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ASM
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    Automatic Storage Management Views:1. desc v$asm_diskgroup2. desc v$asm_disk3. desc v$asm_client4. desc v$asm_disk_statAutomatic Storage Management (ASM) is a feature in Oracle Database 10g/11g thatprovides the database administrator with a simple storage management interfacethat is consistent across all server and storage platforms. The ASM functionality is controlled by an ASM instance. This is not a full databaseinstance, just the memory structures and as such is very small and lightweight. The main components of ASM are disk groups, each of which comprise of severalphysical disks that are controlled as a single unit. The physical disks are known asASM disks, while the files that reside on the disks are known as ASM files. Thelocations and names for the files are controlled by ASM. To create a database that uses storage managed by Automatic StorageManagement, we must first start the ASM instance. However, an ASM instance doesnot require that a database instance is running.We can achieve RAID implementation at Oracle level with the help of ASM (fromOracle 10G), with ASM we can avoid such expenses since ASM is free with Oracle10g software.RAID: redundant array of inexpensive drive the implementation of RAID will bepossible at 3 levels.1, Hardware level 2, Operating system level 3, Oracle levelIt will be more expensive implementation of RAID at hardware level and it needsmore knowledge of system administration for operating system level RAIDimplementation.There is no cost for implementation of RAID at Oracle level, and is preferable fordatabase administrators to implement RAID at Oracle level.  If one disk goes down then none of other disks works.If one disk crashes then the show doesn’t stop.ASM is only an instance with background processes and SGA only. And ASMsupports not only regular database but also RAC(real application cluster) database.ASM included[takes care of] all files C/R/D, archives, rman backups, flashback logfiles, temp files, sp file ….ASM Availability:Redundancy No of failover groupsExternal 1Normal 2High 3  1.create four manual partitions. To create manual partitions:We need to login as root to make the manual partitions.1. fdisk –l #to see existing partitions.2. fdisk /dev/sda3. type m and enter to see the options.4.type n to create new partition.5. type enter once and specify the size +1000M and enter6.repeat the 5 th step three times to create four partitions.7.type w and enter to save it.8. partprobe #to take effect of partitions immediately.9.fdisk –l #to see the existing partitions.10.chown –R oracle:oinstall /dev/sda6 /dev/sda7 /dev/sda8 /dev/sda9Prepare the directory structure:#su - oracle$cd$mkdir asm$cd asm$mkdir udump cdump bdumpGo to default location of parameter files. Prepare the asm parameter.$cd $ORACLE_HOME/dbs$vi init+ASM.orainstance_type=asminstance_name=+ASMasm_diskstring='/dev/sda6','/dev/sda7','/dev/sda8','/dev/sda9'shared_pool_size=100M  background_dump_dest='/home/oracle/asm/bdump'user_dump_dest='/home/oracle/asm/udump'core_dump_dest='/home/oracle/asm/cdump':wq$cdEnter into root account:$su – root#cd /home/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1/bin #sh localconfig add #cluster synchronization service. #ps –ef |grep cssLogin into as oracle.#su - oracle$crsctl check css # to check the status.Export the ASM instance:$export ORACLE_SID=+ASM$sqlplus / as sysdba>startup nomunt; # it will read the parameter file.>create diskgroup dgrp1 normal redundancy failgroup f1 disk'/dev/sda6','/dev/sda7'failgroup f2 disk '/dev/sda8','/dev/sda9';>select GROUP_NUMBER,NAME from v$asm_diskgroup;>shutdown immediate;>startup nomount;>alter diskgroup dgrp1 mount;>alter diskgroup dgrp1 add directory '+dgrp1/prod1';>alter diskgroup dgrp1 add directory '+dgrp1/prod1/control';>alter diskgroup dgrp1 add directory '+dgrp1/prod1/data';
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