2008 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Elements of Metallurgy and Engineering Alloys (#05224G) Part I: Physical and Mechanical Metallurgy... - PDF

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Contents Preface... xiii Part I: Physical and Mechanical Metallurgy... 1 Chapter 1 Metallic Structure Periodic Table Bonding in Solids Metallic Bonding Ionic Bonding...
Contents Preface... xiii Part I: Physical and Mechanical Metallurgy... 1 Chapter 1 Metallic Structure Periodic Table Bonding in Solids Metallic Bonding Ionic Bonding Covalent Bonding Secondary Bonding Crystalline Structure Space Lattices and Crystal Systems Face-Centered Cubic System Hexagonal Close-Packed System Body-Centered Cubic System Slip Systems Allotropy Chapter 2 Crystalline Imperfections and Plastic Deformation Point Defects Line Defects Plastic Deformation Dislocations and Plastic Flow Work Hardening Surface or Planar Defects Grain Boundaries Polycrystalline Metals Phase Boundaries Twinning Stacking Faults Volume Defects Chapter 3 Solid Solutions Interstitial Solid Solutions Substitutional Solid Solutions Ordered Structures Intermediate Phases Dislocation Atmospheres and Strain Aging iii Chapter 4 Introduction to Phase Transformations Free Energy Kinetics Liquid-Solid Phase Transformations Solid-State Phase Transformations Spinodal Decomposition Martensitic Transformation Chapter 5 Diffusion Mechanisms of Diffusion Interstitial Diffusion Substitutional Diffusion Fick s Laws of Diffusion Fick s First Law of Diffusion Fick s Second Law of Diffusion Several Applications of Fick s Second Law of Diffusion Temperature Dependence of Diffusion Intrinsic Diffusion Coefficients (Kirkendall Effect) High Diffusion Paths Chapter 6 Phase Diagrams Phase Rule Binary Isomorphous System Eutectic Alloy Systems Aluminum-Silicon Eutectic System Lead-Tin Eutectic System Free Energy of Alloy Systems Peritectic Reaction Monotectic Reaction Intermediate Phases Solid-State Reactions Eutectoid Reaction Ternary Phase Diagrams Chapter 7 Solidification and Casting The Liquid State Solidification Interfaces Solidification Structures Segregation Grain Refinement and Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing Porosity and Shrinkage Casting Processes Sand Casting Plaster and Shell Molding Evaporative Pattern Casting Investment Casting Permanent Mold Casting Die Casting Chapter 8 Recovery, Recrystallization, and Grain Growth Recovery Recrystallization Recrystallization Temperature and Time Recrystallization Degree of Cold Work iv 8.2.3 Recrystallization Purity of Metal Recrystallization Original Grain Size Recrystallization Temperature of Deformation Grain Growth Normal Grain Growth Abnormal Grain Growth Chapter 9 Precipitation Hardening Particle Hardening Theory of Precipitation Hardening Precipitation Hardening of Aluminum Alloys Solution Heat Treating Quenching Aging Dispersion Hardening Chapter 10 The Iron-Carbon System Ferrite Eutectoid Structures Hypoeutectoid and Hypereutectoid Structures Nonequilibrium Cooling TTT Diagrams Bainite Upper Bainite Lower Bainite Martensite Formation of Martensite in Steels Morphology of Martensite Retained Austenite Carbon Content Chapter 11 Heat Treatment of Steel Annealing Process Annealing and Stress Relief Normalizing Spheroidizing Hardening Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagrams Austenitizing Quenching Hardenability Prediction of Hardenability Effect of Grain Size Effect of Alloying Elements Tempering Interrupted Quenching Martempering Austempering Temper Embrittlement Tempered Martensite Embrittlement Temper Embrittlement v Chapter 12 Mechanical Behavior Tension Engineering Stress-Strain Curve Ductility Resilience Toughness True Stress-Strain Curve Stress Concentrations Notched Tensile Test Compression Shear Stress-Strain Relationships Combined Stresses Yield Criteria Residual Stresses Hardness Chapter 13 Fracture The Brittle Fracture Problem Brittle and Ductile Fracture Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Testing Griffith Theory of Brittle Fracture Fracture Mechanics Plasticity Corrections Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness Testing Fracture Toughness of Engineering Alloys Chapter 14 Fatigue Stress Cycles High-Cycle Fatigue Low-Cycle Fatigue Cumulative Damage Fatigue Crack Nucleation and Growth Fatigue Crack Propagation Crack Closure Geometrical Stress Concentrations Manufacturing Stress Concentrations Environmental Effects Fatigue Life Improvement Fatigue Design Methodologies Chapter 15 Creep The Creep Curve Stress-Rupture Test Creep Deformation Mechanisms Elevated-Temperature Fracture Metallurgical Instabilities Creep Life Prediction Creep-Fatigue Interaction Design Against Creep Chapter 16 Deformation Processing Hot Working Cold Working vi 16.3 Rolling Forging Extrusion Sheet Metal Forming Processes Blanking and Piercing Bending Stretch Forming Drawing Rubber Pad Forming Superplastic Forming Chapter 17 Physical Properties of Metals Density Thermal Properties Melting and Boiling Points Thermal Expansion Heat Capacity and Specific Heat Capacity Thermal Conductivity Thermal Diffusivity Thermal Stresses Band Theory of Metals Electrical Properties Electron Mobility Electrical Resistivity Electrical Conductor Alloys Magnetic Properties Magnetic Fields Magnetic Induction Magnetic Permeability Magnetic Susceptibility Types of Magnetism Magnetic Domains Magnetically Soft Materials Magnetically Hard Materials Optical Properties Chapter 18 Corrosion Basics of Electrochemical Corrosion Forms of Corrosion Uniform Corrosion Galvanic Corrosion Pitting Crevice Corrosion Erosion-Corrosion Cavitation Fretting Corrosion Intergranular Corrosion Exfoliation Dealloying Corrosion Stress-Corrosion Cracking Corrosion Fatigue Hydrogen Damage vii 18.3 Corrosion Prevention Conditioning the Metal Conditioning the Corrosive Environment Electrochemical Control High-Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion Part II: Engineering Alloys Chapter 19 Plain Carbon Steels Brief History of Steel Steel Production Ironmaking Steelmaking Basic Oxygen Furnace Electric Arc Furnace Ladle Metallurgy Residual Elements and Cleanliness Ingot Casting Continuous Casting Hot Rolling Plate Mills Strip Mills Long Product Mills Cold Rolling and Drawing Classification and Specifications for Steels Plain Carbon Steels Low-Carbon Steels Low-Carbon Sheet Steels Low-Carbon Structural Steels Medium-Carbon Plain Carbon Steels High-Carbon Plain Carbon Steels Corrosion of Iron and Steel Corrosion-Resistant Coatings Chapter 20 Alloy Steels Effects of Alloying Elements Low-Alloy Structural Steels Hot Rolled Carbon-Manganese Structural Steels Heat Treated Carbon-Manganese Structural Steels High-Nickel Steels for Low-Temperature Service SAE/AISI Alloy Steels Manganese Steels (13xx) Chromium Steels (5xxx) Molybdenum Steels (40xx) Chromium-Molybdenum Steels (41xx) Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum Steels (43xx and 8xxx) High-Fracture-Toughness Steels Maraging Steels Austenitic Manganese Steels High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels Dual-Phase Steels TRIP Steels viii Chapter 21 Surface Hardening of Steel Surface Hardening by Localized Heat Treatment Flame Hardening Induction Hardening Case Hardening Carburizing Pack Carburizing Liquid Carburizing Gas Carburizing Vacuum Carburizing Plasma (Ion) Carburizing Nitriding Gas Nitriding Liquid Nitriding Carbonitriding Hardfacing Other Surface-Hardening Processes Chapter 22 Tool Materials Water-Hardening Steels Shock-Resisting Steels Cold Work Steels Oil-Hardening Cold Work Steels (Group O) Air-Hardening, Medium-Alloy, Cold Work Steels (Group A) High-Carbon, High-Chromium, Cold Work Steels (Group D) Hot Work Steels Chromium Hot Work Steels Tungsten Hot Work Steels Molybdenum Hot Work Steels Low-Alloy Special-Purpose Steels Mold Steels High-Speed Steels Molybdenum High-Speed Steels Tungsten High-Speed Steels Powder Metallurgy Tool Steels Cemented Carbides Cutting Tool Coatings Chapter 23 Stainless Steels Argon Oxygen Decarburization Ferritic Stainless Steels Martensitic Stainless Steels Austenitic Stainless Steels Duplex Stainless Steels Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels Cast Stainless Steels Schaeffler Constitution Diagram Chapter 24 Cast Irons White Cast Iron Gray Cast Iron Ductile Cast Iron Malleable Cast Iron ix 24.5 Compacted Graphite Iron Alloy Cast Irons Chapter 25 Copper Copper Production Wrought Copper Alloys Pure Coppers Copper Alloys Brasses Bronzes Copper-Nickel Alloys Beryllium-Copper Copper Casting Alloys Corrosion Chapter 26 Aluminum Aluminum Metallurgy Aluminum Alloy Designation Aluminum Alloys Wrought Non-Heat-Treatable Alloys Wrought Heat Treatable Alloys Melting and Primary Fabrication Rolling Plate and Sheet Extrusion Casting Aluminum Casting Alloys Aluminum Casting Control Heat Treating Annealing Fabrication Corrosion Chapter 27 Magnesium and Zinc Magnesium Metallurgy Magnesium Alloy Designation Magnesium Casting Alloys Magnesium-Aluminum-Base Casting Alloys Magnesium-Zirconium-Base Casting Alloys Wrought Magnesium Alloys Magnesium Heat Treating Magnesium Fabrication Magnesium Corrosion Protection Zinc Zinc Casting Alloys Wrought Zinc Alloys Chapter 28 Titanium Titanium Metallurgy Titanium Alloys Commercially Pure Titanium Alpha and Near-Alpha Alloys Alpha-Beta Alloys Beta Alloys x 28.3 Melting and Primary Fabrication Melting Primary Fabrication Forging Casting Heat Treating Stress Relief Annealing Solution Treating and Aging Heat Treating Control Fabrication Chapter 29 Nickel and Cobalt Melting of Nickel Nickel Metallurgy Nickel Alloys Corrosion- and Heat-Resistant Nickel Alloys Specialty Nickel Alloys Iron-Nickel Alloys Cobalt and Cobalt Alloys Cobalt-Base Wear-Resistant Alloys Corrosion-Resistant Cobalt Alloys Chapter 30 Superalloys Superalloy Metallurgy Commercial Superalloys Nickel-Base Superalloys Iron-Nickel-Base Superalloys Cobalt-Base Superalloys Melting and Primary Fabrication Melting Wrought Alloy Primary Fabrication Powder Metallurgy Fabrication Heat Treatment Annealing Precipitation Hardening Cast Superalloy Heat Treatment Fabrication Coating Technology Chapter 31 Refractory Metals Niobium Tantalum Molybdenum Tungsten Rhenium Fabrication Refractory Metal Protective Coatings Chapter 32 Miscellaneous Nonferrous Metals Zirconium Hafnium Beryllium xi 32.4 Lead Tin Gold Silver Platinum Group Fusible Alloys Chapter 33 Metal-Matrix Composites Aluminum-Matrix Composites Discontinuously Reinforced Aluminum Composites Processing DRA Composites Continuous Fiber Aluminum MMCs Titanium-Matrix Composites Continuous Fiber TMCs TMC Processing Techniques TMC Consolidation Procedures Particle-Reinforced TMCs Fiber-Metal Laminates Appendix A: Metric Conversions Appendix B: Crystalline System Calculations B.1 Cubic Systems B.1.1 Simple Cubic System B.1.2 Body-Centered Cubic System B.1.3 Face-Centered Cubic System B.2 Hexagonal System Appendix C: Crystallographic Planes and Directions C.1 Miller Indices for Cubic Systems C.2 Miller-Bravais Indices for Hexagonal Crystal Systems C.3 Crystallographic Directions in Cubic Crystal Structures C.4 Crystallographic Directions in Hexagonal Crystal Structures C.5 X-Ray Diffraction for Determining Crystalline Structure Index xii ASM International is the society for materials engineers and scientists, a worldwide network dedicated to advancing industry, technology, and applications of metals and materials. ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, USA This publication is copyright ASM International. All rights reserved. Publication title Elements of Metallurgy and Engineering Alloys Product code 05224G To order products from ASM International: Online Visit /bookstore Telephone (US) or (Outside US) Fax Mail Customer Service, ASM International 9639 Kinsman Rd, Materials Park, Ohio , USA In Europe In Japan American Technical Publishers Ltd Knowl Piece, Wilbury Way, Hitchin Hertfordshire SG4 0SX, United Kingdom Telephone: (account holders), (credit card) Neutrino Inc. Takahashi Bldg., 44-3 Fuda 1-chome, Chofu-Shi, Tokyo 182 Japan Telephone: 81 (0) Terms of Use. This publication is being made available in PDF format as a benefit to members and customers of ASM International. You may download and print a copy of this publication for your personal use only. Other use and distribution is prohibited without the express written permission of ASM International. 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