ASM Engineering Properties of Steel

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Properties of Steel
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  Carbon Steels Carbon steels are designated by an identical AISI or SAE four-digit number, in which the last two numbers indicate the approximate middle of the carbon range. AISI 1010, for example, has a carbon content of 0.08 to 0.13%. The initial two digits of the AIWSAE numbers are also significant. The number 10 indicates nonresulfurized grades. Similarly, grade numbers beginning with 11 denote resulfurized grades. Resulfurized and rephosphorized grades are indicated by the number 12, and nonresulfurized grades with a maximum manganese content of more than 1.008, by the number 15. An L between the second and third digits denotes a leaded steel, while B denotes a boron steel. The suffix H after the four digits indicates a steel produced to prescribed harden- ability limits. Types During the manufacture of steel, oxygen is used to remove excess carbon from the molten metal and to attain the carbon content desired for the finished steel. Carbon and oxygen combine to form carbon monoxide, which bubbles to the surface of the melt. If the excess oxygen is not removed, the gaseous product continues to evolve as the steel solidifies. If little or no gas evolves during solidification, the steel is deoxidized. This deoxidized steel is termed killed, because it lies quietly in the ingot mold. Increasing degrees of gas evolution result in semikilled, rimmed, and capped steels. Killed steels are characterized by good uniformity of chem- ical composition and mechanical properties. They are gener- ally specified when a homogeneous structure is desired. Any steel chosen for rods with more than 0.23%, carbon is usually killed steel. Semikilled steels have a structure which is intermediate in homogeneity between killed and rimmed steels. Carbon contents of these steels are usually up to 0.24%. Rimmed steels are produced by carefully controlling the addition of small quantities of deoxidizers to the ladle. Rimming is caused by gases continuing to evolve after the ingot is teemed and as the steel solidifies. This action results in a rim or case of essentially carbon-free ferrite on the ingot with a minimum of blowholes and oxide inclusions. Rimmed steel products, particularly cold rolled sheet, can be used to advantage whenever extensive cold forming or superior surface appearance is required. Because carbon contents in excess of 0.25%, or manganese contents greater than 0.609% prevent proper rimming action, only low-carbon steels are made as rimmed steels. Capped steels, although similar to rimmed steels, differ in that the rimming action is stopped at a specified point during the solidification process. A capped steel has a low-carbon rim typical of a rimmed steel, but the uniformity of composition and mechanical properties in the center that might be expected from a killed steel ingot. This combination of properties makes capped steels particularly well suited for applications involving cold forming or cold heading. Selection The feasibility of using a carbon steel is determined by assessing whether or not it is metallurgically suitable for the application. Evaluations may include tensile and fatigue strengths, impact resistance, size of the part compared with the need for through hardenability, fabricability, ductility and/or machinability, potential of heat treating, service temperature of the part, and corrosion resistance. When the desired characteristics can be obtained with a plain carbon grade, most users select this less costly steel. If critical strength requirements or other specified needs are beyond the inherent capabilities of carbon steel, then alloy steel is the obvious choice. One consideration worth noting is that most carbon steels are not through hardening on heat treatment, except in relatively thin sections. The selection of a specific grade of steel is a more complex decision. Grade selection should be undertaken in collabo- ration with the supplier, who can call upon the expertise of its metallurgists and broad practical experience, as well as the experience of other customers who have put carbon or alloy steel sheet and bar to the same or similar use. Classif ication The numerical classifications of low-, medium-, and high- carbon steels may vary with individual mills, but they gener- ally fall into the following approximate ranges. low-carbon steels (AISI 1005 to 10261 have lower carbon content by definition. Because ease of formability is directly related to hardness (carbon content1 of the sheet or bar, these softer steels are more ductile- better for operations involv- ing some degree of cold forming, drawing, bending, punching, or swaging. Low-carbon steels are used for cold heading, a major pro- cess for fastener production, and deep drawing. They are also commonly found in machined and welded components. Be- cause they are relatively inexpensive, the low-carbon steels are a popular choice when great strength is not needed. Tensile strengths range from 300 to 440 MPa (43 to 64 ksil.  S/Carbon Steels Although ductile, low-carbon steels are not very resistant to wear. However, wear resistance can be obtained in low- carbon grades by increasing the carbon content of the surface (carburizing). This is done by heating at elevated tempera- ture in a controlled, carbon-rich atmosphere. Low-carbon steels that are commonly carburized include AIST 1015,1018, 1020, and 1117. Medium-carbon steels (AISI 1029 to 1053) are often selected where higher strength is required. These can be thermally treated for even greater strength. Tensile strengths range from 470 to 620 MPa (68 to 90 ksi). Used in larger parts and forgings, these bar grades are also among the most widely used steels for machined components. AISI 1040 and its modifications are specified extensively in the automotive industry for bolts, connecting rods, crankshafts, and tubing. AISI 1050 is frequently used for axles, gears, and heavier forgings, where slightly higher hardness and wear resistance are required. High-carbon steels (AISI 1055 to 10951 are specified when the highest available strength is needed in the carbon range. Because of superior surface hardness, they provide better wear resistance than the plain carbon steels. When properly heat treated these grades are highly wear resistant. In addition, high-carbon steels offer longer service life and maximum response to heat treatment. Tensile strengths range from 650 to 830 MPa (94 to 120 ksi). Ductility of the high-carbon steels is lower than that of the low- and medium-carbon steels, but cold formability of high- carbon steels can be improved through thermal treatment. However, this treatment reduces strength and hardness. None of the 10Xx series grades contain more than l%, man- ganese. For greater hardenability, the 15XX series grades (AISI 1513 to 1572) are available with maximum manganese contents of 1.05 to 1.658. Free-machining grades are intended for use where im- proved machinability is desired, compared to that for carbon steels of similar carbon and manganese contents. Machin- ability refers to the effects of hardness, strength, ductility, grain size, microstructure, and chemical composition on cut- ting tool wear, chip formation, ease of metal removal, and surface finish quality of the steel being cut. Free-machining steels contain one or more additives which enhance machining characteristics and lower machining costs. The lower costs result from either the increased pro- duction through greater machining speeds and improved tool life, or the elimination of secondary operations through an improvement in surface finish. The addition of bismuth, selenium, or tellurium enhances the machinability of free- machining steels. Sulfur and phosphorus additions cause a reduction in cold forming properties, weldability, and forging characteristics. Lead additions, however, have very little effect on those characteristics. The resulfurized 11Xx series grades (AIS 1108 to 1151) provide improved machinability with increased sulfur con- tent in amounts up to 0.33%, n some grades. The 12XX series grades (AISI 1211 to 1215) are both resulfurized and rephos- phorized to increase chip control. Leaded carbon steels in the free-machining grades contain from 0.15 to 0.35% lead. Serving as an internal lubricant, lead reduces friction and the buildup of heat between the cutting edge of the tool and the work. Leaded steels are most commonly used when a large amount of machining is neces- sary to produce a finished part. An increase of 25% or more in productivity may result from the use of leaded steels. Hardenability Hardenability in plain carbon steels can be improved through the use of additives or by controlling the chemical composition and steelmaking practice (H-steels). Boron is added, usually to medium-carbon grades, to increase the depth of hardening when quenched. H-steels are steels that can be ordered to specific and finite hardenability ranges. These range limits, upper and lower limits from the center or core to the surface, are called H-bands. The H-steel classi- fication applies mainly to alloy steels, but also includes a number of carbon grades. For more information refer to the alloy steel introduction which includes an explanation on the use of hardenability bands. Quality Designations There are four quality designations a customer may specify for hot and cold rolled sheet: commercial quality (CQl, draw- ing quality CDQ), drawing quality special killed DQSK), and structural quality CSQ). Hot rolled band is available in CQ, DQ, and DQSK. ASTM A568 gives the general require- ments for hot rolled sheet and strip and cold rolled sheet carbon steel, and ASTM A29 provides the general require- ments for hot rolled and cold finished carbon steel bars. Commercial quality sheet and bands are usually produced from rimmed, capped, or semikilled steel. Because of the seg- regation that occurs in the solidification of these types of steels, CQ materials are less ductile than either DQ or DQSK materials and can be expected to show wider variations in mechanical properties and chemical composition. In addition, some CQ sheet may be subject to loss of ductility with time; bands, however, are not subject to strain aging because they are not processed. If sheet steel must be essentially free from stretcher strains during fabrication, it should be roller leveled just before the forming operation. Drawing quality material is produced from specially se- lected steel, then carefully processed to result in more uni- form drawing properties than commercial quality material. Drawing quality sheet and bands are more ductile and more uniform in chemical composition than CQ material. Parts that are too difficult for the forming properties of CQ sheet are made from DQ sheet. Because of aging, time delays between drawing stages and heat treatment and other processing operations may ad- versely affect the properties of DQ steel. Therefore, these operations must be carefully controlled either before or dur- ing fabrication to provide the required performance. Drawing quality sheet is subject to coil breaks, stretcher strains, and fluting in the as-rolled condition. If DQ sheet is to remain essentially free of stretcher strains through fabri- cation, it should be roller leveled by the customer just before forming. Drawing quality special-killed materials are rolled from aluminum-killed steel which is produced by special steel- making and processing practices. Because these steels offer forming characteristics superior to commercial and drawing quality materials, they are excellent for use in severe draw- ing operations. DQSK steels are recommended for processes in which delays between draws would detrimentally affect the drawing performance of CQ and DQ materials, or where roller leveling equipment is not available. Structural quality sheet is ordered when specific mechani- cal or structural properties are required. Orders usually specify hardness or tensile properties. When indicating me-  chanical properties, the customer should carefully consider compatibility of the properties with forming requirements. ASTM A570 is the standard specification for structural qual- ity hot rolled sheet, and ASTM A611 is the standard specifi- cation for structural quality cold rolled sheet. REFERENCES 1. J & L Cold Finished Bars, Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA 2. Modern Steels and Their Properties, Handbook 3310. Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Bethlehem, PA, March 1980 3. Ryerson Stocks and Services, Joseph T. Ryerson & Sons, 1980 4. Metals Handbook, 9th ed., Vol 1, American Society for Metals, 1978 Composition of Carbon Steels (Ref 12) 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Carbon Steels/3 Mechanical Properties of Alloy Steel, Adv 1099, Republic Steel Corporation, Cleveland, OH, 1979 Metals Handbook, 8th ed., Vol 1, American Society for Metals, 1961 Handbook of Spring Design, Spring Manufacturers Institute, Oak Brook, IL, 1981 Machining Data Handbook, 3rd ed., Metcut Research Associates, Cincinnati, OH, 1980 Cold Finished Steel Bars: Selection and Uses, Stelco, Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada Steel Products Manual: Wire and Rods, Carbon Steel, American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, D.C., Sept 1981 Metals Handbook, 9th ed., Vol 4, American Society for Metals, 1981 Steel Products Manual: Alloy Carbon and High Strength Low Alloy Steels, American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, DC., Aug 1977 (Revised April 1981) AM UN.5 Composition(a), c7 AH1 UNS Composition(a), I No. No. C Mn P S No. No. c Ml-4 P S Nonresulfurizd pades, manganese 1.00% max 10051b). 1006tbl 1008.... 1010.. 1012.. 1015.. 1016.. 1017.. 1018.. 1019.. 1020.. 1021.... 1022.. 1023.. 1025.. 1026.. 1029.. 1030.. 1034 1035 1037.... 1038.. 1039.. 1040.. 1042.. 1043.. 1044 1045 1046.... 1049. 1050.. 1053 1055.. 1059tbI. 1060.. 1064lb) 1065tbr. 1069lbr. 1070.. 1074 1078.. c10050 0.06 max Cl0060 0.08 max GlOO80 0.10 max c10100 0.08-o. 13 Cl0120 0.10-0.15 Cl0150 0.13-0.18 Cl0160 0.13-0.18 Cl0170 0.15-0.20 Cl0180 0.15-0.20 Cl0190 0.15-0.20 G10200 0.16-0.23 Cl0210 0.16-0.23 Cl0220 0.18-0.23 Cl0230 0.20-0.25 Cl0250 0.22-0.28 G 10260 0.22-0.28 Cl0290 0.25-0.31 Cl0300 0.28-0.34 Cl0340 0.32-0.38 Cl0350 0.32-0.38 Cl0370 0.32-0.38 G 10380 0.35-0.42 Cl0390 0.37-0.44 Cl0400 0.37-0.44 Cl0420 0.40-0.47 Cl0430 0.40-0.47 Cl0440 0.43-0.50 Cl0450 0.43-0.50 Cl0460 0.43-0.50 Cl0490 0.46-0.53 Cl0500 0.48-0.55 Cl0530 0.48-0.55 Cl0550 0.50-0.60 Cl0590 0.55-0.65 G10600 0.55-0.65 Cl0640 0.60-0.70 Cl0650 0.60-0.70 Cl0690 0.65-0.75 Cl0700 0.65-0.75 Cl0740 0.70-0.80 Cl0780 0.72-0.85 0.35 max 0.25-0.40 0.30-0.50 0.30-0.60 0.30-0.60 0.30-0.60 0.60-0.90 0.30-0.60 0.60-0.90 0.70- 1 oo 0.30-0.60 0.60-0.90 0.70-1.00 0.30-0.60 0.30-0.60 0.60-0.90 0.60-0.90 0.60-0.90 0.50-0.80 0.60-0.90 0.70-1.00 0.60-0.90 0.70-1.00 0.60-0.90 0.60-0.90 0.70-1.00 0.30-0.60 0.60-0.90 0.70-1.00 0.60-0.90 0.60-0.90 0.70-1.00 0.60-0.90 0.50-0.80 0.60-0.90 0.50-0.80 0.60-0.90 0.40-0.70 0.60-0.90 0.50-0.80 0.30-0.60 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 n-lax 0.040 max 0.040 n-lax 0.040 max 0.040 msx 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 msx 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 m&x 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.040 max 0.050 ma% 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0 050 max 0 050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 m&x 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 mm 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 1080. _. Cl0800 0.75-0.88 0.60-0.90 0.040 max 0.050 max 1084.. Cl0840 0.80-0.93 0.60-0.90 0.040 max 0.050 max 1086lbl.. Cl0860 0.80-0.93 0.30-0.50 0.040 max 0.050 max 1090 _. _. _. Cl0900 0.85-0.98 0.60-0.90 0.040 max 0.050 max 1095.. _. _. Cl0950 0.90- 1.03 0.30-0.50 0.040 max 0.050 max Nonresulfurized grades, manganese greater than 1.00% max 1513.. ........ Cl5130 0.10-0.16 1.10-1.40 0.040 max 1522. .......... Cl5220 0.18-0.24 1.10-l 40 0.040 max 1524. .......... Cl5240 0.19-0.25 1.35-1.65 0.040 max 1526. .......... Cl5260 0.22-0.29 1.10-1.40 0.040 n-lax 1527. ......... Cl5270 0.22-0.29 1.20-1.50 0.040 max 1541. .......... Cl5410 0.36-0.44 1.35- 1.65 0.040 max 1547. .......... Cl5470 0.43-0.51 1.35-1.65 0.040 n-lax 1548. .......... Cl5480 0.44-0.52 1.10-1.40 0.040 max 1551 .......... Cl5510 0.45-0.56 0.85-1.15 0.040 max 1552. .......... Cl5520 0.47-0.55 1.20-1.50 0.040 max 1561 ........... Cl5610 0.55-0.65 0.75-1.05 0.040 max 1566 ........... Cl5660 0.60-0.71 0.85-1.15 0.040 max Free-machining grades, resulfurized 1108 ........... Cl1080 0.08-o. 13 0.50-0.80 0.040 max 1109.. ......... Cl1090 0.08-O. 13 0.60-0.90 0.040 max 1110.. ......... Cl1100 0.08-O. 13 0.30-0.60 0.040 max 1116.. ......... Cl1160 0.14-0.20 1.10-1.40 0.040 max 1117.. ......... Cl1170 0.14-0.20 1.00-1.30 0.040 max 1118.. ......... Cl1180 0.14-0.20 1.30- 1.60 0.040 max 1119 ........... Cl1190 0.14-0.20 1.00-1.30 0.040 max 1137. .......... Cl1370 0.32-0.39 1.35-1.65 0.040 max 1139.. ......... Cl1390 0.35-0.43 1.35- 1.65 0.040 max 1140 ........... Cl 1400 0.37-0.44 0.70-1.00 0.040 max 1141. ........ Cl1410 0.37-0.45 1.35-1.65 0.040 max 1144 ........... Cl1440 0.40-0.48 1.35-1.65 0.040 max 1146 ........... Cl 1460 0.42-0.49 0.70-1.00 0.040 m&x 1151.. ......... Cl1510 0.48-0.55 0.70-1.00 0.040 max Free-machining grades, resulfurized and rephosphorized 1211.. ......... Cl2110 0.13 max 0.60-0.90 0.07-0.12 1212 ........... Cl2120 0.13 max 0.70-1.00 0.07-0.12 1213.. ........ Cl2130 0.13 max 0.70-1.00 0.07-O. 12 1215 ........ Cl2150 0.09 max 0.75-1.05 0.04-0.09 12L141cr ....... Cl2144 0.15 ma% 0.85-l. 15 0.04-0.09 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 msx 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.08-o. 13 0.08-O. 13 0.08-O. 13 0.16-0.23 0.08-O. 13 0.08-0.13 0.24-0.33 0.08-0.13 0.13-0.20 0.08-O. 13 0.08-o. 13 0.24-0.33 0 08-O. 13 0.08-O. 13 0.10-0.15 0.16-0.23 0.24-0.33 0.26-0.35 0.26-0.35 Ial The following notes refer to boron, copper, lead and silicon adchtlons: Boron: standard kllled carbon steels, which are generally tine grain, may be produced with a boron treatment addition to improve hardenabilny. Such steels are produced to a range 010.0005 to 0.003pi B. These steels are identified by inserting the letter B between the second and third numerals of the AISI or SAE number, such as lOB46. Co per: when cop standard carbon steels can be produced with a lead range of 0.15 to 0.35P; to improve mat \. .’ f: nabIlIty. Sue er is required, 0.2OpC min is generally specified. Lead: steels are identified by inset-tin the letter L between the second and third numerals of the AISI or SAE number, such as 12L15 and lOL45. Silicon: It is not common r ractice to produce the 12X d senes of resulfurized and rephos horized steels to specified limits for silicon because of its adverse effect on machinability. When so won ranges or limits are required for resulfurized or nonres & funzed steels, however these values apply: a range of 0 08% for maximum Jllicon contents up to 0.15% inclusive. a range of O.lOq for maximum silicon contents over 0.15 to 0.20% mcluswe. a range of 0.154 for maximum silicon contents over 0.20 to 0 3Or; inclusive, and a range of 0.2OG for maximum silicon con- tents over 0.30 to 0.60% inclusive. Example: maximum silicon content is 0.25 5, range is 0.10 to 0.25pi. 1b1 Standard grades for wire rod and wire only. (cl 0.15 to 0.35%. lead  4Karbon Steels Estimated Mechanical Properties and Machinability of Carbon Steel Bar (Ref 1) All values are estimated minimum values; all SAE 1100 series steels are rated on the basis of 0.10% max silicon or coarse-grain melting practice; the mechanical properties shown are expected minimums or the sizes ranging from 19 to 31.8 mm (0.75 to 1.25 in.) AK31 1srpe of pade processing Tensile strength MPa ksi Yield strength MPa ksi Elongation(al, Reduction Hardness. Machinability c in area, % HB rating(b) 1006.. Hot rolled . Cold drawn 1008. Hot rolled ’ Cold drawn lOlO.... Hot rolled Cold drawn 1012.... Hot rolled Cold drawn 1015.. Hot rolled Cold drawn 1016. _, Hot mlled Cold drawn 1017,. _, _. Hot rolled Cold drawn 1018.. 1019.. 1020.. 1021 . 1022.. 1023.. 1524.. 1025 1527.. Hot rolled Cold drawn Hot rolled Cold drawn 1536 Hot rolled Cold drawn 1037 Hot rolled Cold drawn 1038 Hot rolled Cold drawn 1039 Hot rolled Cold drawn 1040 Hot rolled Cold drawn 1541 _. _, _. _. Hot rolled Cold drawn Annealed, cold drawn 1042. Hot rolled Cold drawn Normalized, cold drawn 1043 _. Hot rolled Cold drawn Hot rolled Cold drawn Hot rolled Cold drawn Hot rolled Cold drawn . _ Hot rolled Cold drawn . Hot rolled Cold drawn . Hot rolled Cold drawn . Hot rolled Cold drawn Hot rolled Cold drawn Hot rolled Cold drawn Hot rolled Cold drawn Normalizecl, cold drawn 1044 ,.... Hot rolled 1045.. : Hot rolled Cold drawn Annealed, cold drawn 1046 Hot rolled Cold drawn Annealed, cold drawn 1547 Hot rolled Cold drawn Annealed, cold drawn 1548. Hot rolled Cold drawn Annealed, cold drawn 1049. . . Hot rolled Cold drawn Annealed. cold drawn 1050.. Hot rolled Cold drawn Annealed, cold drawn 295 330 305 340 325 365 330 370 345 385 380 420 365 405 400 440 405 455 380 420 420 470 425 475 385 425 510 565 400 440 440 490 515 570 470 525 495 550 570 635 510 565 515 570 545 605 525 585 635 705 650 550 615 585 565 625 600 550 565 625 585 585 650 620 650 710 655 660 735 645 600 670 635 620 690 655 43 48 ii 47 53 48 54 50 56 55 61 53 59 58 64 59 66 55 61 61 68 62 69 56 62 ii 58 64 64 71 75 83 68 76 ii 83 92 74 82 75 83 79 88 76 85 92 102.5 94 80 89 85 82 91 87 80 82 91 85 85 94 90 94 103 95 96 106.5 93.5 87 97 92 90 100 95 165 285 170 285 180 305 185 310 190 325 205 350 200 340 220 370 225 380 205 350 230 395 235 400 215 360 265 475 220 370 240 415 285 485 260 440 270 460 315 535 280 475 285 485 300 510 290 490 350 600 550 305 515 505 310 530 515 305 310 530 505 325 545 515 360 605 585 365 615 540 330 560 530 340 580 550 24 41 24.5 41.5 26 44 26.5 E.5 47 30 51 29 49 32 E.5 55 30 51 33 57 34 58 31 52.5 dil 32 54 35 60 41 70 37.5 64 39.5 67 45.5 77.5 40.5 69 41 70 43.5 74 42 71 51 67 80 44 75 73 45 77 75 44 45 77 73 47 79 75 52 88 85 53 89 5 78.5 48 81.5 77 49.5 84 80 (continued) (al In 50 nun (2 in.). fb\ Based on cold drawn AISI 1212 steel ae 100% average machlnability 30 55 86 20 45 95 30 55 86 20 45 95 28 50 95 20 40 105 2H 50 95 19 40 105 28 50 101 18 40 111 25 50 111 18 40 121 26 50 105 16 40 116 25 50 116 15 40 126 25 50 116 15 40 131 25 50 111 15 40 121 24 48 116 15 40 131 23 47 121 15 40 137 25 50 111 15 40 121 20 42 149 12 35 163 25 50 116 15 40 126 24 49 126 15 40 143 18 40 149 12 35 163 20 42 137 12 35 149 18 40 143 12 35 163 16 40 163 12 35 187 18 40 143 12 35 167 18 40 149 12 35 163 16 40 156 12 35 179 18 40 149 12 35 170 15 40 187 10 30 207 10 45 184 16 40 163 12 35 179 12 45 179 16 40 163 12 35 179 12 45 179 16 40 163 16 40 163 12 35 179 12 45 170 15 40 170 12 35 187 12 45 179 15 30 192 10 28 207 10 35 187 14 33 197 10 28 217 10 35 192 15 35 179 IO 30 197 10 40 187 15 35 179 10 30 197 10 40 189 . . . 50 . . . 55 . . . 55 . . . 55 . . . 60 . . . 70 . . . 65 . 70 . . . 70 . . . 65 . . . 70 I.. 70 . . . 65 . . . 60 . . . 65 . . . 75 . . . 65 . . . 70 . . . 65 . . . 55 65 . . . 65 . . . 60 . . . 60 . . . 45 60 . . . 60 70 . . . 60 70 . . . . . . 55 65 . . . :z . . . 40 45 . . . 45 50 . . . 45 55 . . . 45 55
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