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UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS General Certificate of Education Advanced Subsidiary Level and Advanced Level * 6 0 8 7 2 5 2 2 3 6 * PHYSICS…

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UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS General Certificate of Education Advanced Subsidiary Level and Advanced Level * 6 0 8 7 2 5 2 2 3 6 * PHYSICS 9702/21 Paper 2 AS Structured Questions May/June 2012 1 hour Candidates answer on the Question Paper. No Additional Materials are required. READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in. Write in dark blue or black pen. You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working. Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid. DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES. Answer all questions. You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use appropriate units. At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together. The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or For Examiner’s Use part question. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total This document consists of 14 printed pages and 2 blank pages. DC (SJF/SW) 42132/3 © UCLES 2012 [Turn over 2 Data speed of light in free space, c = 3.00 × 10 8 m s –1 permeability of free space, μ0 = 4π × 10 –7 H m–1 permittivity of free space, ε0 = 8.85 × 10 –12 F m–1 1 ( = 8.99 × 10 9 m F–1 ) 4πε0 elementary charge, e = 1.60 × 10 –19 C the Planck constant, h = 6.63 × 10 –34 J s unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 × 10 –27 kg rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 × 10 –31 kg rest mass of proton, mp = 1.67 × 10 –27 kg molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K –1 mol –1 the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 × 10 23 mol –1 the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 × 10 –23 J K –1 gravitational constant, G = 6.67 × 10 –11 N m 2 kg –2 acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s –2 © UCLES 2012 9702/21/M/J/12 3 Formulae uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut + at 2 v 2 = u 2 + 2as work done on/by a gas, W = p ΔV Gm gravitational potential, φ =– r hydrostatic pressure, p = ρgh Nm 2 pressure of an ideal gas, p = V c simple harmonic motion, a = – ω 2x velocity of particle in s.h.m., v = v0 cos ωt v = ± ω √⎯(x⎯ 0⎯ 2 ⎯ –⎯ x⎯ ⎯ 2⎯ ) Q electric potential, V = 4πε0r capacitors in series, 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + . . . capacitors in parallel, C = C1 + C2 + . . . energy of charged capacitor, W = QV resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + . . . resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . . alternating current/voltage, x = x0 sin ω t radioactive decay, x = x0 exp(– λt ) 0.693 decay constant, λ = t © UCLES 2012 9702/21/M/J/12 [Turn over 4 BLANK PAGE © UCLES 2012 9702/21/M/J/12 5 Answer all the questions in the spaces provided. For Examiner’s Use 1 (a) (i) State the SI base units of volume. base units of volume ................................................. [1] (ii) Show that the SI base units of pressure are kg m–1 s–2. [1] (b) The volume V of liquid that flows through a pipe in time t is given by the equation V = π Pr 4 t 8Cl where P is the pressure difference between the ends of the pipe of radius r and length l. The constant C depends on the frictional effects of the liquid. Determine the base units of C. base units of C ................................................. [3] © UCLES 2012 9702/21/M/J/12 [Turn over 6 2 A ball is thrown vertically down towards the ground with an initial velocity of 4.23 m s–1. The For ball falls for a time of 1.51 s before hitting the ground. Air resistance is negligible. Examiner’s Use (a) (i) Show that the downwards velocity of the ball when it hits the ground is 19.0 m s–1. [2] (ii) Calculate, to three significant figures, the distance the ball falls to the ground. distance = ............................................. m [2] (b) The ball makes contact with the ground for 12.5 ms and rebounds with an upwards velocity of 18.6 m s–1. The mass of the ball is 46.5 g. (i) Calculate the average force acting on the ball on impact with the ground. magnitude of force = .................................................. N direction of force ...................................................... [4] (ii) Use conservation of energy to determine the maximum height the ball reaches after it hits the ground. height = ............................................. m [2] (c) State and explain whether the collision the ball makes with the ground is elastic or inelastic. .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... [1] © UCLES 2012 9702/21/M/J/12 7 3 One end of a spring is fixed to a support. A mass is attached to the other end of the spring. For The arrangement is shown in Fig. 3.1. Examiner’s Use mass Fig. 3.1 (a) The mass is in equilibrium. Explain, by reference to the forces acting on the mass, what is meant by equilibrium. .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... [2] (b) The mass is pulled down and then released at time t = 0. The mass oscillates up and down. The variation with t of the displacement of the mass d is shown in Fig. 3.2. 6.0 d / 10–2 m 4.0 2.0 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 t /s –2.0 –4.0 –6.0 Fig. 3.2 Use Fig. 3.2 to state a time, one in each case, when (i) the mass is at maximum speed, time = .............................................. s [1] (ii) the elastic potential energy stored in the spring is a maximum, time = .............................................. s [1] (iii) the mass is in equilibrium. time = .............................................. s [1] © UCLES 2012 9702/21/M/J/12 [Turn over 8 (c) The arrangement shown in Fig. 3.3 is used to determine the length l of a spring when For different masses M are attached to the spring. Examiner’s Use l mass Fig. 3.3 The variation with mass M of l is shown in Fig. 3.4. 35 30 25 l / 10–2 m 20 15 10 5 0 0 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 M / kg Fig. 3.4 © UCLES 2012 9702/21/M/J/12 9 (i) State and explain whether the spring obeys Hooke’s law. For Examiner’s .................................................................................................................................. Use .................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................. [2] (ii) Show that the force constant of the spring is 26 N m–1. [2] (iii) A mass of 0.40 kg is attached to the spring. Calculate the energy stored in the spring. energy = .............................................. J [3] © UCLES 2012 9702/21/M/J/12 [Turn over 10 4 (a) The output of a heater is 2.5 kW when connected to a 220 V supply. For Examiner’s (i) Calculate the resistance of the heater. Use resistance = ............................................. Ω [2] (ii) The heater is made from a wire of cross-sectional area 2.0 × 10–7 m2 and resistivity 1.1 × 10–6 Ω m. Use your answer in (i) to calculate the length of the wire. length = ............................................. m [3] (b) The supply voltage is changed to 110 V. (i) Calculate the power output of the heater at this voltage, assuming there is no change in the resistance of the wire. power = ............................................. W [1] (ii) State and explain quantitatively one way that the wire of the heater could be changed to give the same power as in (a). .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................. [2] © UCLES 2012 9702/21/M/J/12 11 5 (a) (i) State Kirchhoff’s second law. For Examiner’s .................................................................................................................................. Use .............................................................................................................................. [1] (ii) Kirchhoff’s second law is linked to the conservation of a certain quantity. State this quantity. .............................................................................................................................. [1] (b) The circuit shown in Fig. 5.1 is used to compare potential differences. cell A 2.0 V 0.50 Ω C D I R 0.90 m X J Y E r uniform resistance wire length 1.00 m cell B Fig. 5.1 The uniform resistance wire XY has length 1.00 m and resistance 4.0 Ω. Cell A has e.m.f. 2.0 V and internal resistance 0.50 Ω. The current through cell A is I. Cell B has e.m.f. E and internal resistance r. The current through cell B is made zero when the movable connection J is adjusted so that the length of XJ is 0.90 m. The variable resistor R has resistance 2.5 Ω. (i) Apply Kirchhoff’s second law to the circuit CXYDC to determine the current I. I = .............................................. A [2] © UCLES 2012 9702/21/M/J/12 [Turn over 12 (ii) Calculate the potential difference across the length of wire XJ. For Examiner’s Use potential difference = .............................................. V [2] (iii) Use your answer in (ii) to state the value of E. E = .............................................. V [1] (iv) State why the value of the internal resistance of cell B is not required for the determination of E. .................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................. [1] © UCLES 2012 9702/21/M/J/12 13 6 (a) A laser is used to produce an interference pattern on a screen, as shown in Fig. 6.1. For Examiner’s Use P2 P1 laser light 0.450 mm wavelength 630 nm screen double slit 1.50 m Fig. 6.1 (not to scale) The laser emits light of wavelength 630 nm. The slit separation is 0.450 mm. The distance between the slits and the screen is 1.50 m. A maximum is formed at P1 and a minimum is formed at P2. Interference fringes are observed only when the light from the slits is coherent. (i) Explain what is meant by coherence. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................. [2] (ii) Explain how an interference maximum is formed at P1. .................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................. [1] (iii) Explain how an interference minimum is formed at P2. .................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................. [1] (iv) Calculate the fringe separation. fringe separation = ............................................. m [3] © UCLES 2012 9702/21/M/J/12 [Turn over 14 (b) State the effects, if any, on the fringes when the amplitude of the waves incident on the For double slits is increased. Examiner’s Use .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... [3] © UCLES 2012 9702/21/M/J/12 15 7 (a) The spontaneous decay of polonium is shown by the nuclear equation For Examiner’s 210 84 Po ➞ 206 82 Pb + X . Use (i) State the composition of the nucleus of X. .................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................. [1] (ii) The nuclei X are emitted as radiation. State two properties of this radiation. 1. ............................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................. 2. ............................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................. [2] (b) The mass of the polonium (Po) nucleus is greater than the combined mass of the nuclei of lead (Pb) and X. Use a conservation law to explain qualitatively how this decay is possible. .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... [3] © UCLES 2012 9702/21/M/J/12 16 BLANK PAGE Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity. University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge. © UCLES 2012 9702/21/M/J/12

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