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NOTES ON REFERENCING AND PLAGIARISM Importance of Referencing It is very important to learn how to cite references in your assignments so that your tutor can find the sources of information that you have used. It is also necessary in order to avoid plagiarism i.e. the copying of an author's ideas or words without referencing/quoting. When you become a student, you declare that you will not commit plagiarism - if you do, you can lose marks or even be dismissed from your course. This means more th
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  NOTES ON REFERENCING AND PLAGIARISMImportance of Referencing   It is very important to learn how to cite references in your assignments so that your tutor can find the sources of information that youhave used. It is also necessary in order to avoid plagiarism i.e. the copying of an author's ideas or words without referencing/quoting.When you become a student, you declare that you will not commit plagiarism - if you do, you can lose marks or even be dismissedfrom your course.This means more than just documenting the relevant sources. It means acknowledging:    key ideas (including methods, maps, diagrams, graphs, tables and so on)    direct quotations    paraphrased material (putting it in your own words)    any information that you did not think of yourself. How do I reference? 1.   As you work on your assignment, you will need to record and keep the details of each source as you use it (this includes detailssuch as author, title, publication date, publisher, place of publication, journal title, volume, issue, page numbers, date viewed oraccessed, URL, database, etc.).2.   In-text citations: Both the Harvard AGPS and APA referencing styles used at USQ are author-date styles. The in-textcitations will consist mainly of the authors' surnames and the year (and page numbers if appropriate). If there is no discernableauthor, the title and date are used. Examples can be found in the guides on this site.3.   List of references: More comprehensive details for each source are put in the list of references at the end of the assignment.This allows the reader to trace and verify your sources. Examples showing the amount of detail required and how to formateach source can be found in the guides on this site.   Harvard AGPS referencing guide   How to cite references within the text of an assignment These are also called in-text references. When you use another's ideas you should immediately acknowledge your sources. Alwaysgive the surname of the author and the date of publication. Use the author-date method of citation for quotations and paraphrasing. Quotes Quotations or quotes are when you use the exact words of another author. Quotations must always be referenced with page numbers. Paraphrasing Paraphrasing is when you summarise the ideas, concepts or words from the work or one or more authors. Please note: changing only a few words from another author does not constitute paraphrasing. Type Examples If you are referring to thegeneral theme of a book orarticleCarlson (1981) obtained results which...A recent study (Carlson 1990) ...   When to include pagenumbersSometimes it is necessary to provide page numbers, for example when paraphrasing or referring to information or an idea thatcan be located on a particular page, quoting or referring to images, figures or data, or when a work is particularly long andpage numbers might be useful for the reader.Soil layers below the well tip contribute relatively little water (Kozeny 1988, pp. 223-4).Kozeny (1988, p. 223) found soil layers below the well tip contributed little.   Direct quotations Brief quotations (about 30 words or less) can be included in text. Use single quotations marks.  Stewart (1982, p. 6) said: 'Engineers are vital to the survival of the planet'.'Engineers are vital to the survival of the planet' (Stewart 1982, p. 6).For sources that don't include page numbers (e.g. from Books24x7), try to be as precise as possible.Tipton and Krause (2007, ch. 2, para. 1) state: 'Increased corporate ...'.Lengthy quotations are given in separate paragraphs which are usually indented from the text margin and set in smallertype. No quotation marks are used. Citations are as above.   Using images, figures andtablesFigure captions should be directly under the image and then followed by an in-text citation.Figure 1: Consumer confidence, concerns, spending and attitudes to recession: a global Nielsen consumer report (AC Nielsen2008, p. 1)Table captions should be above the table. There must also be an in-text citation if reproducing or adapting data.   Referring to multi-volumebooks(Jesse 1992, vol. 2, p. 23)(James 1999, vol. 1, p. 26; vol. 3, pp. 39-41)   Sections, equations orother elements from asource(Spiegel 2000, sec. 2)(Warren 2006, eq. 3)(Ellis 1984, fig. 6)For most plurals, simply add an s and drop the full stop (e.g. chs, paras, figs and eqs).Exceptions include fnn. (footnotes), ll. (lines), pp. (pages), rr. (regulations) and ss. (sections).   Two or three authors (Jones & Hackett 1991)Jones and Hackett (1991) theorized that...  (Boyd, Smith & Eberle 1985)Boyd, Smith and Eberle (1985) found... Note: The ampersand is used when the authors' names are in brackets.   More than three authorsUse the first author only followed by 'et al.'For example, a work by Carter, Morton, Duncan-Kemp and Redding becomes:Carter et al. (1989) discussed library search methods.A range of search methods (Carter et al. 1989) were discussed. Note: Names of  all the authors must be given in the list of references.   Multiple citations of thesame authorArrange in chronological order, and use suffixes to distinguish works published in the same year (the order of the letters isdetermined based on the alphabetical order of the titles).Brown (1980, 1983a, 1983b) theorized ...Brown (1983a, p. 21; 1983b, p. 85) theorized ...   Two authors, samesurnameInitials are included to distinguish.The theory was propounded by AE Smith (1981), but has been refuted since (Smith, BR 1985).   More than one work citedAlphabetical presentation is recommended.(Haddon 1969; Larsen 1971, pp. 99-101)Personal communicationsPersonal communications can include things such as letters, memos, emails, facsimiles, interviews, informal conversations,telephone calls and lecture presentations.Initials are included. Full details of the date (day, month and year) should be provided in the text.
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