor170Alkaline earth metalscomplexometrictitrationsfor164eluentsuppressiontechniquefor660extractantsfor.170opticalemissionspectroscopyfor21Alkalineenvironmentscorrosionofnickelandcobaltinaqueous135oxidationofsilverelectrodesin135Alkenes,determined219Alkylamines,assolventextractants170Allowed(diagram)lines,x-radiation86AlloyingelementsflameAASanalysisinsteels56partitioningof,FIMIAPanalysis583samplingtrainloadofmetalpipeforpercentageof15Alloys.Seealso Metalsandalloys characterizationof. analyticmethodsfor.4characterized1chemicalanalysisbycontrolled-potentialcoulometry207commercial,hydrochloricacidforsampledissolutionof165effectsofcompositiononmassabsorption97FIMIAPstudyofpointdefectsin583FIMimagesof589-590formation,RBSanalysis628high-purity,voltammetricanalysisof188high-temperature,dissolutionmediums166ion-implanted,AEMmicrostructuralanalysis.484-487liquid,NMRanalysisofelectronicstructureof.284metalsin,quantitativedeterminationbyelectrogravimetry197multicomponent,phaseseparationanalysisbySAXS/SANS/SAS.402ordered,effectofantiphaseboundariesonFIMimages589ordered,ladderdiagramsof.......   .   594perchloricacidasdissolutionmedium   166promptgammaactivationanalysis(PGAA)of240sparksourceexcitationforelementalanalysisof29spottestkitsfor168surfaces,FIMimaged590traceimpuritiesdetected31,43two-phase,SEMatomicnumbercontrastanalysisof508verificationofinorganicsolids,applicablemethods.4-6Alloys and metalscharacterization.See Metalsandalloys.characterizationof. Alphabenzoinoxime,asnarrow-rangeprecipitant.169 Alphabet Greek symbolsfor692Alpha-particleemission,asradioactivedecaymode244-245Alternating current abbreviationfor689AluminaAESspectrawithpeakshiftsandplasmonlosspeakstructures552backgroundfluorescenceof205chromiacatalysts,ESRanalysisof265fusionfluxesfor167sulfuricacidasdissolutionmedium165transitionmetalsassourceoffluorescenceon 130Aluminon method analysisforaluminuminferrosiliconlferroboronby68analysisforberylliumincopper-berylliumalloysby65Aluminum.Seealso Aluminumalloys;Aluminumalloys.specifictypes. AESspectrawithpeakshiftsandplasmonlosspeakstructures552age-hardened,FIMIAPstudyofprecipitatesin583analysisinferrosiliconlferroboron,byaluminonmethod68crystallizationandcoarseningstages,x-raytopography376determinedinplanttissues.41dominanttextureorientations359EDTAtitration173inelectronicnickel,photometricmethodfor65extendedsolubilityofironin294-295fieldevaporationof586,587inflameatomizers.48ingot,macrographof302ion-inducedAugeryields550ionremovalfrom200iniron-basealloys,flameAASanalysisfor56ironin,extendedsolubilityof294-295LEISSspectra604molybdenum-implanted.484,486neutronandx-rayscattering,andabsorption,compared.421nickel-implanted.485photometricanalysismethods64polycrystalline,bright-fieldimageofdislocationsin.444polycrystalline,ringpatternfrom.437pure,K-MCBEDPfrom.441single-crystal,spotdiffractionpatternfrom .437speciesweighedingravimetry172   thermite,AASanalysisfor56TNAAdetectionlimits237asunknownparticle.457volumetricproceduresfor175weighedasthephosphate171wireconnections,EPMAfailureanalysis531-532 Aluminum alloys.Seealso Aluminum;Aluminumalloys specifictypes. analysisforboron,byCarminemethod   68diffractiontechniques,elasticconstants,andbulkvaluesfor382FIMsamplepreparationof586Aluminumalloys,specifictypes.Seealso Aluminum;Aluminumalloys. 1100,dynamicallyrecovered.4702014-T6,diffractiontechniques,elasticconstants,andbulkvaluesfor.3822024-T351,diffractiontechniques,elasticconstants,andbulkvaluesfor3825056-0,surfacestressmeasurement.3837050-T6,diffractiontechniques,elasticconstants,andbulkvaluesfor3827075-T6,diffractiontechniques,elasticconstants,andbulkvaluesfor382AI-4.7Cu,diffusion-inducedgrain-boundarymigration.461-464AI-4.7Cu,typicalCBEDPfor.464AI-I.7Cu,informationfromFIMimageof589-590Aluminum/brassinterface,aluminumwireconnections,EPMAandSEMimagesof531-532Aluminum-copperalloysCBEDPfor.462Guinier-Prestonzone,FIMimagesof589-590Aluminum/ironinterface,aluminumwireconnections,EPMAandSEMimagesof531-532Aluminum-lithiumalloysdoublearccontrast..467warm-workedandannealed,recoveredsubgrainstructure.470  ASM Handbook, Volume 10: Materials Characterizations (#06358G) Copyright © 1986 ASM International ®  All rights reserved. www.asminternational.org  Aluminumnitrides, asparticlesinstainlesssteeltubing,EDSIEELSspectra.461 Aluminum oxide,inbinaryphosphateglasses131 Amalgamformation, incontrolled-potentialelectrolysis208 American Society for Testing andMaterials  ASTM , photometrictestsapproved 64Aminesdetermined217-218assamplesingasanalysisbymassspectrometry52simple,eluentsuppressiontechniquefor   660Aminoacids,irradiated,ESRanalysisof266 Ammeter, forelectrogravimetry200 Ammonia conductometrictitrationof.203eluentsuppressiontechniquefor660assampleingasanalysisbymassspectrometry152 Ammoniumdihydrogenphosphate, ascommonanalyzingcrystal,x-rayspectroscopy88 Ammonium hydroxide, asprecipitant.168 Ammonium ion, organicprecipitantfor169 Ammoniumnitrate, assamplemodifier,GFAASanalysis55 Ammoniumphosphate, andmagnesiumnitrate,assamplemodifiers,GFAASanalysis55 Ammonium phosphomolybdate, asprecipitate173 Ammonium purpureate, asmetallochromicindicator174 Ammoniumpyrrolidinedithio-carbamate, assolventextractant170 Amorphouscarbon oxidizedinhigh-temperaturecombustionresistancefurnaces224RDFstructuralorderingin393 Amorphousmaterials EXAFSanalysis.407,410RDFdeterminedinteratomicdistancedistributionsandcoordinationnumbers393 Amorphous solid,defined668 Amount of phase, asx-raydiffractionanalysis325 Amount of substance, SIbaseunitandSIsymbolfor685 Amperometric gas sensors, capabilities181 Amperometrictitration, aselectrometric204 Amperometry capabilities,comparedwithvoltammetry   188andconductometry,compared204defined.............................668Amplifiersandpreamplifiers,inx-rayspectrometerdetectors91stabilizedoperational,inelectrogravimetry199 amu, See Atomicmassunit Analog dot mapping. Seealso Dotmapping;Mapping;X raymaps anddigitalcompositionalmapping528aselemental-distributionmapping525-528Analog imaging, anddigitalimaging,ofironinaluminummatrix448Analog-to-digital converter defined668inICPsystems39Analysischemical,andsampling15defined668general,oforganicgases11nondestructive,MOLEas130on-line,PGAAas239-240remote,electrometrictitrationas202Analysisof surfaces. See Surfaceanalysis;Surfaceanalysisandcharacterization;Surface Analytesincomplexometrictitrations164concentrationinsampleforICP-AES33concentrationyieldedbyback-titration173defined668ingravimetricanalysis170ionassociationinsolventextraction170moieties,weighingasthe,gravimetricanalysis171separation164submicrogramamountsdeterminedbyelectrometrictitration202titertechniquefor 172 Analytical chemistry complexometrictitrations164defined..........................668gravimetric163ionexchangeseparation164-165oxidation-reductionreactions163-164solventextraction164Analytical curve, defined668Analyticalelectronmicroscopesconventionaltransmissionelectron   .430-431convergent-beamelectron-diffractionpattern.431electronmicrodiffraction.431electronopticalcolumn.431imaginginthe.440-446modern.431-432scanningelectron.430-431signaldetectorpositioning.434x-raymicroanalysisinthe446-449Analyticalelectronmicroscopy.Seealso Analyticaltransmissionelectronmicroscopy absorptioncontrast444-445capabilities516contrastmechanisms444-445defined668dislocationcellstructureanalysisby..470-473effectoflensesin.432andenergy-dispersivex-rayspectroscopy,aselectron-beammicroanalyticaltechnique446imaginginTEMmode.440-442phasecontrast..445specialtechniques.445-446intheSTEMmode.442TEMandSTEMimages,relationshipbetween442-444Analytical gap, defined668Analyticalline,defined668Analytical transmission electronmicroscopy.429-489analyticalelectronmicroscope.430-432applications.429,453,473-487applications,techniquesandproceduresfor.429,453-473Bragg slaw.436bright-fieldimaging441-446capabilities365,402,490,516,536capabilities,comparedwithopticalmetallography299capabilities,comparedwithRutherfordbackscatteringspectrometry628dark-fieldimaging.441-446defectanalysisbyTEMISTEM.464-468deformation,recovery,andrecrystallizationstructuresbyTEM.468-470diffusion-inducedgrain-boundarymigrationanalysisbyEDS/CBED.461-464diffusionmeasurementsbyAEM.476-478dislocationcellanalysisbyAEM.470-473electrochemicalthinningvselectrojetthinning.451electronbeam/specimeninteractions..432-434 Index   9 electrondiffraction.436-440electronenergyloss.432,435electronenergylossspectroscopyand.449-450electronoptics.432estimatedanalysistime.429generaluses.429grain-boundarysegregationanalysisbyAEM.481-484imagemorphology309imaging,analyticelectronmicroscope.440-446introduction.430ionbeammilling.451-452Kikuchilinepatterns.437-438latticeimaging.445-446light-elementanalysisbyEDSIUTW-EDS/EELS.459-461limitations.429microtomes,forsamplesectioning.452orientationrelationshipsandhabitplanedeterminationby.453-455phasediagramsdeterminedbyAEM..473-476relatedtechniques.429replicas,extraction.452samplepreparation.450-453samples.429,432-434,450-453selected-areadiffraction.436signaldetectors.434-436unknownphaseidentificationbyelectrondiffractionlEDS.455-459weldmetalmicrostructure,byAEM..478-481x-raymicroanalysisin.446-449Analyticalwavelength,defined668Analyzerscylindricalmirror.554,571defined668double-passcylindricalmirror571electronenergy,orvelocity570-571electrostaticLEISS607hemispherical,forAESanalysis554forimageanalysis,310-313retardingfield,forAESanalysis554sector,for  S analysis554semiautomaticdigitalimage310systems,x-rayspectrometers91velocity570-571Analyzingcrystalscommon88inwavelength-dispersivex-rayspectrometers88Anglebetweennormaltothediffractinglatticeplanesandthesamplesurface,symbolfor692conversionfactors686ofincidence114,668symbolfor692 Angstrom 669,691 Angular acceleration,SIderivedunitandsymbolfor685 Angulardistribution functions,nucleartransitionsof rnultipolarity 290 Angularmeasure, symbolfor691 Angularscan, channeling,latticestrainmeasurementby635 Angular velocity,SIderivedunitandsymbolfor685Anhydrides,boricacid,asflux167AnimaltissueAASanalysisoftracemetals55NAAanalysisofretentionoftoxicelementsin233voltammetricdetectionofherbicide/pesticideresiduesin188Anionsdefined669determinedoncontaminatedsurfaces,byionchromatography658  ASM Handbook, Volume 10: Materials Characterizations (#06358G) Copyright © 1986 ASM International ®  All rights reserved. www.asminternational.org   9 Index Anions (continued)exchangeresins,useinanionchromatography659greenandyellow,asdeterminedbysingle-crystalanalysis354inorganic,determinedbyionchromatography663asnegativelychargedions659potentiometricmembraneelectrodesquantification181qualitativeandquantitativeanalysisbyionchromatography658-667 Anisotropic effects,ESRstudied256 Anisotropichyperfine coupling constants electronspinresonance261 Anisotropic thermal expansion coefficients, XRPD analysis333 Anisotropic thermal motions andcrystalstructuredetermination352,353 Anisotropy constants, FMR forobtaining272,273magnetic,determined272-273 Annealing (growth)twin,rutileimagesof443improper,defectdepthdistributionfrom .. 628molybdenum-implantedaluminum.486Ramananalysisof133SAStechniquesfor.405studies,by NMR 277 Anodematerials x-raytubes89 Anodes dual inelectrogravimetry199 Anodicovervoltage inelectrogravimetry198 Anomaloustransmission divergent beam topography370inx-raytopography367 Anthracene and naphthalene totalluminescencespectrum(EEM) of mixture78 Antiferromagneticmaterials ESRidentificationofmagneticstatesin253variabletemperaturestudies of 257 Antihistamines coulometrictitrationof205 Antimony incopperalloys,determinedbyiodoantimonitemethod68determinedbycontrolled-potentialcoulometry209epithermalneutronactivationanalysis(ENAA)239gaseoushydride,forICPsampleintroduction36ashalogentrapmaterial.224photometricanalysismethods64quartztubeatomizersfor.49speciesweighedingravimetry172 TNAA detectionlimits237,238volatilizing166volumetricproceduresfor175weighedasthesulfide171 Antioxidants IMS analysisof639 Antiphaseboundaries inorderedalloys,effectinFIMimages589 Anti Stokes Raman line defined 669 Anti Stokes scattering energy-leveldiagram127inRamanspectroscopy126-128 Antiwear films AEScharacterized566 AP. See Atomprobe;Atomprobemicroanalysis Aplanatic defined669 Apochromatic lens,defined669 Apparent density defined669 Applications and examples  Ill polefiguresfromCutubing363300/400seriesstainlesssteels,analysis of. 100AASinstrumentsasdetectorsforotheranalyticalequipment55acids,determined215-216activatedcarbon,analysisof399-400AESapplicationtotribology566alcohols,determined216-217aldehydesandketonesdetermined217alignmentofsiliconbouleforcuttingalongcrystallographicplanes342alkenes,determined219AI-killedsteel,analysis of. 231amines,determined217-218anisotropy,magnetic,determined272-273archaeologicalsamples,copperdeterminedin186aromatichydrocarbons,determined218atmosphericparticles,analysisof106atomicnumbercontrast,inanalysisoftwo-phasealloys508babylotion,analysisofparabensin .. 655-656biologicalmaterials,powdered,analysisof106-107blockingandchannelingsurfacestructurestudyby633borosilicateglass,determinationof Band Fin179brineanalysis,geological665bromine,indirectdeterminationof70bulksamples,compositionof631calcite,quantitativeanalysisofZnOin342carbon,surface,determinationof224carbon,activated,analysisof.399-400carbondeterminedbycombustion214catalysts,chromiaalumina265cellulardecompositionofmartensiteinuraniumalloy,kineticsof316-318cement,analysis of. 99-100ceramicnuclearwasteformsimulantstudyof532-535ceramics,SAXS/SANSanalysis of. .405channelingandblocking,surfacestructurestudyby633chemicalreactionproducts,analysisof656-657chlorideions,nickeldeterminedinsamplescontaining201chromiaaluminacatalysts265chromiumdepletioninweldzone179coalflyash,determinationofCuandPbin147-148cobaltcompounds,tracenickeldeterminedin194-195cold-rolledsteel,corrosionresistance556-557combustion,determinationofcarbon,hydrogen,andnitrogenby214complex,numberofligandsdeterminedin70compositionfluctuations,local,internary3:5semiconductor601compositionofbulksamples631composition,ofmixtures,determined213composition vs depth,passivefilmonSn-Nisubstrate608-609compounds,organic,identificationof .... 213concentrations,high,andwell-resolvedpeaks,gold-copperalloyanalysiswith530coordinationgeometry,determinationof .. 354copperdeterminedinarchaeologicalsamples186copper,hydrogendeterminedin231-232copper-manganesealloy,coppercontentestimated201copperoxidationusing 18 0609coppertubing,  Ill polefiguresfrom363corrosionandsurfacestrains,connector607corrosioninpyrotechnicactuators .... 510-511corrosionofNiandCoinaqueousalkalinemedia135corrosiononleadsurfaces135corrosiononmetals,analysisof134-135corrosionresistanceofcold-rolledsteel556-557crystalgrowthandelectronicdevicematerialstudies375-376crystalkineticsandmaterialtransformation376crystallinephase,unknown,useof unit cellstoidentify353crystallographicplanes,alignmentofsiliconbouleforcuttingalong342curingmechanismofapolyimideresin285  e arcexcitationtodeterminetracemetalimpuritiesin CaW0   29deerhair,analysisofsulfurin224defects,analysisof.464-468deformationanalysis376-378,468-470depthprofiles,heavyelementimpurities632-633depthprofiling,granularsampleusing ATR DRS andPAS120detection of phasechanges282-283detectionofsurfacephase293determinationofBTUandashcontentincoal100determinationof Cr,Ni, andMninstainlesssteel146-147determinationoftraceSnandCrin   z  byGFAAS57-58determinationofultratraceuraniumbylaser-inducedfluorescencespectroscopy .. 80diamond,synthetic,characterizationofmetalimpuritiesin.417diffusion-inducedgrain-boundarymigration,analysis of. .461-464diffusionmeasurements476-478diffusionofplutoniumintothorium249diffusionphenomena,investigationof576-577directdeterminationofbenzo(a)pyrene79directsolid-sampleAASanalysis58dislocationcellstructureanalysis.470-473dopantatoms,latticelocationof633-634electricalcontacts,surfacefilmson578-579electrochemicallybasedcorrosionsystemsinaqueousenvironments134-135electrolyticallygeneratedradicalions265electronicdevicematerialstudies,andcrystalgrowth375-376electronicstructure,liquidmetalsandalloys284elementalanalysis,Schonigerflaskmethodfor215elementalmappingofhigh-temperaturesolder532elements,light,analysesof.459-461,558-559empiricalformulas,determinationof ..... 213enzymaticdeterminationofglucoseusingoxygenquenchingoffluorescence79-80enzymeactivity,assayof .. 70esters,determined218estimationofCuinaCu-Mnalloy201exchangestiffness275exoticeffects,studiedindisorderedmagneticmaterial276explosiveactuator,determination of oxygen isotopesin625-626extendedsolubilityofironinaluminum294-295factoranalysisandcurvefittingappliedtopolymerblendsystem .118failureofAlwireconnections531-532failure,overload,ofsteelthreadedrod511-513fccmaterials,featuresofrollingtexturesin 363-364ferromagneticalloys,order-disorderin284-285films,grainsizeofsilver543films,thick,analysisof561fingerprinting,multielement195  ASM Handbook, Volume 10: Materials Characterizations (#06358G) Copyright © 1986 ASM International ®  All rights reserved. www.asminternational.org
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