Annex on rainfed agriculture

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 87
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information Report
Category:

Philosophy

Published:

Views: 2 | Pages: 87

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Share
Related documents
Description
This report focuses on key policy and institutional issues in the agricultural sector, particularly water management and irrigated animal husbandry. A broadening of the sector development strategy is required. Specific measures should involve: (a) rehabilitation and maintenance of water courses; (b) improvement of water management activities; (c) improvement of irrigated agriculture husbandry; (d) filling the institutional vacuum and building up support services for irrigated agriculture; (e) formulating a program to use rainfed agriculture technology; and (f) improving education of the farm population. In addition, consideration should be given fertilizer use, Tarbela water resources, alternative methods of irrigation expansion and drainage control, an adequate resource base, organizational reform, and technical assistance.
Tags
Transcript
Report No. 922a-PAKI Pakiistan Special Agriculture Sector Review (In Five Volumes) Volume IV: Annex on Rainfed Agriculture January 28, 1976 General Agriculture Division South Asia Projects Department Not for Public Use Document of the World Bank This document has a restricted distribution and may be used by reci,pients only in the performance of their official duties. Its contents may not, otherwise be disclosed without World Bank authorization. CURRENCY EQUIVALENTS Rs 9.90 US$ 1.00 Rs 1.00 US$ 0.10 Rs 1.0 million = US$101,010 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 1 Acre (ac) 0.405 Hectares (ha) 1 Bale (raw cotton) = 392 lbs 1 Long Ton (lg ton) = 1.016 metric tons 1 Maund (md) 82.286 lbs 1 Seer 2.057 lbs 1 Square about 25 acres GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS ADB - Agricultural Development Bank CSU - Colorado State University FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization GOP - Government of Pakistan HTS - Hunting Technical Services Limited IACA - Irrigation and Agriculture Consultants Association ILACO - International Land Development Consultants, N. V. NWFP - North West Frontier Province PIU - Produce Index Unit SCARP - Salinity Control and Reclamation Project UNDP - United Nations Development Programme USAID - United States Agency for International Development WAPDA - Water and Power Development Authority of West Pakistan GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN FISCAL YEAR July 1 to June 30 This report was prepared by a mission comprising Messrs. Risto Harma (Chief of Mission), William Edwards, John Wall (Bank), Lindsay Durham, John Cunningham, Howard Hjort and Lee Paramore (consultants). The mission visited Pakistan from late March to late April 1975. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY PAKISTAN SPECIAL AGRICULTURE SECTOR REVIEW RAINFED AGRICULTURE Table of Contents Page No. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................... 1 1. DEFINITION OF THE BARANI LANDS ............................. 5 Terminology ........................................... 5 Map Reference ......................................... 6 Physical Information .................................. 7 (a) Topography ....................................... 7 (b) Climate .......................................... 8 (c) Soils ............................................ 9 Classification of Barani Areas r ........................ 9 (a) Annual Rainfall Basis ..... ................... 9 (i) Punjab ...................................... 9 (ii) North West Frontier Province .... ............ 10 (iii) Baluchistan ................................. 10 (iv) Sind ........ I 11 (b) Basis of Ecological Zones (Ecozones) .... ......... 11 Area .................................................. 13 Farm Size . ............................................. 15 Population . ............................................. 16 2. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN BARANI AREAS ..... ............... 16 A. Crops and,Cropping Systems ...... ...................... 16 B. Crop Production ........... ............................. 18 C. Barani Lands - Some Specific Examples ...... ............. 21 Rawalpindi Division (Punjab) .......................... 21 Hazara District (Peshawar Division, NWFP) .... ......... 27 District of Dera Ghazi Khan (Punjab) ..... ............. 29 This document has a restricted distribution and may be used by recipients only in the performance of their official duties. Its contents may not otherwise be disclosed without World Bank autho'rization. -2- Page No. D. A Summary *.* .********......... ...... *.. ****.*.... 32 Riverain Sailaba Areas ...... . ......** ..... *........O- 32 Torrent-Water Sailaba Areas .....................,..... 36 3. POTENTIAL FOR INCREASED PRODUCTION ......................... 36 A. Research and Experimental Evidence .... ................ 36 B. USAID/CARE Co-operative Program ....................... 40 C. The Ford Foundation ................................... 42 D. FAO/Soil Survey of Pakistan - Definition of Crop Ecological Zones .................................... 44 E. Soil Survey of Pakistan - Classification of Land According to Development Potential .... .............. 45 F. Summary of Development Potential ...................... 47 4. CONSTRAINTS LIMITING PRODUCTION ............................ 55 A. Socio-Economic Factors ................................ 55 B. Technical Factors ..................................... 56 C. Institutional Factors ................................. 60 5. STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION .......... 61 A. The Basic Framework ................................... 61 B. Agents of Change ...................................... 62 C. Farm Mechanization .................................... 65 6. RELATED ISSUES ...................... ....................... 66 A. Livestock Industry .................................... 66 Range Management ...................................... 67 B. Forestry .......... .................................... 67 Integrated Land Use and Resource Management .... ....... 68 7. PROJECTS . ................................................... 68 Appendix 1: Details of Terms of Reference for Punjab Barani Commission Appendix 2: Extract from Draft Report for Bank by H. Kitching, 15/3/75 MAPS IBRD 11816 - Punjab Barani Lands - Major Ecozones and Landuse IBRD 11817 - Approximate Principal Rainfed and Related Dryland Areas 8.1 - West Pakistan - Generalized Soil Map PAKISTAN SPECIAL AGRICULTURE SECTOR REVIEW RAINFED AGRICULTURE SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMIENDATIONS i. The term barani relates to rainfed agriculture. The main rain- fed agricultural areas, with annual rainfall from 20-40 in, are in northern Punjab and North West Frontier Province. ii. There are dryland farming areas, sailaba areas, in the riverine (riverain) floodplains along the Indus River and its tributaries; and in the torrent-watered sailaba areas, with below 10-12 in annual rainfall, in all Provinces. iii. Throughout these dryland farming areas annual rainfall is gene- rally low and always unreliable. The critical importance of soil moisture in agricultural production together with age-old cultural practices in a subsistence-oriented farming systems are reflected in low average crop yields. iv. Some 11 to 12 million people (about one-sixth of the total pop- ulation) live in these areas which, because of low crop yields, are deficient in food grains. v. Farms are mostly small in size. For Pakistan as a whole, about 50 percent of farms are 5 acres or less in size. In some areas the figure is relatively high -- for example, 92 percent in Hazara District, NWFP, and 75% in Rawalpindi Division, Punjab -- reflecting concentrations of rural poverty. vi. Some 50-60 percent of those who obtain their livelihood in these areas are tenant farmers and landless laborers. In areas of very low rain- fall, migratory livestock grazing is more important than agriculture. A significant number of these people lead a nomadic life. vii. The total cultivated area of Pakistan is about 48 million acres of which 33 million acres are irrigated and 15 million acres are classified as barani, including the sailaba lands. viii. The main dryland crops are: Rabi - wheat, gram, lentil, rape seed and mustard Kharif - maize, jowar, bajra, pulses and groundnuts Wheat, the most important crop in the rainfed area accounts for about 25 percent of total wheat area, and 10 percent of the country's total wheat production. By area, gram is the second most important crop and accounts for 70 percent of total gram production. Maize is an important crop, requir- ing about 30 in annual rainfall, and accounts for 18 percent of total maize production. ix. For the three years 1970-73, overall average wheat yields (in maunds per acre) in the four Provinces ranged from 3.8 - 5.2 in Punjab, 4.6 - 6.2 in NWFP, 6.3 - 8.2 in Sind, and 1.5 - 2.1 in Baluchistan. The mean yield for Pakistan was approximately 5 maunds per acre for barani wheat. x. In recent years, a number of field trials and demonstration programs have produced clear evidence that there is a potential to increase cereal crop yields by adopting a package of improved cultural practices. In some trials yields of wheat have been increased 4 to 5 times. Conser- vatively, there is a potential to increase yields 2 to 5 times in higher rainfall areas and to add possibly 50 percent to yields in the lower rain- fall areas. xi. The main constraints now limiting production are: (a) low, unreliable rainfall; (b) cultural/social factors and low-risk attitudes built into subsistence-oriented farming systems; (c) age-old cultural practices and inadequate tillage, parti- cularly depth of ploughing; (d) inadequate farm power for timely planting; (e) small size and fragmentation of farms; (f) low soil fertility; (g) unsuitable cropping patterns; and (h) serious soil erosion resulting from a combination of these factors. xii. The package of improved cultural practices includes: (a) increasing farm power and improving tillage methods, e.g., deeper ploughing, less cultivation, better timeliness; (b) using seed of improved varieties and recommended plant protection measures where applicable; and - 3 - (c) using a balanced nitrogen/phosphorus fertilizer. xiii. In Punjab the barani cultivated area is about 5 million acres; in NWFP, about 2.5 million acres. About 3.3 million acres of this are annually planted to wheat and it is estimated that between 2.0 and 2.5 million acres (say, 2.3 million) are in areas with annual rainfall above 20 inches. A doubling of the 1970-73 median wheat yield of 5 maunds per acre over this area would increase wheat production by 420,000 tons. xiv. It is estimated that there are a further 0.8 to 1.0 million acres in the 12-20 in rainfall areas in Punjab and NWFP. Doubling the 1970-73 median yield of 3.5 maunds per acre would add 130,000 tons to wheat pro- duction. xv. In the low rainfall areas receiving less than 12 in annual rain- fall, further 2.4 million acres are annually sown to wheat bringing the total barani wheat acreage to some 5.5-6.0 M ac. Many difficulties stand in the way of introducing improved cultural practices in these areas,, but in the longer term, with improved varieties and some improvements in cultural practices, a 50 percent yield increase should be a reasonable target. Such an increase would add 100,000 tons to wheat production. xvi. Estimates often given in Pakistan indicate that improved practices could result in an increase of approximately 1 million tons annually in wheat production for the barani areas. On a conservative basis, and without placing any reliance on obtaining increases in low rainfall areas, a doubling of the present yields (and possibly a trebling of yield in rainfall above 30 inches) implies an increase of approximately 600,000 tons in wheat production. xvii. A doubling of the maize yield from the median yield of 8 m!aunds per acre on the 0.35 million acres sown annually in the higher rainfall areas would add 100,000 tons to total maize production. xviii. If improved cultural practices are applied to other important crops such as gram, jowar, bajra, barley, oilseeds, and groundnuts, it is possible to foresee a total increase in excess of 1 million tons annually for pro- duction from the main cereals, oilseed crops and pulses. xix. In the shorter term, measures aimed at yield increases have a high priority to help bridge the gap in food grain production. 'In the longer term, measures must also be directed towards changes in cropping patterns and current methods of land use in order to guarantee production on a sustained basis. xx. A fundamental flaw in much of the planning for agricultural develop- ment in Pakistan is the assumption that necessary back-up facilities and extension services are, or will be, available for support of a new program or technology. Basic information on the potential for increasing wheat yields under barani conditions for example, has been available for many years - 4 - but has gone largely unused. The Food and Agriculture Commission of 1960 pointed out the existence of technology for doubling the yields. This illus- trates the problem which exists in relaying information to farm level and insuring its applications. xxi. The potential for increasing cereal crop yields is greatest in areas with above 20 in annual rainfall. Although there are examples of substantial yield increases in areas with 12-20 in annual rainfall resulting from the use of good farming practices, it is doubtful whether these results can, or should, be translated to much larger areas in expectation of rapid gains in production. The situation is relatively more difficult in areas with annual rainfall below 12 in. xxii. The realization of the full potential for increased production over large areas will not be easy and, with existing knowledge, will require sustained progress through several stages. It should never be overlooked that the problem to be dealt with has two relatively intractable character- istics: (a) a harsh physical environment; and (b) a rural population which is large, mostly poor, generally illiterate, and with deeply ingrained social/cultural customs and attitudes. xxiii. Such characteristics do not imply that change is impossible, but rather that changes which seek to transform old and established ways and to introduce new elements of risk are not likely to occur quickly. In planning for these changes which are directed toward increasing total crop production, analysis of the many factors involved will be equally as import- ant as synthesis of the outreach program and obviously should precede it. xiv. If the Government of Pakistan is serious in its stated intentions of promoting increased agricultural production from the barani lands and improving the incomes and welfare of the rural people, policies related to these issues will need to be pursued vigorously. There is a need for an action program to both augment and capitalize on the momentum already gene- rated by the work of USAID/CARE and the Ford Foundation. Delay in starting such a program will only further forestall vitally needed additions to food- grain production. xxv. Action is needed at both the extension and research levels and the mission has recommended the inclusion of the following components in Pakistan's agricultural development program: (a) Extension. The aim of this component is: (i) to revitalize the whole of the extension services in barani areas. This will involve provision of machinery and vehicles; demonstration equipment and materials; technical assistance and in-service training; and assistance with incremental operational expenses during the first phase project of four years; and (ii) to help spread the results of research and demonstration programs being carried out by USAID/CARE and the Ford' Foundation in the higher rainfall areas of the country. (b) Research. The aim of this component is to facilitate the establishment of an'Arid Zone Research Unit, possibly as a wing of the proposed new National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad. This will involve provision of research equipment and vehicles; salary and related costs for a director, four research scientists and support staff; and assistance with research and operational expenses during the first phase of four years. (c) Management. The aim of this component is to establish a long-term, ongoing land resource management study. This will involve selection and acquisition of a subcatchment area of land of at least 1,000 ac; provision of machinery, vehicles on-site buildings, etc.; land reclamation; labor and materials for range regeneration, afforestation, fencing, etc.; salaries, wages and associated costs for a director, research assistants and support staff; and assistance with incremental operational expenses during the first phase of four years. xxvi. Large areas of the barani lands have only limited infrastructural development - roads, water supplies, electricity supplies. These features may also be included in the project but they have not been adequately quan- tified as yet for external financing. 1.: DEFINITION OF THE BARANI LANDS Terminology 1.01 The term barani , said to be of Persian origin, relates to rainfed agriculture. In this report, barani lands is defined as those farmIlands which are primarily dependent on rainfall for crop production. 1.02 There is often confusion over the meaning of the word barani as applied to areas which are not irrigated. In Punjab and NWFP, barani area is sometimes-used to refer to areas with annual rainfall above 20 in; at other times to refer to areas with sufficient annual rainfall (about 15 in) to grow winter wheat; and in other instances, to refer to all un-irrigated land, including the very low rainfall areas where farming is dependent on water- harvesting techniques. - 6 - 1.03 On the Baluchistan plateau, under conditions of extremely low and unreliable rainfall, the term khushkaba is used to describe what is essen- tially an opportunity-type barani farming system. Under this system, a crop (usually wheat) is sown with a minimum of pre-cultivation, either immediately after the initial winter rains or in expectation of winter rainfall and/or snowfall during the period mid-December to late February-early March. Results are entirely dependent upon the amount of winter rainfall/snowfall and the occurrence of follow-up spring rainfall. At best, crop yields are normally very low. For the three years 1970-73, the average yields of non-irrigated wheat in Baluchistan ranged between 1.5 and 2.1 maunds per acre. 1.04 Areas specifically excluded from barani lands are: (a) irrigation areas; and (b) arid zones1/ where crop cultivation is not feasible except under special circumstances, and where range management is the primary problem. Other areas which are closely related to barani lands but which, by defini- tion, should be excluded are - (a) riverine (riverain) sailaba areas which are floodplains adjacent to streams, subject to periodic flooding, and used for agriculture when floodwaters recede; and (b) torrent-watered sailaba areas, generally on piedmont plains where cultivation is dependent upon diversion and spreading of water from hill-torrent runoff following rainfall in adjacent hill catchments. The term roht kohi' is sometimes applied to this farming system. Although irrigated to some extent, sailaba areas do not fit the usual definition of irrigated agriculture. They are more closely related to rain- fed agriculture and have been mentioned here for the purpose of
Recommended
View more...
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks