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  Running head:  ASSESSMENT OF ANIMAL BITES 1  ASSESSMENT OF ANIMAL BITES Student’s NameInstitution Affiliation    2  ASSESSMENT OF ANIMAL BITES Question:  Assessment of animal bites on a seven-day trekkin e!"edition from Siem #ea" to Ankor $at% &ambodia' An animal bite is a (ound' )sually% a *ut or s*rat*+% *aused by t+e teet+ of t+e animal'  An animal bite often results to bruises on t+e skin from t+e e!*essive "ressure on a skintissue from t+e bite' T+e in,uries *an o**ur (it+out a break of t+e skin' Ot+er sna*k o**urren*es may be alleedly un*alled-for' Bitin is a me*+ani*al a*tion not only e!"lainin an atta*k% but it is a reasonable rea*tion in an animal as it feeds% *arries ob,e*ts% softens and makes food for its youn ones % durin removal of e!ternal "arasites from its "+ysiue surfa*e% (+en its removin "lant seeds atta*+ed on its body%s*rat*+in itself% and *+asin ot+er animals'  Animal bites are often as results in severe infe*tions and mortality' Animal bites do not only in*lude (ounds from t+e teet+ of re"tiles% mammals% but fis+% and am"+ibians and also art+ro"ods *an also bite and *ause in,uries'Bite in,uries *an enerate numeral sins and sym"toms (+i*+ are enerali.ed tissue in,ury *aused by t+e tearin and s*rat*+in of t+e animal% severe +emorr+ae if a sinifi*ant blood vessels are "ri*ked% also an infe*tion from ba*teria or "at+oens e!am"le rabies% de"osition of "oisonous venom into t+e in,ured tissue from bites by "oisonous animals (+i*+ in*lude snakes% introdu*tion of ot+er irritants into t+e (ound% *ausin irritation and it*+inBites are usually rou" by t+e ty"e of animal t+at +as *aused t+e in,ury' Several animalsare kno(n to bite +umans/ t+ey in*lude t+e +uman’s *om"anion animals% su*+ as dos%  3  ASSESSMENT OF ANIMAL BITES*ats% ferrets% or "arrots' T+e se*ond rou" is t+e $ildlife sometimes t+ey eat "eo"le' T+e ot+er bites are from t+e mammals rou" su*+ as bats% skunks% (olves% ra**oons' T+ese animals may s"read rabies% (+i*+ is fatal if not treated'Involuntary bitin in,uries due to *losed fist in,uries from fists strikin teet+ are a *ommon out*ome of fist fi+ts' T+ese +ave been named fi+t bites' Lesions in (+i*+ t+e knu*kle ,oints or tendons of t+e +and are bitten into tend to be t+e most severe'Teet+in infants are kno(n to bite ob,e*ts to relieve "ressure on t+eir ro(in teet+% andmay inadvertently bite "eo"le0s +ands or arms (+ile doin so' 1oun offs"rin’s may bite a "erson out of aner% alt+ou+ t+is is usually *orre*ted early in t+e *+ild0s life'T+e bites from art+ro"ods +ave t+e most severe +ealt+ *onseuen*es kno(n' Mosuitobites s"read serious diseases and results in millions of deat+s and infe*tions in t+e (orld' Ti*ks also *arry many diseases su*+ as Lyme disease' S"ider bites from "oisonous s"ider may lead to deat+ if one is bitten' Inse*t bites and stins su*+ as Flea -bites are res"onsible for t+e transmission of "laue' Mosuito bites are res"onsible in r t+e s"read of denue fever and malaria'One of t+e animal bites Seem #ea"% and Ankor $at areas in &ambodia is Mosuito bites' Mosuitos bites *ause an un*omfortable bum" t+at a""ears after t+ey use t+eir mout+ to "un*ture t+e +uman skin and feed on blood' T+e *ra*k usually disa""ears u" on its o(n after a fe( days' Sometimes a mosuito bite *auses a lare area of s(ellin%soreness% and redness' T+is ty"e of rea*tion% most *ommon in *+ildren% is sometimes referred to as skeeter syndrome'  4  ASSESSMENT OF ANIMAL BITESBites from mosuitoes *arry *ertain viruses or "arasites *an *ause severe infe*tion' Mosuitoes in many "arts of t+e (orld *ause diseases su*+ as malaria and 2enue andviruses su*+ as like virus and $est Nile virus to +umans' Ot+er mosuito-borne infe*tions in*lude yello( fever% malaria and some ty"es of brain disease or en*e"+alitis'Malaria is a mosuito-borne disease *aused by a "arasite' Malaria is a very severe and "otentially deadly disease is s"read by mosuitoes' If you are travelin in endemi* areas% it is *riti*al to avoid mosuito bites and to take tablets to "revent t+e disease from develo"in if you be*ome infe*ted' Malaria is *aused by a bite from t+e female  Ano"+eles mosuito% (+i*+ t+en *ontaminates t+e body (it+ t+e "arasite 3lasmodium' T+e female mosuito is t+e only mosuito t+at *auses malaria42enis% 56678' For t+e "arasite to su**essful develo" (it+in t+e mosuito it de"ends on several fa*tors% t+e most im"ortant bein +umidity and ambient tem"eratures42enis% 56678' $+en an infe*ted mosuito bites a +uman +ost% t+e "arasite enters t+e bloodstream and lays dormant (it+in t+e liver' For t+e ne!t 9-5: days% t+e +ost (ill s+o( no sym"toms% but t+e malaria "arasite (ill bein multi"lyin ase!ually'T+e ne( malaria "arasites are t+en released ba*k into t+e bloodstream (+en t+ey infe*t red blood *ells and aain bein to in*rease' &ertain malaria "arasites% nevert+eless% remain in t+e +uman liver and are not free until later% *ausin in rea""earan*e'  An unaffe*ted mosuito be*omes infe*ted on*e it feeds on an infe*ted individual% t+us beinnin t+e *y*le aain  5  ASSESSMENT OF ANIMAL BITEST+e sym"toms of malaria in*lude fever% *+ills and s(eatin% +eada*+e% a*+in ,oints% diarr+ea and stoma*+ "ains% usually lead to more serious sym"toms if not treated (+i*+are; fever and *+ills% Im"aired *ons*iousness% 3rostration% Multi"le *onvulsions% 2ee" breat+in and res"iratory distress% Abnormal bleedin and sins of anemia% &lini*al  ,aundi*e and eviden*e of vital oran dysfun*tion' Seek medi*al +el" immediately if malaria is sus"e*ted% as% (it+out treatment% t+e disease *an ra"idly be*ome more severe or even fatal' Malaria in Siem #ea" and most ot+er ma,or urban areas in &ambodia are not so *ommon'2enue is t+e viral disease (+i*+ is transmitted by mosuitoes' T+ere is only a small risk to travelers% e!*e"t durin e"idemi*s% (+i*+ usually o**ur durin and after t+e (et season' )nlike t+e malaria mosuito% t+e Aedes aey"ti mosuito% (+i*+ transmits t+e denue virus% is most a*tive durin t+e day'Sins and sym"toms of denue fever in*lude a sudden onset of +i+ fever% +eada*+e%  ,oint and mus*le "ains% "lus nausea and vomitin' A ras+ of small red s"ots a""ears t+ree to four days after t+e onset of illness' Look for medi*al attention if you t+ink you mi+t be si*k' A blood test *an dianose infe*tion% but t+ere is no s"e*ifi* treatment for t+e disease' As"irin s+ould be avoided% as it in*reases t+e risk of +emorr+ain' T+ere is no va**ine aainst denue fever' T+e best "revention is to "revent mosuito bites at all times'
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