An Optimal Layout Design in an Apparel Industry by Appropriate Line Balancing: A Case Study An Optimal Layout Design in an Apparel Industry by Appropriate Line Balancing: A Case Study

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The layout design problem is a strategic issue and has a significant impact on the efficiency of a manufacturing system. Much of the existing layout design literature that uses a surrogate function for flow distance or for simplified objectives may
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  © 2014. Md. Mominul Islam, H.M. Mohiuddin, Syimun Hasan Mehidi & Nazmus Sakib. This is a research/review paper, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), permitting all non commercial use, distribution, and reproduction inany medium, provided the srcinal work is properly cited.   Global Journal of Researches in Engineering: G  Industrial Engineering Volume 14 Issue 5 Version 1.0 Year 2014 Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal Publisher: Global Journals Inc. (USA) Online ISSN: 2249-4596 & Print ISSN: 0975-5861   An Optimal Layout Design in an Apparel Industry by Appropriate Line Balancing: A Case Study By Md. Mominul Islam, H.M. Mohiuddin, Syimun Hasan Mehidi & Nazmus Sakib Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET), Bangladesh  Abstract- The layout design problem is a strategic issue and has a significant impact on the efficiency of a manufacturing system. Much of the existing layout design literature that uses a surrogate function for flow distance or for simplified objectives may be entrapped into local optimum; and subsequently lead to a poor layout design. The present study explores the use of appropriate line balancing to facilitate a good layout design. Construction of a quality garment requires a great deal of know-how, a lot of coordination and schedule management. Clothing manufacturing consists of a variety of product categories, materials and styling. Dealing with constantly changing styles and consumer demands is so difficult. Furthermore, to adapt automation for the clothing system is also so hard because, beside the complex structure also it is labour intensive. Overall, the important criteria in garment production is whether assembly work will be finished on time for delivery, how machines and employees are being utilized, whether any station in the assembly line is lagging behind the schedule and how the assembly line is doing overall. To achieve this approach, work-time study, assembly line balancing and simulation can be applied to apparel production line to find alternative solutions to increase the efficiency of the sewing line. In this paper we showed how a good layout can be designed and productivity can be increased by appropriate assembly line balancing.   Keywords: line balancing, layout, time study. GJRE-G Classification : FOR Code: 290502p    AnOptimalLayoutDesigninanApparelIndustrybyAppropriateLineBalancingACaseStudy  Strictly as per the compliance and regulations of:     An Optimal Layout Design in an Apparel Industry by Appropriate Line Balancing: A Case Study Md. Mominul Islam   α ,   H.M. Mohiuddin   σ ,   Syimun Hasan Mehidi   ρ   &   Nazmus Sakib   Ѡ   bstract The layout design problem is a strategic issue and has a significant impact on the efficiency of a manufacturing system. Much of the existing layout design literature that uses a surrogate function for flow distance or for simplified objectives may be entrapped into local optimum; and subsequently lead to a poor layout design. The present study explores the use of appropriate line balancing to facilitate a good layout design. Construction of a quality garment requires a great deal of know-how a lot of coordination and schedule management. Clothing manufacturing consists of a variety of product categories materials and styling. Dealing with constantly changing styles and consumer demands is so difficult. Furthermore to adapt automation for the clothing system is also so hard because beside the complex structure also it is labour intensive. Overall the important criteria in garment production is whether assembly work will be finished on time for delivery how machines and employees are being utilized whether any station in the assembly line is lagging behind the schedule and how the assembly line is doing overall. To achieve this approach work-time study assembly line balancing and simulation can be applied to apparel production line to find alternative solutions to increase the efficiency of the sewing line. In this paper we showed how a good layout can be designed and productivity can be increased by appropriate assembly line balancing. Keywords:    line balancing, layout, time study. I.   I ntroduction ayout design often has a significant impact on the performance of a manufacturing or service industry system and is usually a multiple-objective problem. Garment industries are experiencing a very competitive era like many others, thus striving hard to find methods to reduce manufacturing costs, improve quality etc. In garment production, until garment components are gathered into a finished garment, they are assembled through a sub-assembly process. The production process includes a set of workstations, at each of which a specific task is carried out in a restricted sequence,   with hundreds of employees and thousands of bundles of sub-assemblies producing different styles simultaneously (Chan et al, 1998). The joining together of components, known as the sewing process which is  Author    α   σ     ρ Ѡ :  Department of Industrial Engineering and Management (IEM), Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET), Khulna, Bangladesh. e-mails: sobuj47@gmail.com, hmm.mohi@yahoo.com, mehidikuet09@gmail.com, sakib.iem09@gmail.com the most labour intensive part of garment manufacturing, makes the structure complex as the some works has a priority before being assembled (Cooklin,1991). Furthermore, since sewing process is labour intensive; apart from material costs, the cost structure of the sewing process is also important. Therefore, this process is of critical importance and needs to be planned more carefully (Tyler, 1991). As a consequence, good line balancing with small stocks in the sewing line has to be drawn up to increase the efficiency and quality of production (Cooklin, 1991; Tyler, 1991; Chuter, 1988). An assembly line is defined as a set of distinct tasks which is assigned to a set of workstations linked together by a transport mechanism under detailed assembling sequences specifying how the assembling process flows from one station to another (Tyler, 1991). In assembly line balancing, allocation of jobs to machines is based on the objective of minimizing the workflow among the operators, reducing the throughput time as well as the work in progress and thus increasing the productivity. Sharing a job of work between several people is called division of labour. Division of labour should be balanced equally by ensuring the time spent at each station approximately the same. Each individual step in the assembly of product has to be analysed carefully, and allocated to stations in a balanced way over the available workstations. Each operator then carries out operations properly and the work flow is synchronized. In a detailed work flow, synchronized line includes short distances between stations, low volume of work in process, precise of planning of production times, and predictable production quantity (Eberle et al, 2004). Overall, the important criteria in garment production is whether assembly work will be finished on time for delivery, how machines and employees are being utilized, whether any station in the assembly line is lagging behind the schedule and how the assembly line is doing overall. II.   D efinition of L  ayout  P roblems   A facility layout is an arrangement of everything needed for production of goods or delivery of services.  A facility is an entity that facilitates the performance of any job. It may be a machine tool, a work centre, a L ©2014 Global Journals Inc. (US)   G  l o  b a  l   J o u r n a  l  o  f  R e s e a r c  h e s   i n  E n g  i n e e r  i n g              (            )       G   V o  l u m e  X  I  V  I s s u e  V  V e r s  i o n  I  35       Y    e    a    r         2        0        1        4  manufacturing cell, a machine shop, a department, a warehouse, etc. (Heragu, 1997). The layout design generally depends on the products variety and the production volumes. Four types of organization are referred to in existing articles, namely fixed product layout, process layout, product layout and cellular layout (Dilworth, 1996). These key organizations are sometimes discussed differently according to the authors. In Fixed product layout, the products generally circulate within the production facilities (machines, workers, etc.); in this particular type of layout, the product does not move, it is the different resources that are moved to perform the operations on the product. This type of layout is commonly found in industries that manufacture large size products, such as ships or aircrafts. Process layout groups facilities with similar functions together (resources of the same type). In this paper, we focused on process layout and tried to show the optimistic way of process layout. III.   M ethodology   In the production of garment, at first garment model is designed. Then, according to model requirements, a sort of fabrics are cut as well as classified due to their sewing sequences. Then, cut fabrics are sewn and assembled in order to form garment. After the sewing and pressing process, garment is controlled for eliminating sewing faults, and finally it is sent to package and expedition. In this paper, to analyze the structure of garment assembly processes, a T-shirt sewing line was considered. The first step performed in this study was to understand T-shirts sewing processes’ components and sewing line problems. The objective was to have a clear idea on how a T-shirts production-sewing process line flows and then, how the line can be balanced as well as the performance of production line can be increased. Fig. 1 :   Processes required to produce T-shirt In this industry four processes are capable. The successive processes are knitting, Dyeing, Cutting and Sewing. Fig-1 showing the complete process maintained in this industry. Here total line balancing and optimized layout is obtained in sewing process. The steps of sewing process are following: a)   Bottom ham b)   Shoulder joint c)   Rib close d)   Rib making e)   Neck joint f)   Neck top stitch g)   Set tape h)   Sleeve ham i)   Sleeve close & joint j)   Inspection  After making gray fabrics bar, this bar or roll is sent to cutting section. Here fabrics are cut with predetermined dimension. This cut input is sent to  An Optimal Layout Design in an Apparel Industry by Appropriate Line Balancing: A Case Study  ©2014 Global Journals Inc. (US)   G  l o  b a  l   J o u r n a  l  o  f  R e s e a r c  h e s   i n  E n g  i n e e r  i n g              (            )       G   V o  l u m e  X  I  V  I s s u e  V  V e r s  i o n  I         Y    e    a    r         2        0        1        4 36 sewing line. This input is thendistributed to bottom ham, Rib cutting and sleeve ham machine. Sewing work is started withthree machine same time. Then remaining work is done according to the flow chart givenbellow. Finished t-shirt is collected from process 9(sleeve close) for checking those and sentto rework if needed. After final checking, output is sent to packaging.Measurement of T-shirt cutting used in Gildan Fabrics-    Fig. 2 :   Dimension for T-shirt To obtain optimized layout a comparison is shown here between the conventional process and improved layout, here three scenarios are shown. a)    S  cenario 1 (existing layout)    All the data shown here are collected from Gildan fabrics; the conventional process which is used in the industry is shown below:  Fig. 3 :   Existing layout of sewing (for T- Shirt)   An Optimal Layout Design in an Apparel Industry by Appropriate Line Balancing: A Case Study  ©2014 Global Journals Inc. (US)   G  l o  b a  l   J o u r n a  l  o  f  R e s e a r c  h e s   i n  E n g  i n e e r  i n g              (            )       G   V o  l u m e  X  I  V  I s s u e  V  V e r s  i o n  I  37       Y    e    a    r         2        0        1        4 The sewing process starts with bottom hamming which is shown by 1; then it is passed for shoulder joint, as bottom hamming is a long process, so extra worker is for process 1. Rib closing isdone before shoulder joint in this process. Then the total rib is processed by folding and stitching. When rib is ready, it is with the main part of the fabrics and is known as neck joint which is shown by process 5 in the figure. Neck top stitch is done by process 6 and then a tape is attached in it .At last sleeve is processed. It includes sleeve   hamming, closing and jointing and are shown by process 7, 8, 9. In this scenario four workers are occupied for sleeve closing and jointing. Three workers were applied for help. Total 23 workers were used. Doing all these steps a finished product is found and it is passed to quality table for checking. It is very important to inspect the finish product carefully. A huge amount of time is spent for this process. Here, three workers were applied for inspecting the finished product. The calculated time for each process is shown in the diagram. These were done by time study. By the sum of the time for each process, total time was calculated and it is shown by SAM. Total worker required was calculated. With the help of these data, efficiency of the layout was measured. The target output was predetermined. study is shown below:  F i g. 4  :   Time study for scenario 1  Table 1 :   Data for existing layout   An Optimal Layout Design in an Apparel Industry by Appropriate Line Balancing: A Case Study  ©2014 Global Journals Inc. (US)   G  l o  b a  l   J o u r n a  l  o  f  R e s e a r c  h e s   i n  E n g  i n e e r  i n g              (            )       G   V o  l u m e  X  I  V  I s s u e  V  V e r s  i o n  I         Y    e    a    r         2        0        1        4 38 The output of this layout & time Process no.Name of processMan requiredCycle time01Bottom ham1.510.102Shoulder joint1.55.803Rib close12.404Rib making12.3405Neck joint25.506Neck top stitch2807Set tape17.508Sleeve ham2609Sleeve close & joint43010Inspection325Helper =25TOTAL23111.46 Efficiency can be measured as: Efficiency = (Product target* SAM)/ (W.H.* M.R.)Here, W.H. = working hour M.R. = Man required Target output was 370;Now, efficiency= (370*111.46)/ (3600*23) = 46.2%
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