... frequencies, C open, L shorted, Vlc maximum. High frequency, C shorted, ... so, at high and low frequencies, see an open circuit - Vlc maximum. Another Example: ...

**Title: Announcements** ** 1** Announcements

Assignment 1 due now. Assignment 2 posted, due on Thursday ** 2** Lecture 7 Overview

Filters Transient Circuits ** 3** Low pass filter

RC low-pass filter preserves lower frequencies, attenuates frequencies above the cutoff frequency ?01/RC. ** 4** Low pass filter Break frequency ??01/RC, HV1/v2 N.B. decibels

** 5** Build other filters by combining impedance response

** 6** Which of the following is a low-pass filter? What happens to the output voltage when ??0 (DC condition)? Answer (c)

** 7** Which of the following are high-pass or low-pass filters? Answers (b) and (c) are high-pass (a) and (d) are low-pass

** 8** RLC Band-pass filters Measuring voltage output signal over R, Vr Low frequencies, C open, L shorted, Vr minimum High frequency, C shorted, L open, Vr minimum so, at high and low frequencies, see an open circuit - Vr minimum

** 9** Band-stop (Notch) filters Measuring voltage output signal over L and C Low frequencies, C open, L shorted, Vlc maximum High frequency, C shorted, L open, Vlcmaximum so, at high and low frequencies, see an open circuit - Vlc maximum

** 10** Another Example Measuring voltage output signal over L and C, but this time in parallel (i.e. at high and low frequencies, see a short - V00)

** 11** Transient Circuits

** 12** Charging a capacitor During Charging (left-hand loop) Integrate both sides using Gives

** 13** Charging a capacitor Solution is only true for that particular circuit (Voltage source plus resistor), but more complicated circuits can be reduced to this using Thevenin's Theorem Time constant tRC. Time needed to charge capacitor to 63 of full charge Larger RC means the capacitor takes longer to charge Larger R implies smaller current flow The larger C is, the more charge the capacitor can hold.

** 14** Discharging a capacitor Charged Begin discharging Time constant tRC. Time needed for capacitor to drop to 37 of full charge Current flows in the opposite direction to charging Larger RC means the capacitor takes longer to discharge file///Us ers/jholder/teaching/phys645/2011/rc/rc.html http //www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/viewtopic.php?t48

** 15** Charging Capacitors Which configuration has the largest final charge on the capacitor? Answer both the same (no current flow means no voltage drop across resistors)

** 16** Charging Capacitors Which capacitor charges fastest? Answer b)

** 17** Time response of Inductors Switch to position a Integrate and apply boundary condition t0, i0 Time constant tL/R. Talk about "Charging a capacitor" "Current build-up" in an inductor Switch to position b

** 18** Time response of Inductors A battery is connected to an inductor. When the switch is opened does the light bulb 1.Remain off 2.Go off 3. Slowly Dim out 4. Keep burning as brightly as it did before the switch was opened 5. Flare up brightly, then dim and go out Answer 5

** 19** Why care about Transient Analysis?not everything is a sine wave....

Time dependence is very useful for some applications (e.g. making a clock) Also becomes important in digital applications Transient refers to transition region between two states. e.g. at the edges of a square wave ** 20** Transient Analysis

Transistors are used as switches in digital circuits Gate input used to control switching Physical construction of transistors leads to "Capacitor Effect" Switching is not instantaneous Delay determined by RC time constant