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© 2006 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. ASM Handbook, Volume 13C, Corrosion: Environments and Industries (#05145) ASM HandbookÕ Volume 13C Corrosion: Environments and Industries Prepared under the direction of the ASM International Handbook Committee Stephen D. Cramer and Bernard S. Covino, Jr., Volume Editors Charles Moosbrugger, Project Editor Madrid Tramble, Senior Production Coordinator Diane Grubbs, Editorial Assistant Pattie Pace, Production Coordinator
  ASM Handbook  Volume 13CCorrosion: Environments and Industries Prepared under the direction of theASM International Handbook Committee Stephen D. Cramer and Bernard S. Covino, Jr.,  Volume Editors Charles Moosbrugger,  Project Editor Madrid Tramble,  Senior Production Coordinator Diane Grubbs,  Editorial Assistant Pattie Pace,  Production Coordinator Diane Wilkoff,  Production Coordinator Kathryn Muldoon,  Production Assistant Scott D. Henry,  Senior Product Manager Bonnie R. Sanders,  Manager of Production Editorial Assistance  Joseph R. DavisElizabeth MarquardHeather LampmanMarc SchaeferBeverly MusgroveCindy KarcherKathy DragolichMaterials Park, Ohio © 2006 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. ASM Handbook, Volume 13C, Corrosion: Environments and Industries (#05145)  Copyright # 2006by ASM International 1 All rights reservedNo part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the copyright owner.First printing, November 2006This book is a collective effort involving hundreds of technical specialists. It brings together a wealth of information fromworldwide sources to help scientists, engineers, and technicians solve current and long-range problems.Great care is taken in the compilation and production of this Volume, but it should be made clear that NO WARRANTIES,EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR APARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE GIVEN IN CONNECTION WITH THIS PUBLICATION. Although this information is believed to beaccurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication isintendedforusebypersonshavingtechnicalskill,attheirsolediscretionandrisk.Sincetheconditionsofproductormaterialuseareoutsideof ASM’s control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this information. No claim of any kind, whetherasto productsorinformationin thispublication,andwhetherornotbasedon negligence,shallbegreaterin amountthanthepurchasepriceof this product or publication in respect of which damages are claimed. THE REMEDY HEREBY PROVIDED SHALL BE THEEXCLUSIVE AND SOLE REMEDY OF BUYER, AND IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIABLE FOR SPECIAL,INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHETHER OR NOT CAUSED BY OR RESULTING FROM THE NEGLIGENCEOF SUCH PARTY. As with any material, evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to specification is essential. Therefore,specific testing under actual conditions is recommended.Nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale, use, or reproduction, inconnection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or system, whether or not covered by letters patent, copyright, ortrademark, and nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters patent, copyright,or trademark, or as a defense against liability for such infringement.Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are invited, and should be forwarded to ASM International.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataASM InternationalASM Handbook Includes bibliographical references and indexesContents: v.1. Properties and selection—irons, steels, and high-performance alloys—v.2. Properties and selection—nonferrous alloys andspecial-purpose materials—[etc.]—v.21. Composites1. Metals—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Metal-work—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. ASM International. Handbook Committee.II. Metals Handbook.TA459.M43 1990 620.1 0 6 90-115SAN: 204-7586ISBN-13: 978-0-87170-709-3ISBN-10: 0-87170-709-8 ASM International 1 Materials Park, OH 44073-0002www.asminternational.orgPrinted in the United States of AmericaMultiple copy reprints of individual articles are available from Technical Department, ASM International. © 2006 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. ASM Handbook, Volume 13C, Corrosion: Environments and Industries (#05145)  Foreword This work,  Corrosion: Environments and Industries , is application driven. The best practices in seg-ments of industry with respect to materials selection, protection of materials, and monitoring of corrosionare presented. The challenges of local environments encountered within these industries, as well as large-scale environmental challenges, are documented. The choice of solutions to these challenges can befound.Just as the environment affects materials, so also corrosion and its by-products affect the immediateenvironment. Nowhere is the immediate effect of more concern than in biomedical implants. We arepleased with the new information shared by experts in this field.As we recognize the energy costs of producing new materials of construction, the creation of engi-neered systems that will resist corrosion takes on added importance. The importance and costs of maintenance have been discussed for many of the industrial segments—aviation, automotive, oil and gaspipeline, chemical, and pulp and paper industries, as well as the military. The consequences of materialdegradationareaddressedastheservicetemperaturesofmaterialsarepushedhigherforgreaterefficiencyin energy conversion. As engineered systems are made more complex and the controlling electronics aremade smaller, the tolerance for any corrosion is lessened.ASM International is deeply indebted to the Editors, Stephen D. Cramer and Bernard S. Covino, Jr.,who envisioned the revision of the landmark 1987  Metals Handbook,  9th edition, Volume13. The energythey sustained throughout this project and the care they gave to every article has been huge. The resultingthree Volumes contain 281 articles, nearly 3000 pages, 3000 figures, and 1500 tables––certainlyimpressive statistics. Our Society is as impressed and equally grateful for the way in which they recruitedand encouraged a community of corrosion experts from around the world and from many professionalorganizations to volunteer their time and ability.Wearegratefultothe200authorsandreviewerswhosharedtheirknowledgeofcorrosionandmaterialsfor the good of this Volume. They are listed on the next several pages. And again, thanks to the con-tributors to the preceding two Volumes and the srcinal 9th edition  Corrosion  Volume.Thanks also go to the members of the ASM Handbook Committee for their involvement in this projectand their commitment to keep the information of the  ASM Handbook   series current and relevant to theneeds of our members and the technical community. Finally, thanks to the ASM editorial and productionstaff for the overall result.Reza AbbaschianPresidentASM InternationalStanley C. TheobaldManaging DirectorASM International iii © 2006 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. ASM Handbook, Volume 13C, Corrosion: Environments and Industries (#05145)  Policy on Units of Measure By a resolution of its Board of Trustees, ASM International has adoptedthe practice of publishing data in both metric and customary U.S. units of measure. In preparing this Handbook, the editors have attempted to presentdatainmetricunitsbasedprimarilyonSyste`meInternationald’Unite´s(SI),with secondary mention of the corresponding values in customary U.S.units.ThedecisiontouseSIastheprimarysystemofunitswasbasedontheaforementioned resolution of the Board of Trustees and the widespread useof metric units throughout the world.Forthemostpart,numericalengineeringdatainthetextandintablesarepresented in SI-based units with the customary U.S. equivalents in par-entheses(text)oradjoiningcolumns(tables).Forexample,pressure,stress,and strength are shown both in SI units, which are pascals (Pa) with asuitable prefix, and in customary U.S. units, which are pounds per squareinch (psi). To save space, large values of psi have been converted to kipsper square inch (ksi), where 1 ksi = 1000 psi. The metric tonne (kg  · 10 3 )has sometimes been shown in megagrams (Mg). Some strictly scientificdata are presented in SI units only.To clarify some illustrations, only one set of units is presented on art-work. References in the accompanying text to data in the illustrations arepresentedinbothSI-based and customary U.S.units.On graphsandcharts,grids corresponding to SI-based units usually appear along the left andbottom edges. Where appropriate, corresponding customary U.S. unitsappear along the top and right edges.Data pertaining to a specification published by a specification-writinggroup may be given in only the units used in that specification or in dualunits, depending on the nature of the data. For example, the typical yieldstrength of steel sheet made to a specification written in customary U.S.units would be presented in dual units, but the sheet thickness specified inthat specification might be presented only in inches.Data obtained according to standardized test methods for which thestandard recommends a particular system of units are presented in the unitsof that system. Wherever feasible, equivalent units are also presented.Somestatisticaldatamayalsobepresentedinonlytheoriginalunitsusedinthe analysis.Conversions and rounding have been done in accordance with IEEE/ ASTM SI-10, with attention given to the number of significant digits in thesrcinal data. For example, an annealing temperature of 1570   F containsthree significant digits. In this case, the equivalent temperature would begiven as 855   C; the exact conversion to 854.44   C would not be appro-priate. For an invariant physical phenomenon that occurs at a precisetemperature (such as the melting of pure silver), it would be appropriate toreport the temperature as 961.93   C or 1763.5   F. In some instances(especially in tables and data compilations), temperature values in   C and  F are alternatives rather than conversions.The policy of units of measure in this Handbook contains severalexceptions to strict conformance to IEEE/ASTM SI-10; in each instance,the exception has been made in an effort to improve the clarity of theHandbook. The most notable exception is the use of g/cm 3 rather thankg/m 3 as the unit of measure for density (mass per unit volume).SI practice requires that only one virgule (diagonal) appear in unitsformed by combination of several basic units. Therefore, all of the unitspreceding the virgule are in the numerator and all units following thevirgule are in the denominator of the expression; no parentheses arerequired to prevent ambiguity. iv © 2006 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. ASM Handbook, Volume 13C, Corrosion: Environments and Industries (#05145)
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