2 Towards a New Explanation of the Collapse of the Paris Plan

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 18
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information Report
Category:

Technology

Published:

Views: 0 | Pages: 18

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Share
Related documents
Description
Notes 1 The Paris Plan and Its Failure 1. Douglas Pike, The Cambodian Peace Process: Summer of 1989, Asian Survey, XXIX, no. 9 (September 1989), 842, See: Cambodia: An Australian Peace Proposal.
Transcript
Notes 1 The Paris Plan and Its Failure 1. Douglas Pike, The Cambodian Peace Process: Summer of 1989, Asian Survey, XXIX, no. 9 (September 1989), 842, See: Cambodia: An Australian Peace Proposal. Working Papers Prepared for the Informal Meeting on Cambodia, Jakarta, February (Canberra: Department of Foreign Affairs, Australia, 1990.) The Australian Plan was reproduced in: Amitav Acharya, Pierre Lizée, and Sorpong Peou, eds., Cambodia The 1989 Paris Peace Conference. Background Analysis and Documents (Millwood, New York: Kraus International Publications, 1991). Subsequent references will be to that text. 3. The peace agreement was in fact a series of accords comprising: the Final Act of the Paris Conference on Cambodia, an Agreement on a Comprehensive Settlement of the Cambodia Conflict, an Agreement Concerning the Sovereignty, Independence, Territorial Integrity and Inviolability, Neutrality and National Unity of Cambodia, and a Declaration on the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Cambodia. 4. Ibid. 5. Ibid. 6. Ibid. 7. Ibid. 8. See: United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. Information Notes (New York: United Nations Department of Public Information, 1992) (CDPI/1306, September 1992), and Frederick Z. Brown, Cambodia in Peace at Peril, Asian Survey, XXXIII, no. 1 ( January 1993), See: Stephen R. Ratner, The Cambodian Settlement Agreements, American Journal of International Law, 87, no. 1 ( January 1993), A.K.P. Mochtan, ed., Cambodia. Toward Peace and Reconstruction ( Jakarta: Centre for Strategic and International Studies, 1993), iii. 2 Towards a New Explanation of the Collapse of the Paris Plan 1. Stephen Gill, Epistemology, Ontology and the Italian School, in Gramsci, Historical Materialism and International Relations, Stephen Gill, ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), (Cambridge Studies in International Relations no. 26), 21. This volume probably presents the most pertinent of these writings. Of particular interest is: Robert W. Cox, Gramsci, Hegemony and International Relations: An Essay in Method. This essay was originally published in Millennium, 12, no. 2 (1983), Robert W. Cox, Gramsci, Hegemony and International Relations: An Essay in Method, Stephen Gill, Epistemology, Ontology and the Italian School, Robert W. Cox, Social Forces, States and World Orders: Beyond International Relations Theory, in Neorealism and its Critics, Robert O. Keohane, ed. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986), 208. This text was originally published in: Millennium, 10, no. 2 (Summer 1981), Notes Cox, Social Forces, States and World Orders: Beyond International Relations Theory, Ibid., Anthony Giddens, The Nation-State and Violence. Volume Two of A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1987). 8. Giddens, The Nation-State and Violence, Other authors have attempted the same type of study, but their work has lacked the brilliance and the detail of Giddens writings. See, for instance, Michael Mann, States, War and Capitalism. Studies in Political Sociology (Oxford and New York: Basil Blackwell, 1988) and Martin Shaw, War and the Nation-State in Social Theory, in Social Theory of Modern Societies. Anthony Giddens and his Critics, , David Held and John B. Thompson, eds (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989). 10. Giddens, The Nation-State and Violence, Ibid, Ibid, Bob Jessop, Book Review: A. Giddens The Nation-State and Violence, Capital and Class, no. 29 (Summer 1986), For instance, in Robert Jervis, Cooperation Under the Security Dilemma, World Politics, 30, no. 2, , and Helga Haftendorn, The Security Puzzle: Theory-Building and Discipline-Building in International Security, International Studies Quarterly, 35, no. 1 (March 1991), Martin Shaw, War and the Nation-State in Social Theory, Giddens, The Nation-State and Violence, Ibid, Ibid, Ibid, Other authors have underscored the relation between the expansion of capitalism and the centralization of the means of violence in the structures created by the emergence of the nation-state. See, for instance: Charles Tilly, War Making and State Making as Organized Crime, in Bringing the State Back In, Peter Evans, Dietrich Rueschemeyer, Theda Skocpol, eds. (Cambridge University Press, 1985), and Charles Tilly, Coercion, Capital, and European States, A.D (Oxford: Blackwell, 1990). The originality of Giddens work lies in its ability to demonstrate that the elaboration of certain mechanisms of control of violence were part of the emergence of capitalism itself since capitalist practices entail the evacuation of violence from economic exchanges. In this sense, his analysis provides a deeper understanding of the role of violence in shaping the capitalist aspect of the modern order in Western societies. 21. Sheldon Wolin, Violence and the Western Political Tradition, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, XXXIII (1963), Giddens, The Nation-State and Violence, Ibid, Anthony Giddens, A Reply to my Critics, in Social Theory of Modern Societies. Anthony Giddens and his Critics, Anthony Giddens, The Nation-State and Violence, 160. 178 Notes 26. Thom Workman, The Social Origins of the Iran-Iraq War (Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner, 1993), See, for instance: Ruth H. Howes and Michael R. Stevenson, eds., Women and the Use of Military Force (Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner, 1993). 28. Bradley S. Klein, The Textual Strategies of the Military: Or Have You Read Any Good Defense Manuals Lately? in International/Intertextual Relations. Postmodern Readings of World Politics, James Der Derian and Michael J. Shapiro, eds. (Lexington: Lexington Books, 1989). 29. Sheldon S. Wolin, Violence and the Western Political Tradition. 30. Abdulgaffar Peang-Meth, Understanding the Khmer: Sociological-Cultural Observations, Asian Survey, XXXI, no. 5 (May 1991), Niels Mulder, Inside Southeast Asia (Bangkok: Duang Kamol, 1992), Ibid, S.J. Tambiah, World Conqueror and World Renouncer (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976). 34. Donald G. McCloud, System and Process in Southeast Asia (Boulder: Westview Press, 1986), See: Than H. Vuong, Les colonisations du Viêt-nam et le colonialisme vietnamien, Etudes internationales, XVIII, no. 3 (September 1987), Alain Forest, Le Cambodge et la colonisaiton française. Historie d une colonisation sans heurts (Paris: L Harmattan, 1980). 37. c est justement parce que l une des fonctions du Cambodge dans le contexte colonial indochinois est de rapporter de l argent par le biais de l impôt sans problème que l oeuvre coloniale fut limitée. Alain Forest, Le Cambodge et la colonisation française. Histoire d une colonisation sans heurts (Paris: L Harmattan, 1980), Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities. Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (revised edn) (London: Verso Books, 1991). 39. Ibid, Anthony Giddens, The Nation-State and Violence, Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities, xiv. 42. Ce n est pas la notion de race qui fonde la spécificité cambodgienne, mais la notion de tradition. Alain Forest, Le Cambodge et la colonisation française, Ces dernières [les autorités françaises] occupent tout le terrain de l initiative et de l action publique, n exigeant des Cambodgiens, à quelque niveau qu ils soient, qu approbation, obéissance et soumission, et cantonnant les autorités dans le domaine du traditionnel et, plus précisément, du religieux il en résulte une perte complète du sens des responsabilités et la non-émergence d un certain sens de l Etat chez un fonctionnariat qui échappe désormais à toute sanction de la part des administrés; ce qui signifie, dans le concret, la continuation, plus discrète cependant, des practique concussionnaires et arbitraires. Alain Forest, Le Cambodge et la colonisation française, 489. Though this does not explain the weakness of the French administrative apparatus and its consequences, it is possible to note that the reliance on Vietnamese administrators in Cambodia throughout the colonial period also played a role in preventing the emergence of a bureaucratic class in Cambodia. 44. Nayan Chanda, The Political Economy of Cambodia (New York: The East Asian Institute, Columbia University, 1990), 7. Notes Nayan Chanda, The Political Economy of Cambodia, 13. Chanda is commenting on the Chinese community s behavior in the early 1980s, but the remark also applies to deeper trends. 46. Alain Forest, Le Cambodge et la colonisation française, David P. Chandler, A History of Cambodia (2nd edn) (Boulder: Westview Press, 1992), Ibid, 58. The emphasis is in the original text. 49. On these concepts, see: Abdulgafar Peange-Meth, Understanding the Khmer. For two brilliant analyses of the relation between factionalism and the nature of Cambodian politics, see: Marie Alexandrine Martin, La paysannerie khmère et le processus démocratique, in Les Cambodgients face à eux-mêmes?, Christian Lechervy and Richard Petris, eds. (Paris: Fondation pour le progrès de l homme, 1992); François Ponchaud, Elections et société khmère, in the same volume. For an interesting contrast on the notion of factionalism, see Pye s study of the nature of factional struggles in China: Lucien Pye, The Dynamics of Chinese Politics (Cambridge, Mass.: Oelgeschlager, Gunn & Hain, 1981). 50. I have not come across studies which deal specifically with these approaches to peace. They certainly reflect, however, comments made in many analyses of Cambodian politics. See, for instance: Serge Thion, The Cambodian Idea of Revolution, in Revolution and Its Aftermath in Cambodia, David Chandler and Ben Kiernan, eds. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983); Michael Leifer, Power-sharing and peacemaking in Cambodia? SAIS Review, 12, no. 1 (Winter Spring 1992), ; Sheri Prasso, Cambodia. A Heritage of Violence, World Policy Journal, XI, no. 3 (Fall 1994), Serge Thion, The Pattern of Cambodian Politics, International Journal of Politics, XVI, no. 3 (Fall 1986), 129. (This special issue of International Journal of Politics was devoted to Cambodia: Politics and International Relations and was published under the direction of David A. Ablin and Marlowe Hood.) 3 Peace in the Post-Cold War Order 1. Agreement on a Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodia Conflict, Annex I, Section A, Article 2, Paragraphs (c) and (e). 2. See, among others: Trevor Findlay, Peacemaking in Cambodia. The First Post-Cold War UN Success Story? (Ottawa, Canadian Centre for Global Security, 1993); Paul Isoart, L Organisation des Nations Unies et le Cambodge, Revue générale de Droit international public, 97, no. 3 (1993), ; M.H. Lao, Obstacles to Peace in Cambodia, Pacific Review, 6, no. 4 (1993), ; Raoul M. Jennar, Plaidoyer pour le Cambodge, Politique Internationale, 61, (Fall 1993), 421 8; Gary Klintworth, Cambodia Hopes Fading, Southeast Asian Affairs, 1993, On this theme, see: Cambodia Canada Development Program, Peace, Security and Development in Cambodia (Montreal: Cambodia Canada Development Program, 1994); Raoul M. Jennar, UNTAC: International Triumph in Cambodia? Security Dialogue, 25, no. 2 ( June 1994), ; Terence Duffy, Toward a Culture of Human Rights in Cambodia, Human Rights Quarterly, 16, no. 1 (February 1994), ; Michael W. Doyle, UN Peacekeeping in Cambodia. UNTAC s Civil Mandate (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1995). 180 Notes 4. An Agenda for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking and Peacekeeping (New York: Department of Public Information, United Nations, 1992). 5. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, An Agenda for Peace, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, An Agenda for Peace, 32. The report defines peacemaking as the action to bring hostile parties to agreement, essentially through such peaceful means as those foreseen in Chapter VI of the Charter of the United Nations. It defines peacekeeping as the deployment of a United Nations presence in the field, hitherto with the consent of all the parties concerned, normally involving United Nations military and/or policy personnel and frequently civilians as well. For its part, preventive diplomacy is defined as an action to prevent disputes from arising between parties, to prevent existing disputes from escalating into conflicts and to limit the spread of the latter when they occur. An Agenda for Peace, See: Paris Conference on Cambodia, Declaration on the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Cambodia, 23 October Agreement on a Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodia Conflict, Article Speech of Dennis McNamara at the Vienna Conference on Human Rights, June On the expansion of peacekeeping operations, see: Marrack Goulding, The Evolution of United Nations Peacekeeping, International Affairs, 69, no. 3 (1993), , and Laurence Martin, Peacekeeping as a Growth Industry, The National Interest, no. 32 (Summer 1993), 3 11; Alan James, Peacekeeping in the Post-Cold War Era, International Journal, L, no. 2 (Spring 1995), ; William J. Durch, ed., The Evolution of UN Peacekeeping (New York: St. Martin s Press, 1993). On peace-building and UNTAC, see: Pierre Lizée, The Challenge of Conflict Resolution in Cambodia, Canadian Defense Quarterly, 23, no. 1 (1992), C.R. Mitchell, Conflict, War and Conflict Management, in International Relations: A Handbook of Current Theory, Margot Light and A.J.R. Groom, eds. (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1985), A useful survey of this type of mechanism is found in: Julius Stone, International Conflict Resolution, in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences II, David L. Sills, ed. (New York, London: Macmillan and Free Press, 1968), The best recent book on negotiations is most probably: H. Peyton Young, ed., Negotiation Analysis (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992). See, also: Paul R. Pillar, Negotiating Peace (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983). 13. See: Johan Galtung, Essay in Peace Research, I V, (Copenhagen and Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Christian Ejlers and Humanities Press, ). 14. Edward E. Azar, Protracted International Conflicts: Ten Propositions, in International Conflict Resolution. Theory and Practice, Edward E. Azar and John W. Burton, eds. (Brighton: Wheatsheaf Books, 1986), 29. Also see: Edward E. Azar, Peace Amidst Development: A Conceptual Agenda for Conflict and Peace Research, International Interactions, 6, no. 2, The best recent survey on this theme is: Janie Leatherman and Raimo Väyrinen, Conflict Theory and Conflict Resolution: Directions for Collaborative Research Policy, Cooperation and Conflict, 30, no. 1 (March 1995), Notes Tous les chemins mènent à Paris 1. Nicholas Regaud, Le Cambodge dans la tourmente. Le troisième conflit indochinois (Paris: Fondation pour les études de défense nationale et L Harmattan, 1992). 2. Ibid, The conflict in and over Kampuchea has been both generated and reinforced by an interlocking structure of relationships. Michael Leifer, Obstacles to a Political Settlement in Indochina, Pacific Affairs, 58, no. 4 (Winter ), Michael Leifer, Cambodian Conflict The Final Phase? (London: Institute for the Study of Conflict, 1989), 12. (Conflict Studies, no. 221.) 5. On this point, see: Pierre Lizée, Le temps comme stratégie: Le conflit kampuchéen, Unpublished master s thesis, Université Laval, The best study of the events of this period is: Frank Frost, The Cambodia Conflict: The Path Towards Peace, Contemporary Southeast Asia, 13, no. 2 (September 1991), Also see: Charles McGregor, China, Vietnam, and the Cambodian Conflict, Asian Survey, XXX, no. 3 (March 1990), Jusqu à maintenant, et ceci je le déplore, un certain nombre de personnes s efforcent d induire l opinion publique mondiale en erreur, en affirmant que la guerre au Cambodge aurait été provoquée par la présence des troupes vietnamiennes dans ce pays, et que le problème cambodgien serait un problème entre le Vietnam et le Cambodge, en passant sous silence les crimes de génocide de Pol Pot, lesquels étaient à l origine du soulèvement et de la lutte populaires qui bénéficiaient de l assistance des troupes de volontaires vietnamiens pour libérer la nation cambodgienne. Intervention de S. Exc. M. Hun Sen, Président du Conseil des Ministres, Ministre des Affaires Etrangères et Chef de la Délégation de l Etat du Cambodge à la Conférence International sur le Cambodge. Paris 30 Juillet In Cambodia The 1989 Paris Peace Conference. Background Analysis and Documents, Amitav Acharya, Pierre Lizée, Sorpong Peou, eds., Speech by Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia to the Paris International Conference on Cambodia Paris 30 July In Cambodia The 1989 Paris Peace Conference. Background Analysis and Documents, Amitav Acharya, Pierre Lizée, Sorpong Peou, eds., Address by H.E. Mr. Khieu Samphan to the Paris International Conference on Cambodia. 31 July In Cambodia The 1989 Paris Peace Conference. Background Analysis and Documents, Amitav Acharya, Pierre Lizée, Sorpong Peou, eds., 21, La Conférence de Paris ne doit pas être détournée de son objet qui est l agression et l occupation de Cambodge par des forces étrangères avec toutes les conséquences qui en découlent. Intervention de Son Excellence Son Sann, Président du Front National de Libération du Peuple Khmer et Premier Ministre du Gouvernement de Coalition du Kampuchéa Démocratique à la Conférence Internationale de Paris sur le Cambodge, du 30 Juillet au 5 Septembre In Cambodia The 1989 Paris Peace Conference. Background Analysis and Documents, Amitav Acharya, Pierre Lizée, Sorpong Peou, eds., pour réaliser la réconciliation nationale sur la base du droit à l autodétermination du peuple cambodgien et pour assurer une solution politique juste, nous 182 Notes proposons que soit maintenu le statu quo politique et militaire jusqu à l achèvement des élections générales. Intervention de S. Exc. M. Hun Sen, Président du Conseil des Ministres, Ministre des Affaires Etrangères et Chef de la délégation de l État du Cambodge à la Conférence Internationale sue le Cambodge. Paris 30 Juillet In Cambodia The 1989 Paris Peace Conference. Background Analysis and Documents, Amitav Acharya, Pierre Lizée, Sorpong Peou, eds., Speech by Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia to the Paris International Conference on Cambodia Paris 30 July In Cambodia The 1989 Paris Peace Conference. Background Analysis and Documents, Amitav Acharya, Pierre Lizée, Sorpong Peou, eds., Organization of Work: Text Adopted by the Conference at its 4th Plenary Meeting, on A1 August In Cambodia The Paris Peace Conference. Background Analysis and Documents, Amitav Acharya, Pierre Lizée, Sorpong Peou, eds., Tommy T.B. Koh, The Paris Conference on Cambodia: A Multilateral Negotiation that Failed, Negotiation Journal ( January 1990), Statement of the Paris Conference (Issued 30 August 1989). In Cambodia The 1989 Paris Peace Conference. Background Analysis and Documents, Amitav Acharya, Pierre Lizée, Sorpong Peou, eds., Nicolas Regaud, Le Cambodge dans la tourmente. Le troisième conflit indochinois , Carlyle A. Thayer, Comrade Plus Brother: The New Sino-Vietnamese Relations, The Pacific Review, 5, no. 4 (1992), Kevin Rowley, The Cambodian Conflict after the Vietnamese Withdrawal , unpublished paper. Hawthorne, Victoria: Swinburne Institute of Technology, September, Carlyle A. Thayer, Comrade Plus Brother: The New Sino-Vietnamese Relations, Frank Frost, The Cambodia Conflict: The Path Towards Peace, Contemporary Southeast Asia, 13, no. 2 (September 1991), Cambodia: An Australian Peace Proposal. Working Papers Prepared for the Informal Meeting on Cambodia. Jakarta, February In Cambodia The 1989 Paris Peace Conference. Background Analysis and Documents, Amitav Acharya, Pierre Lizée, Sorpong Peou, eds., Senate Daily Hansard (Australia), 6 December 1990, quoted in: Frank Frost, The Cambodia Conflict: The Path Towards Peace, Summary of Conclusions of the Meeting of the Five Permanent Members of the Security Council on the Cambodian Problem. Paris, January In Cambodia The 1989 Paris Peace Conference. Background Analysis and Documents, Amitav Acharya, Pierre Lizée, Sorpong Peou, eds., S
Recommended
View more...
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks