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UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS General Certificate of Education Advanced Level * 3 3 2 1 7 6 0 6 7 1 * PHYSICS 9702/42 Paper 4 A2 Structured…
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UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS General Certificate of Education Advanced Level * 3 3 2 1 7 6 0 6 7 1 * PHYSICS 9702/42 Paper 4 A2 Structured Questions May/June 2013 2 hours Candidates answer on the Question Paper. No Additional Materials are required. READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in. Write in dark blue or black pen. You may use a pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working. Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid. DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES. For Examiner’s Use Answer all questions. 1 Electronic calculators may be used. You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use 2 appropriate units. 3 At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together. The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part 4 question. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Total This document consists of 22 printed pages and 2 blank pages. DC (NF/CGW) 58189/4 © UCLES 2013 [Turn over 2 Data speed of light in free space, c = 3.00 × 10 8 m s –1 permeability of free space, μ0 = 4π × 10 –7 H m–1 permittivity of free space, ε0 = 8.85 × 10 –12 F m–1 1 ( = 8.99 × 10 9 m F–1 ) 4πε0 elementary charge, e = 1.60 × 10 –19 C the Planck constant, h = 6.63 × 10 –34 J s unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 × 10 –27 kg rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 × 10 –31 kg rest mass of proton, mp = 1.67 × 10 –27 kg molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K –1 mol –1 the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 × 10 23 mol –1 the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 × 10 –23 J K –1 gravitational constant, G = 6.67 × 10 –11 N m 2 kg –2 acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s –2 © UCLES 2013 9702/42/M/J/13 3 Formulae uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut +  at 2 v 2 = u 2 + 2as work done on/by a gas, W = p ΔV Gm gravitational potential, φ =– r hydrostatic pressure, p = ρgh Nm 2 pressure of an ideal gas, p =  V c simple harmonic motion, a = – ω 2x velocity of particle in s.h.m., v = v0 cos ωt v = ± ω √⎯(x⎯ 0⎯ 2 ⎯ –⎯ x⎯ ⎯ 2⎯ ) Q electric potential, V = 4πε0r capacitors in series, 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + . . . capacitors in parallel, C = C1 + C2 + . . . energy of charged capacitor, W =  QV resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + . . . resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . . alternating current/voltage, x = x0 sin ω t radioactive decay, x = x0 exp(– λt ) 0.693 decay constant, λ = t  © UCLES 2013 9702/42/M/J/13 [Turn over 4 Section A For Examiner’s Answer all the questions in the spaces provided. Use 1 (a) Explain what is meant by a geostationary orbit. .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... [3] (b) A satellite of mass m is in a circular orbit about a planet. The mass M of the planet may be considered to be concentrated at its centre. Show that the radius R of the orbit of the satellite is given by the expression R3 = 冢 GMT 2 4π2 冣 where T is the period of the orbit of the satellite and G is the gravitational constant. Explain your working. [4] (c) The Earth has mass 6.0 × 1024 kg. Use the expression given in (b) to determine the radius of the geostationary orbit about the Earth. radius = ............................................. m [3] © UCLES 2013 9702/42/M/J/13 5 2 (a) The volume of an ideal gas in a cylinder is 1.80 × 10–3 m3 at a pressure of 2.60 × 105 Pa For and a temperature of 297 K, as illustrated in Fig. 2.1. Examiner’s Use ideal gas 1.80 × 10–3 m3 2.60 × 105 Pa 297 K Fig. 2.1 The thermal energy required to raise the temperature by 1.00 K of 1.00 mol of the gas at constant volume is 12.5 J. The gas is heated at constant volume such that the internal energy of the gas increases by 95.0 J. (i) Calculate 1. the amount of gas, in mol, in the cylinder, amount = ........................................... mol [2] 2. the rise in temperature of the gas. temperature rise = .............................................. K [2] © UCLES 2013 9702/42/M/J/13 [Turn over 6 (ii) Use your answer in (i) part 2 to show that the final pressure of the gas in the For cylinder is 2.95 × 105 Pa. Examiner’s Use [1] (b) The gas is now allowed to expand. No thermal energy enters or leaves the gas. The gas does 120 J of work when expanding against the external pressure. State and explain whether the final temperature of the gas is above or below 297 K. .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... [3] © UCLES 2013 9702/42/M/J/13 7 3 A mass of 78 g is suspended from a fixed point by means of a spring, as illustrated in Fig. 3.1. For Examiner’s Use spring mass 78 g Fig. 3.1 The stationary mass is pulled vertically downwards through a distance of 2.1 cm and then released. The mass is observed to perform simple harmonic motion with a period of 0.69 s. (a) The mass is released at time t = 0. For the oscillations of the mass, (i) calculate the angular frequency ω, ω = ...................................... rad s–1 [2] (ii) determine numerical equations for the variation with time t of 1. the displacement x in cm, .................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................. [2] 2. the speed v in m s–1. .................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................. [2] © UCLES 2013 9702/42/M/J/13 [Turn over 8 (b) Calculate the total energy of oscillation of the mass. For Examiner’s Use energy = ............................................... J [2] © UCLES 2013 9702/42/M/J/13 9 4 (a) An insulated metal sphere of radius R is situated in a vacuum. The charge q on the For sphere may be considered to be a point charge at the centre of the sphere. Examiner’s Use (i) State a formula, in terms of R and q, for the potential V on the surface of the sphere. ............................................................................................................................. [1] (ii) Define capacitance and hence show that the capacitance C of the sphere is given by the expression C = 4πε0R. [1] (b) An isolated metal sphere has radius 45 cm. (i) Use the expression in (a)(ii) to calculate the capacitance, in picofarad, of the sphere. capacitance = ............................................ pF [2] (ii) The sphere is charged to a potential of 9.0 × 105 V. A spark occurs, partially discharging the sphere so that its potential is reduced to 3.6 × 105 V. Determine the energy of the spark. energy = ............................................... J [3] © UCLES 2013 9702/42/M/J/13 [Turn over 10 5 (a) Define the tesla. For Examiner’s .......................................................................................................................................... Use .......................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... [2] (b) Two long straight vertical wires X and Y are separated by a distance of 4.5 cm, as illustrated in Fig. 5.1. 4.5 cm wire X wire Y Q R P S 6.3 A Fig. 5.1 The wires pass through a horizontal card PQRS. The current in wire X is 6.3 A in the upward direction. Initially, there is no current in wire Y. (i) On Fig. 5.1, sketch, in the plane PQRS, the magnetic flux pattern due to the current in wire X. Show at least four flux lines. [3] © UCLES 2013 9702/42/M/J/13 11 (ii) The magnetic flux density B at a distance x from a long straight current-carrying For wire is given by the expression Examiner’s Use μ 0I B = 2πx where I is the current in the wire and μ0 is the permeability of free space. Calculate the magnetic flux density at wire Y due to the current in wire X. flux density = .............................................. T [2] (iii) A current of 9.3 A is now switched on in wire Y. Use your answer in (ii) to calculate the force per unit length on wire Y. force per unit length = ....................................... N m–1 [2] (c) The currents in the two wires in (b)(iii) are not equal. Explain whether the force per unit length on the two wires will be the same, or different. .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... [2] © UCLES 2013 9702/42/M/J/13 [Turn over 12 6 (a) State Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. For Examiner’s .......................................................................................................................................... Use .......................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... [2] (b) The output of an ideal transformer is connected to a bridge rectifier, as shown in Fig. 6.1. 240 V r.m.s. load resistor Fig. 6.1 The input to the transformer is 240 V r.m.s. and the maximum potential difference across the load resistor is 9.0 V. (i) On Fig. 6.1, mark with the letter P the positive output from the rectifier. [1] (ii) Calculate the ratio number of turns on primary coil . number of turns on secondary coil ratio = .................................................. [3] © UCLES 2013 9702/42/M/J/13 13 (c) The variation with time t of the potential difference V across the load resistor in (b) is For shown in Fig. 6.2. Examiner’s Use V 0 t Fig. 6.2 A capacitor is now connected in parallel with the load resistor to produce some smoothing. (i) Explain what is meant by smoothing. .................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................. [1] (ii) On Fig. 6.2, draw the variation with time t of the smoothed output potential difference. [2] © UCLES 2013 9702/42/M/J/13 [Turn over 14 7 (a) The emission spectrum of atomic hydrogen consists of a number of discrete wavelengths. For Explain how this observation leads to an understanding that there are discrete electron Examiner’s energy levels in atoms. Use .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... [2] (b) Some electron energy levels in atomic hydrogen are illustrated in Fig. 7.1. –0.54 eV –0.85 eV –1.5 eV energy –3.4 eV Fig. 7.1 © UCLES 2013 9702/42/M/J/13 15 The longest wavelength produced as a result of electron transitions between two of the For energy levels shown in Fig. 7.1 is 4.0 × 10–6 m. Examiner’s Use (i) On Fig. 7.1, 1. draw, and mark with the letter L, the transition giving rise to the wavelength of 4.0 × 10–6 m, [1] 2. draw, and mark with the letter S, the transition giving rise to the shortest wavelength. [1] (ii) Calculate the wavelength for the transition you have shown in (i) part 2. wavelength = ............................................. m [3] (c) Photon energies in the visible spectrum vary between approximately 3.66 eV and 1.83 eV. Determine the energies, in eV, of photons in the visible spectrum that are produced by transitions between the energy levels shown in Fig. 7.1. photon energies .................................................................................... eV [2] © UCLES 2013 9702/42/M/J/13 [Turn over 16 8 (a) Explain why the mass of an α-particle is less than the total mass of two individual For protons and two individual neutrons. Examiner’s Use .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... [2] (b) An equation for one possible nuclear reaction is 4He + 14N 17O + 1p. 2 7 8 1 Data for the masses of the nuclei are given in Fig. 8.1. mass / u proton 1p 1.00728 1 helium-4 4He 4.00260 2 nitrogen-14 14N 14.00307 7 oxygen-17 17O 16.99913 8 Fig. 8.1 (i) Calculate the mass change, in u, associated with this reaction. mass change = .............................................. u [2] (ii) Calculate the energy, in J, associated with the mass change in (i). energy = ............................................... J [2] © UCLES 2013 9702/42/M/J/13 17 (iii) Suggest and explain why, for this reaction to occur, the helium-4 nucleus must have For a minimum speed. Examiner’s Use .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................. [2] © UCLES 2013 9702/42/M/J/13 [Turn over 18 Section B For Examiner’s Answer all the questions in the spaces provided. Use 9 The volume of fuel in the fuel tank of a car is monitored using a sensing device. The device gives a voltage output that is measured using a voltmeter. The variation of voltmeter reading with the volume of fuel in the tank is shown in Fig. 9.1. 5 4 voltmeter 3 reading /V 2 1 0 0 20 40 60 80 empty full volume / litres Fig. 9.1 (a) Use Fig. 9.1 to determine the range of volume over which the volume has a linear relationship to the voltmeter reading. from .................................. litres to .................................. litres [1] (b) Suggest why, comparing values from Fig. 9.1, (i) when the tank is nearly full, the voltmeter readings give the impression that fuel consumption is low, .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................. [2] (ii) when the voltmeter first indicates that the tank is nearly empty, there is more fuel remaining than is expected. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................. [2] © UCLES 2013 9702/42/M/J/13 19 10 (a) By reference to ultrasound waves, state what is meant by acoustic impedance. For Examiner’s .......................................................................................................................................... Use .......................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... [2] (b) An ultrasound wave is incident on the boundary between two media. The acoustic impedances of the two media are Z1 and Z2, as illustrated in Fig. 10.1. boundary Z1 Z2 incident wave Fig. 10.1 Explain the importance of the difference between Z1 and Z2 for the transmission of ultrasound across the boundary. .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... [3] (c) Ultrasound frequencies as high as 10 MHz are used in medical diagnosis. State and explain one advantage of the use of high-frequency ultrasound compared with lower-frequency ultrasound. .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... [2] © UCLES 2013 9702/42/M/J/13 [Turn over 20 BLANK PAGE © UCLES 2013 9702/42/M/J/13 21 11 (a) Explain how the hardness of an X-ray beam is controlled by the accelerating voltage in For the X-ray tube. Examiner’s Use .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... [2] (b) The attenuation of a parallel beam of X-ray radiation is given by the expression I = e–μ x I0 where μ is the linear attenuation (absorption) coefficient and x is the thickness of the material through which the beam passes. (i) State 1. what is meant by attenuation, .................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................. [1] 2. why the expression applies
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