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© 2006 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Extrusion, Second Edition (#06998G) www.asminternational.org EXTRUSION SECOND EDITION Editors M. Bauser G. Sauer K. Siegert Translated from German by A.F. Castle ASM International Materials Park, Ohio 44073-0002 www.asminternational.org © 2006 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Extrusion, Second Edition (#06998G) www.asminternational.org Copyright 2006 by ASM International All rights reserved Originally published as Strangpressen 2001
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  EXTRUSION SECOND EDITION Editors M. BauserG. SauerK. Siegert Translated from German by A.F. Castle ASM International  Materials Park, Ohio 44073-0002www.asminternational.org © 2006 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.Extrusion, Second Edition (#06998G)www.asminternational.org  Copyright  2006byASM International  All rights reservedOriginally published as Strangpressen  2001 Aluminium-Verlag, Du¨sseldorf, GermanyNo part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by anymeans, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of thecopyright owner.First printing, December 2006Great care is taken in the compilation and production of this Volume, but it should be made clear that NOWARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OFMERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE GIVEN IN CONNECTIONWITH THIS PUBLICATION. Although this information is believed to be accurate by ASM, ASM cannotguarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication isintended for use by persons having technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use are outside of ASM’s control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connectionwith any use of this information. No claim of any kind, whether as to products or information in this publication,and whether or not based on negligence, shall be greater in amount than the purchase price of this product orpublication in respect of which damages are claimed. THE REMEDY HEREBY PROVIDED SHALL BE THEEXCLUSIVE AND SOLE REMEDY OF BUYER, AND IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIA-BLE FOR SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHETHER OR NOT CAUSED BYOR RESULTING FROM THE NEGLIGENCE OF SUCH PARTY. As with any material, evaluation of thematerial under end-use conditions prior to specification is essential. Therefore, specific testing under actualconditions is recommended.Nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale, use, or repro-duction, in connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or system, whether or notcovered by letters patent, copyright, or trademark, and nothing contained in this book shall be construed as adefense against any alleged infringement of letters patent, copyright, or trademark, or as a defense againstliability for such infringement.Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are invited, and should be forwarded to ASM International. Prepared under the direction of the ASM International Technical Books Committee (2006–2007), James Foley,Chair. ASM International staff who worked on this project include Scott D. Henry, Senior Product Manager; Charles Moosbrugger; Editor, Diane Grubbs, Editorial Assistant; Bonnie Sanders, Production Manager; Madrid Tram-ble, Senior Production Coordinator; Diane Wilkoff, Production Coordinator; Pattie Pace, Production Coor-dinator; Kathryn Muldoon, Production Assistant  Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataExtrusion / editors, M. Bauser, G. Sauer, K. Siegert. — 2nd ed.p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN-13: 978-0-87170-837-3ISBN-10: 0-87170-837-X1. Metals—Extrusion. 2. Aluminum alloys. I Bauser, M. (Martin) II. Sauer, G. (Gu¨nther) III. Siegert, Klaus.TS255.E78 2006671.3  4—dc22 2006050365SAN: 204-7586ASM International  Materials Park, OH 44073-0002www.asminternational.orgPrinted in the United States of America © 2006 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.Extrusion, Second Edition (#06998G)www.asminternational.org  iii Contents Foreword ...................................................................................................................xvAuthors .................................................................................................................... xviChapter 1 Introduction ...............................................................................................1 1.1 Basic Principles of Extrusion ..............................................................................1Historic Development of Extrusion ...................................................................................2 Chapter 2 Extruded Products ......................................................................................9 2.1 Tin and Lead Extruded Products with a Deformation Temperature Rangeof 0 to 300  C ...................................................................................................92.2 Magnesium and Aluminum Extruded Products with a Working Temperature Rangeof 300 to 600  C .............................................................................................112.2.1 Magnesium Alloy Extruded Products ..........................................................112.2.2 Aluminum Alloy Extruded Products ............................................................122.2.2.1 Transport Construction ......................................................................152.2.2.2. Machine Manufacture, Electrical Machines, and Electrical Equipment .......362.2.2.3 Architecture .....................................................................................40Extruded Products from Materials with a Working Temperature Range of 600 to 1300  C .........492.3 Copper Alloy Extruded Products .......................................................................492.4 Extruded Titanium Alloy Products ....................................................................552.5 Extruded Products in Iron Alloys and Other Hot-Working Alloys ...........................56 Chapter 3 Rod and Tube Extrusion Processes .............................................................59 3.1 Direct Extrusion .............................................................................................593.1.1 Direct Hot Extrusion without Lubrication and Shell (Aluminum Alloys) ...........613.1.1.1 Process Sequence of Direct Hot Extrusion without Lubrication or Shell ......613.1.1.2 Variation in the Extrusion Load with Stem Movement in Direct HotExtrusion without Lubrication or Shell ..................................................613.1.1.3 Material Flow in Direct Hot Extrusion ..................................................663.1.1.4 Calculation of the Axial Loads in Direct Hot Extrusion withoutLubrication and Shell (Aluminum Alloys) .............................................703.1.1.5 Thermal Changes in Direct Hot Extrusion of Aluminum ..........................763.1.2 Direct Hot Extrusion without Lubrication and with a Shell (Copper Alloys) .......813.1.2.1 Process Sequence for Direct Hot Extrusion without Lubrication andwith a Shell ......................................................................................813.1.2.2 Variation in the Stem Load over the Stem Displacement in Direct HotExtrusion without Lubrication and with a Shell ......................................843.1.2.3 Material Flow in Direct Hot Extrusion without Lubrication andwith a Shell ......................................................................................843.1.2.4 Calculation of the Axial Forces in Direct Hot Extrusion withoutLubrication and with a Shell ...............................................................84 © 2006 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.Extrusion, Second Edition (#06998G)www.asminternational.org
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