AH1 - Magma Properties

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Basic definitions and concepts, classification ãMagma and Volcanic rock properties ãMelt properties I: goechemistry, SiO2 ãMelt properties II: temperature ãVesicles, bubbles and control on viscosity ãMagma properties III: crystals
  Volcanology Key Reading ã   Volcanoes   (2 nd  Edition) (2004) P. Francis & C. Oppenheimer, Oxford Univ. Press, 521 p. ã   Volcanoes: Global Perspectives   (2010) J.P. Lockwood &. R.W. Hazlett, Wiley-Blackwell, 541 p. ã   Le Volcanisme   (1994) J.L. Bourdier, BRGM édition, Manuels et Méthodes n°25, 420 p. ã   Volcans, source de vie, cause de mort   (2003) C. Jaupart et al., 2003, Vuibert, 328 p.  Outline ã Basic definitions and concepts, classification ã Magma and Volcanic rock properties ã Melt properties I: goechemistry, SiO 2 ã Melt properties II: temperature ã Vesicles, bubbles and control on viscosity ã Magma properties III: crystals After A. Harris et références citées  So we need to consider the properties of: (1) Melt (chemistry, temperature) (2) Crystals (3) Volatiles, gas and bubbles (vesicles) Magma at depth is a mixture of: = Melt (liquid) + crystals (solids) + volatiles Magma (upon reaching the surface) is a mix of: = Melt (liquid) + crystals (solids) + bubbles Together these define the magma rheological (e.g., viscosity) & physical (e.g., density) properties Magma and Volcanic Rock Properties  Magma and Volcanic Rock Properties: Basic Definitions & Concepts (1) Magma:    ã  Molten rock containing volatiles + crystals; ã  Volatiles will, however, exsolve at shallow depths to create bubbles (vesicles); ã  The term is maintained as long as the molten rock remains below the Earth’s surface . (2) Lava and pyroclasts: ã  The term lava (or pyroclast) is applied to molten rock that has been erupted onto the Earth’s surface . ã  Molten rock from which the volatiles have largely exsolved; ã  Contains bubbles (otherwise termed vesicles in lava); ã  Lava = effusive product; pyro-clast = explosive product
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