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  International Labour OrganizationInternational Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) TurkeyWorking Street Children in Three Metropolitan Cities:A Rapid Assessment ByDr. Bahattin Ak ! itDr. Nuray KarancıDr. Ay ! e Gündüz-Ho ! görNovember 2001, Geneva Investigating the Worst Forms of Child Labour No. 7 ISBN: 92-2-112827-X  1 Investigating Child Labour: Guidelines for Rapid Assessment - A Field Manual, January 2000, a draft to befinalized further to field tests,   http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/ipec/simpoc/guides/index.htm Preface Unacceptable forms of exploitation of children at work exist and persist, but they are particularly difficultto research due to their hidden, sometimes illegal or even criminal nature. Slavery, debt bondage,trafficking, sexual exploitation, the use of children in the drug trade and in armed conflict, as well ashazardous work are all defined as Worst Forms of Child Labour. Promoting the Convention (No. 182)concerning the Prohibition and immediate action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour,1999, is a high priority for the International Labour Organization (ILO). Recommendation (No. 190,Paragraph 5) accompanying the Convention states that “detailed information and statistical data on thenature and extent of child labour should be compiled and kept up to date to serve as a basis for determining priorities for national action for the abolition of child labour, in particular for the prohibition andelimination of its worst forms, as a matter of urgency.” Although there is a body of knowledge, data, anddocumentation on child labour, there are also still considerable gaps in understanding the variety of formsand conditions in which children work. This is especially true of the worst forms of child labour, which by their very nature are often hidden from public view and scrutiny.Against this background the ILO, through IPEC/SIMPOC (International Programme on the Eliminationof Child Labour/Statistical Information and Monitoring Programme on Child Labour) has carried out 38rapid assessments of the worst forms of child labour in 19 countries and one border area. The investigationshave been made using a new rapid assessment methodology on child labour, elaborated jointly by the ILOand UNICEF 1 . The programme was funded by the United States Department of Labor. The investigations on the worst forms of child labour have explored very sensitive areas including illegal,criminal or immoral activities. The forms of child labour and research locations were carefully chosen byIPEC staff in consultation with IPEC partners. The rapid assessment investigations focused on thefollowing categories of worst forms of child labour: children in bondage; child domestic workers; childsoldiers; child trafficking; drug trafficking; hazardous work in commercial agriculture, fishing, garbagedumps, mining and the urban environment; sexual exploitation; and working street children.To the partners and IPEC colleagues who contributed, through their individual and collective efforts, to therealisation of this report I should like to express our gratitude. The responsibility for opinions expressedin this publication rests solely with the authors and does not imply endorsement by the ILO. I am sure that the wealth of information contained in this series of reports on the situation of childrenengaged in the worst forms of child labour around the world will contribute to a deeper understanding andallow us to more clearly focus on the challenges that lie ahead. Most importantly, we hope that the studieswill guide policy makers, community leaders, and practitioners to tackle the problem on the ground.Frans RöselaersDirector International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC)International Labour OfficeGeneva, 2001  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The team that produced this report received the help of ILO representatives, IPEC partners, fellowacademicians and staff of many different institutions. They have all contributed to the completionof this report in various ways. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of   ! ule Ça lar whohas provided all the help needed from the outset to the completion of the report.During the fieldwork, the members of the research team met and interviewed the representativesof various partner organizations who generously devoted their time despite their busy schedules.Children and family members were eager to answer our questions and participate in the focusgroup sessions. The public authorities and local administrators were very welcoming and helpful,more so than we could have ever anticipated. Last but not least of all, this rapid assessmentresearch could not have been completed without the intensive work carried out by our researchassistants  # lyas Ekdial, Özcan Elçi, Hakan Uluta $ lı and Burç Umul.RA Project Team: Bahattin Ak $ itNuray KarancıAy $ e Gündüz-Ho $ gör  v TABLE OF CONTENTSExecutive Summary ix1. Chapter 1: Introduction 1 1.1 Aim of the Study 11.2 Introduction to the Research Team 21.3 Methodology of the Research 41.4 A Brief Review of Literature on Child Labour and ChildrenWorking in the Streets 8 2. Chapter 2: Demographic, Educational and Socio-Economic Profileof the Researched Cities 14 2.1 Modernisation and Migration Patterns and Choices of Three Cities 142.2 Demographic Profile of the Research Cities 152.3 Educational Profile of the Research Cities 182.4 Economic Profile of the Research Cities 20 3. Chapter 3: Legal Framework and Institutional Set-up onChild Labour in Turkey 23 3.1 Legal Framework 233.1.1 The Labour Law 243.1.2 Public Hygiene Act 253.1.3 Primary Education Act 253.1.4 Apprenticeship and Vocational Training Act 263.1.5 Major Drawbacks of Legislation 263.2 Institutional Set-up 263.2.1 Ministry of Labour and Social Security 273.2.2 Ministry of Education 283.2.3 General Directorate of Social Services and Child Protection 303.2.4 General Directorate of Police, Department of Security,Child Protection Division 313.2.5 Provincial Government 323.2.6 Municipalities 323.2.7 The Universities 333.2.8 Trades-Crafts Persons and their Associations 333.2.9 Employers and their Associations 343.2.10 Trade Unions 343.2.11 Non-governmental Organizations 35 4. Chapter 4: Profile of the Children Working in the Streets 36 4.1 Introduction 364.2 Socio-demographic Characteristics of the Children Working in the Streets 374.3 Characteristics of Work 414.3.1 Performed Tasks on the Streets 414.3.2 Working Hours 47
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