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  Digital Logic Design  ascs  Combinational Circuits  Sequential CircuitsPu-Jen Cheng  Adapted from the slides prepared by S. Dandamudi for the book, Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Design.  Introduction to Digital Logic Basics  Hardware consists of a few simple building blocks  These are called logic gates   AND, OR, NOT, …  NAND, NOR, XOR, …  ogc gaes are u usng ranssors  NOT gate can be implemented by a single transistor    AND gate requires 3 transistors  Transistors are the fundamental devices  Pentium consists of 3 million transistors  Compaq Alpha consists of 9 million transistors  Now we can build chips with more than 100 million transistors  Basic Concepts  Simple gates   AND  OR  NOT  Functionality can be expressed by a truth table   A truth table lists output for each possible input combination  Precedence  NOT > AND > OR  F = A B + A B= (A (B)) + ((A) B)  Basic Concepts (cont.)   Additional useful gates  NAND  NOR  XOR  NAND = AND + NOT   XOR implements exclusive-OR function  NAND and NOR gates require only 2 transistors   AND and OR need 3 transistors!
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