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Revised by R.N. Caron, R.G. Barth, and D.E. Tyler, Metallography and Microstructures of Copper and Its Alloys, Metallography and Microstructures, Vol 9, ASM Handbook, ASM International, 2004, p. 775–788 Metallography and Microstructures of Copper and Its Alloys Revised by R.N. Caron, R.G. Barth, and D.E. Tyler, Olin Brass, Division of Olin Corporation Introduction COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS have played an integral role in human technological progress since antiquity. Native copper and then bron
  RevisedbyR.N.Caron,R.G.Barth,andD.E.Tyler,MetallographyandMicrostructuresofCopperandItsAlloys, Metallography and Microstructures,  Vol 9,  ASM Handbook  , ASM International, 2004, p. 775–788 MetallographyandMicrostructuresofCopperandItsAlloys Revised by R.N. Caron, R.G. Barth, and D.E. Tyler, Olin Brass, Division of Olin Corporation Introduction COPPERANDCOPPERALLOYShaveplayedanintegralroleinhumantechnologicalprogresssinceantiquity.Nativecopperandthenbronzealloyswerefashionedintothefirstmetaltoolsanddecorations.Thecombinationofelectricalandthermalconductivity,workability,corrosionresistance,strength,anditsabundancemakes this family of metals important to all industry. RevisedbyR.N.Caron,R.G.Barth,andD.E.Tyler,MetallographyandMicrostructuresofCopperandItsAlloys, Metallography and Microstructures,  Vol 9,  ASM Handbook  , ASM International, 2004, p. 775–788 Metallography and Microstructures of Copper and Its Alloys >Revised by R.N. Caron, R.G. Barth, and D.E. Tyler, Olin Brass, Division of Olin Corporation Alloying Systems CopperalloyshavetraditionallybeenclassifiedbycompositionandaswroughtorcastinthegroupsshowinTable 1. The alloys are listed by UNS designation that is administered by the Copper Development Association.Selectedalloysarelistedforeachgroup.Similarcompositionalgroupingispresentininternationaldesignationsystems. Table 1 Nominal compositions of copper and copper alloys UNS No. NameNominal composition, %Wrought copper  C10100 Oxygen-free electronic copper (OFE)99.99 (min) Cu C10200 Oxygen-free copper (OF)99.95 (min) Cu C11000 Electrolytic tough pitch copper (ETP)99.90 (min) Cu C12200 Phosphorus-deoxidizedcopper,high-residual phosphorus (DHP) 99.90 (min) Cu, 0.028 P C12500 Fire-refined tough pitch copper (FRTP)99.88 (min) Cu C14520 Phosphorus-deoxidized copper, tellurium bearing99.90 (min) Cu, 0.010 P, 0.55 Te C14700 Sulfur-bearing copper99.90 (min) Cu, 0.35 S C15000 Zirconium copper99.80 (min) Cu, 0.15 Zr C15720 Dispersion-strengthened copper99.52(min)Cu,0.2Al,0.2 O 2 (O 2  presentas CuO 2 )Wrought high-copper alloys  C17200 Beryllium-copperBal Cu, 1.90 Be, 0.40 Co C18200 Chromium-copperBal Cu, 0.9 Cr C18700 Leaded copperBal Cu, 1 Pb, 0.05 P C19400 Iron-bearing copper97 (min) Cu, 2.35 Fe, 0.125 Zn, 0.05 P Wrought brasses C26000 Cartridge brass, 70%70 Cu, 30 Zn C26800 Yellow brass, 66%66 Cu, 34 Zn C28000 Muntzmetal, 60%60 Cu, 40 Zn C31600 Leaded commercial bronze, nickel bearing89 Cu, 2 Pb, 1 Ni, 8 Zn C33500 Low-leaded brass63.5 Cu, 0.5 Pb, 36 Zn C36000 Free-cutting brass62 Cu, 3 Pb, 35 Zn C44300 Admiralty, arsenical71.5 Cu, 27.5 Zn, 1 Sn, (0.04 As) C44400 Admiralty, antimonial71.5 Cu, 27.5 Zn, 1 Sn, (0.06 Sb) C44500 Admiralty, phosphorized71.5 Cu, 27.5 Zn, 1 Sn, (0.06 P) C46400 Uninhibited naval brass61 Cu, 38 Zn, 1 Sn C48500 High-leaded naval brass60.5 Cu, 1.75 Pb, 0.75 Sn, 37 Zn Wrought bronzes C51000 Phosphor bronze, 5% ABal Cu, 5.0 Sn, 0.2 P C52100 Phosphor bronze, 8% CBal Cu, 8.0 Sn, 0.2 P C63000 Aluminum bronze, 10%82.2 Cu, 10 Al, 3 Fe, 4.8 Ni C64700 Silicon-nickel bronzeBal Cu, 1.9 Ni, 0.6 Si C67500 Manganese bronze A58.5 Cu, 1 Sn, 38.7 Zn, 1.5 Fe, 0.3 Mn C68700 Arsenical aluminum brass77.5 Cu, 20.3 Zn, 2.2 Al, (0.04 As) Wrought copper-nickel alloys and nickel silvers C70600 Copper-nickel, 10%88.6 Cu, 10 Ni, 1.4 Fe C71300 Copper-nickel, 25%75 Cu, 25 Ni C71500 Copper-nickel, 30%68.5 Cu, 31 Ni, 0.50 Fe C71900 Copper-nickelBal Cu, 30.5 Ni, 2.6 Cr C74500  Nickel silver, 65-1065 Cu, 10 Ni, 25 Zn C75200  Nickel silver, 65-1865 Cu, 18 Ni, 17 Zn Cast high-copper alloy C81500 Chromium-copper98 (min) Cu, 1.0 Cr Cast brasses, bronzes, and nickel silver  C83600 Leaded red brass85 Cu, 5 Sn, 5 Zn, 5 Pb C86200 Manganese bronze64 Cu, 26 Zn, 4 Al, 3 Fe, 3 Mn C86300 Manganese bronze63 Cu, 25 Zn, 3 Fe, 6 Al, 3 Mn C90300 Tin bronze88 Cu, 8 Sn, 4 Zn C92600 Leaded tin bronze87 Cu, 10 Sn, 2 Zn, 1 Pb C94100 High-leaded tin bronze74 Cu, 20 Pb, 6 Sn C95300 Aluminum bronze89 Cu, 10 Al, 1 Fe C95400 Aluminum bronze85 Cu, 11 Al, 4 Fe C95500  Nickel-aluminum bronze81 Cu, 11 Al, 4 Fe, 4 Ni C95600 Silicon-aluminum bronze91 Cu, 7 Al, 2 Si C97800  Nickel silver66 Cu, 25 Ni, 5 Sn, 2 Zn, 2 Pb Brazing alloys C55284 BCuP-5 brazing alloy80 Cu, 15 Ag, 5 P Coppers.Thealloysdesignatedascopperscontain99.3%ormorecopper.Thesehavethehighestelectricalandthermalconductivity.Impuritiessuchasphosphorus,tin,selenium,tellurium,andarsenicaredetrimentalto propertiessuchaselectricalconductivityandrecrystallizationtemperature(Ref1).Ifdeliberatelyadded,however,thesealloyingelementscanenhanceotherdesirableproperties.Silveristheonlyimpuritythatdoesnotsignificantlylowertheconductivityofpurecopper,soitisincludedinthepercentweightofcopperwhencalculating the minimum percent weight of an alloy.  High-copperalloyscontainbetween96and99.3%Cuinwroughtproductsthatdonotfallintoanyother specialcategories.Forcastalloys,coppercontentabove94%isincluded.Thechiefalloyingelementsarecadmium, beryllium, and chromium. Copper-zincalloys(brasses)havezincastheprimealloyingelement.WroughtalloysaresubdividedintoCu-Znalloys,Cu-Zn-Pb(leadedbrasses),andCu-Zn-Snalloys(tinbrasses).Castbrasseshavefoursubdivisions:Cu-Zn-SnandCu-Zn-Sn-Pballoys(redandleadedred,semiredandleadedsemi-red,andyellowandleadedyellowbrass);Cu-Mn-ZnandCu-Mn-Zn-Pb(high-strengthandleadedhigh-strengthbrass,alsocalledmanganesebronzeandleadedmanganesebronze);andCu-Si(siliconbrassesandbronzes);andCu-BiandCu-Bi-Se (copper-bismuth and copper-bismuth-selenium alloys). Bronzes include copper alloys that do not have zinc or nickel as the major alloying element. The four subgroups ofwroughtalloysare:Cu-Sn-P(phosphorbronze),Cu-Sn-P-Pb(leadedphosphorbronze),Cu-Al(aluminum bronze),andCu-Si(siliconbronze).Althoughcalledbronzes,themanganesebronzesthathavezincasthemajoralloyingelementareclassedwiththebrasses.ThecastbronzesarecalledCu-Sn(tinbronze),Cu-Sn-Pb(leadedandhigh-leadedtinbronze),Cu-Sn-Ni(nickel-tinbronze),andCu-Al-FeandCu-Al-Fe-Ni(aluminum bronze).Copper-nickels are available as wrought and cast alloys. Copper-nickel-zinc alloys,wroughtand cast,areknownasnickelsilvers.Thisnameisbasedontheir luster,nottheir composition, because they do not have silver as an intentional alloying element. Other alloys include specialty alloys, copper leads, and brazing alloys. GasSolubility.Hydrogenandoxygenarequitesolubleinliquidcopper,butthesolubilityinsolidcopperisverysmall.Themetalthereforerejectsaconsiderableamountofthese(andother)gasesonsolidification.OxygencontentmustbecarefullycontrolledsothatdetrimentalquantitiesofCu 2 O,whichdecreasesworkability,arenotformed.Inmoltencopper,oxygencanreactwithdissolvedhydrogentoformwatervapor,whichevolvesasvoidsduringsolidification,calledhydrogenillness.Thevoidscausehairlinecracksthatcanlead to fracture during hot rolling and produce a variety of defects on the surface of wire rods (Ref 2). Oxygenandhydrogeninterferewithconductivity;however,smallandcontrolledamountsofoxygenareactuallybeneficialtoconductivityinthattheycombinewithandremovefromsolutionimpuritiessuchasironthatarefarmoredetrimental.Acopper-oxygenphasediagramwouldshowaeutecticat0.4wt%O(or3.4wt%Cu 2 O).Figure1,2,3,and4showhypoeutecticcopper-oxygenalloys,wheretheprimarydendrites(lightcolor)arecopper.Figure5,6,7,and8arehypereutectic, wherethe structure consistsofparticlesordendritesofCu 2 O(dark colored) and eutectic. Fig.1 Theeffectofoxygencontentonthemicrostructureofahypoeutecticas-castcopper-oxygenalloy.Oxygencontentof0.024%resultsinprimarydendritesofcopper(light)pluseutectic(mottledareasof small, round oxide in copper). As-polished. 100×  Fig.2 Theeffectofoxygencontentonthemicrostructureofahypoeutecticas-castcopper-oxygenalloy.Oxygencontentof0.09%resultsinprimarydendritesofcopper(light)pluseutectic(mottledareasof small, round oxide in copper). As-polished. 100× Fig.3 Theeffectofoxygencontentonthemicrostructureofahypoeutecticas-castcopper-oxygenalloy.Oxygencontentof0.18%resultsinprimarydendritesofcopper(light)plusamoreconnectedareaof eutectic than in Figure 2 As-polished. 100×
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