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2. THE CONCEPT OF ROCK MUSIC 2.1 Psychedelic Rock Psychedelic rock (psychedelia) is a style of rock music that is inspired or influenced by psychedelic culture and attempts to replicate and enhance the
2. THE CONCEPT OF ROCK MUSIC 2.1 Psychedelic Rock Psychedelic rock (psychedelia) is a style of rock music that is inspired or influenced by psychedelic culture and attempts to replicate and enhance the mindaltering experiences of psychedelic drugs. It emerged during the mid 1960s among folk rock and blues-rock bands in the United Kingdom. It is often used with the new recording techniques and effects and drew on non-western sources such the ragas and drones of Indian music. Psychedelic rock bridges the transition from early blues- and folk music-based rock to progressive rock, glam rock, hard rock and the its result influences the development of sub-genres such as heavy metal. Since the late 1970s it has been revived in various forms of neopsychedelia. Some of the key ingredients in psychedelic rock : A creative use of studio recording techniques to create effects that mirror an LSD trip, including phasing, swooshing and filtering The use of Indian instruments or sounds, particularly the sitar and tabla Improvisation or extended jamming (inspired by the free jazz of John Coltrane) Steam of consciousness lyrics usually alluding to drug use or social issues. Characteristics : As a musical style psychedelic rock often contains some of the following features: electric guitars, often used with feedback, wah wah and fuzzboxes. elaborate studio effects, such as backwards tapes, panning, phasing, long delay loops, and extreme reverb. exotic instrumentation, with a particular fondness for the sitar and tabla. a strong keyboard presence, especially organs, harpsichords, or the mellotron (an early tape-driven) a strong emphasis on extended instrumental solos or jams. complex song structures, key and time signature changes, modal melodies and drones. primitive electronic instruments such as synthesizers and the theremin. In Britain arguably the most influential band in the genre were The Yardbirds who, with Jeff Beck as their guitarist, increasingly moved into psychedelic territory, adding up-tempo improvised rave ups , Gregoria chant and world music influences to songs including Still I'm Sad (1965) and Over Under Sideways Down (1966). From 1966 the UK underground scene based in North London, supported new acts including Pink Floyd, Traffic andsoft Machine. The same year saw the débuts of blues rock bands Cream and The Jimi Hendrix Experience, whose extended guitar-heavy jams became a key feature of psychedelia. Psychedelic rock reached its apogee in the last years of the decade saw the Beatles release their definitive psychedelic statement in Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, including the controversial track Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds and The Rolling Stones responded later that year with Their Satanic Majesties Request. Pink Floyd produced what is usually seen as their best psychedelic work The Piper at the Gates of Dawn. In America the Summer of Love was prefaced by the Human Be-In event and reached its peak at the Monterey Pop Festival, the latter helping to make major American stars of Jimi Hendrix and The Who, whose single I Can See for Miles delved into psychedelic territory. Key recordings included Jefferson Airplane's Surrealistic Pillow and The Doors' Strange Days. These trends climaxed in the 1969 Woodstock festival, which saw performances by most of the major psychedelic acts, including Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin and Santana. British Psychedelic Rock s artists : The Beatles Pink Floyd The Rolling Stones Jimi Hendrix Experience Davy Graham Bee Gees 2.2 Progressive Rock Progressive rock (prog rock or prog) is a subgenre of rock music that was developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s as part of a mostly British attempt to elevate rock music to new levels of artistic credibility. John Covach, in Contemporary Music Review, says that many thought it would not just succeed the pop of the 1960s as much as take its rightful place beside the modern classical music of Stravinsky and Bartók. Progressive rock bands pushed rock's technical and compositional boundaries by going beyond the standard rock or popular verse-chorus-based song structures. The Oxford Companion to Music states that progressive rock bands ...explored extended musical structures which involved intricate instrumental patterns and textures and often esoteric subject matter. Additionally, the arrangements often incorporated elements drawn from classical, jazz, and world music. Instrumentals were common, while songs with lyrics were sometimes conceptual, abstract, or based in fantasy. Progressive rock bands sometimes used concept albums that made unified statements, usually telling an epic story or tackling a grand overarching theme. Progressive rock developed from late 1960s psychedelic rock, as part of a wide-ranging tendency in rock music of this era to draw inspiration from ever more diverse influences. The term was initially applied to the music of bands such as Pink Floyd, King Crimson, Yes, Genesis, Jethro Tull, Soft Machine, and Emerson, Lake & Palmer, reaching its peak of popularity in the mid 1970s. The early 1980s saw a revival of the genre, led by artists such as Marillion, UK, Twelfth Night, IQ, Pendragon, Quasar, North Star and Pallas. The groups that arose during this time are sometimes termed neo-progressive or neo-prog. Bands of this style were influenced by 1970s progressive rock groups like Genesis, Yes and Camel, but incorporated some elements that were reflective of the New Wave and other rock elements found in the 1980s. The digital synthesiser became a prominent instrument in the style. Neo-prog continued to remain viable into the 1990s and beyond with bands like North Star, Arena and Jadis. Some progressive rock stalwarts changed musical direction, simplifying their music and making it more commercially viable. In 1981, King Crimson made a comeback that incorporated a more techno-rhythmic sound and Asia, a new supergroup composed of members of some of the major prog acts of the 70s, released a pop-oriented debut album. This demonstrated a market for more commercialised British progressive rock a style very similar to that, combining progressive rock with hard rock elements, played by North American Top 40 stalwarts such as Styx, Journey, and to a lesser extent Rush. Genesis changed to a more commercial direction during the 1980s, and Yes had a comeback with 90125, featuring their only US number one single, Owner of a Lonely Heart . Likewise, Pink Floyd's A Momentary Lapse of Reason in 1987 was a departure from their former concept albums, featuring shorter songs and a more electronic sound. British Progressive Rock s Artists : Arena Genesis King Crimson Jethro Tull Marillion Yes 2.3 Heavy Metal Heavy metal (metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom and the United States. With roots in blues rock and psychedelic rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by highly amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, and overall loudness. Heavy metal lyrics and performance styles are generally associated with masculinity and machismo. The first heavy metal bands such as Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple attracted large audiences, though they were often critically reviled, a status common throughout the history of the genre. In the mid-1970s Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence; Motörhead introduced a punk rock sensibility and an increasing emphasis on speed. Bands in the New Wave of British Heavy Metal such as Iron Maiden followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal had attracted a worldwide following of fans known as metalheads or headbangers . The New Wave of British Heavy Metal (NWOBHM) was a heavy metal movement that started in the late 1970s, in Britain, and achieved international attention by the early 1980s. The movement developed as a reaction in part to the decline of early heavy metal bands such as Deep Purple, Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath. NWOBHM bands toned down the blues influences of earlier acts, incorporated elements of punk, increased the tempo, and adopted a tougher sound, taking a harder approach to its music. It was a scene directed almost exclusively at heavy metal fans. The era is considered to be a major foundation stone for the extreme metal genres; acts such as the American metal band Metallica cite NWOBHM bands like Saxon, Motörhead, Diamond Head, and Iron Maiden as a major influence on their musical style. Reviled or ignored by many mainstream critics in both the UK and the US, the NWOBHM nonetheless came to dominate the heavy metal scene of the earlymid 1980s. NWOBHM was musically characterized by fast upbeat tempo songs, power chords, fast guitar solos and melodic, soaring vocals, with lyrical themes often drawing inspiration from mythology and fantasy fiction. Many of the bands of this era were signed to Neat Records, who has released volumes of NWOBHM compilations in later years. Characteristics : Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, and vigorous vocals. Metal subgenres variously emphasize, alter, or omit one or more of these attributes. New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force. The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythim guitarist, a lead guitarist, and a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist. Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Subgenres of Heavy Metal : Thrash Metal Death Metal Black Metal Power Metal Doom Metal Gothic Metal New Wave of British Heavy Metal s Artists : Blitzkrieg Def Leppard Girlschool Hell Iron Maiden Judas Priest Motorhead 2.4 Glam Rock Glam rock (glitter rock) is a style of rock and pop music that was developed in the UK in the early 1970s, which was performed by singers and musicians who wore outrageous clothes, makeup and hairstyles, particularly platform-soled boots and glitter. The flamboyant costumes and visual styles of glam performers were often camp or androgynous, and have been connected with new views of gender roles. Glam rock visuals peaked during the mid 1970s with artists including T. Rex, David Bowie, Roxy Music and Gary Glitter in the UK. The lyrical style emphasis was mostly hedonistic while the fashion was distinctly futuristic and had a somewhat transvestite look to it. The Brit rock glam development created performers that performed this guitar driven hard rock sound that remained for the most part a British phenomenon. Following in the footsteps of Bowie and T. Rex were bands such as Roxy Music and Slade. Gary Glitter also had huge commercial success with 26 hit singles. The Brit rock culture of Glam soon began to spill into other genres of music, with bands such as the Osmonds and the Rolling Stones sporting make up and glitter as part of their look. However it soon began to become more diluted and less of a culture as pop music began to absorb the style. The result of this was the style being more commercialized and losing its sub culture status. Glam rock emerged out of the English psychedelic and art rock scenes of the late 1960s and can be seen as both an extension of, and reaction against, those trends. Musically it was very diverse, varying between the simple rock and roll revivalism of figures like Alvin Stardust to the complex art rock of Roxy Music, and can be seen as much as a fashion as a musical sub-genre. Visually it was a mesh of various styles, ranging from 1930s Hollywood glamour, through 1950s pin-up sex appeal, pre-war Cabaret theatrics, Victorianliterary and symbolist styles, science fiction, to ancient and occult mysticism and mythology; manifesting itself in outrageous clothes, makeup, hairstyles, and platform-soled boots. Glam is most noted for its sexual and gender ambiguity and representations of androgyny, beside extensive use of theatrics. The origins of glam rock are associated with Marc Bolan, who had renamed his folk duo T. Rex and taken up electric instruments by the end of the 1960s. Often cited as the moment of inception was his appearance on the UK TV programme Top of the Pops in March 1971 wearing glitter and satins, to perform what would be his second Top 10 hit and first #1 single Hot Love . From late 1971, already a minor star, David Bowie developed his Ziggy Stardust persona, incorporating elements of professional make up, mime and performance into his act. These performers were soon followed in the style by acts including Roxy Music, Sweet,Slade, Mott the Hoople, Mud and Alvin Stardust. While highly successful in the single charts in the UK, very few of these musicians were able to make a serious impact in the United States; Bowie was the major exception becoming an international superstar and prompting the adoption of glam styles among acts like Lou Reed, Iggy Pop,New York Dolls and Jobriath, often known as glitter rock and with a darker lyrical content than their British counterparts. In the UK the term glitter rock was most often used to refer to the extreme version of glam pursued by Gary Glitter and his support musicians the Glitter Band, who between them achieved eighteen top ten singles in the UK between 1972 and A second wave of glam rock acts, including Suzi Quatro, Roy Wood's Wizzad and Sparks, dominated the British single charts from about 1974 to Quatro directly inspired the pioneering Los Angeles based all-girl group The Runaways. Existing acts, some not usually considered central to the genre, also adopted glam styles, including Rod Stewart, Elton John, Queen and, for a time, even the Rolling Stones. Punk Rock, often seen as a reaction to the artifice of glam rock, but using some elements of the genre including makeup and involving covers versions of glam rock records, helped end the fashion for glam from about 1976. British Glam Rock s Artists : Roxy Music Marc Bolan David Bowie Queen Sweet Slade 2.5 Folk Rock Folk rock is a musical genre combining elements of folk music and rock music. In its earliest and narrowest sense, the term referred to a genre that arose in the United States and the UK around the mid-1960s. The genre was pioneered by the Los Angeles band The Byrds, who began playing traditional folk music and Bob Dylan-penned material with rock instrumentation, in a style heavily influenced by The Beatles and other British bands. The term folk rock was itself first coined by the U.S. music press to describe The Byrds' music in June 1965, the same month that the band's debut album was issued. The release of The Byrds' cover version of Dylan's Mr. Tambourine Man and its subsequent commercial success initiated the folk rock explosion of the mid-1960s. Dylan himself was also influential on the genre, particularly his recordings with an electric rock band on the Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited, and Blonde on Blonde albums. Dylan's July 25, 1965 appearance at the Newport Folk Festival with an electric backing band is also considered a pivotal moment in the development of folk rock. The genre had its antecedents in the American folk music revival, the beat music of The Beatles and other British Invasion bands, The Animals' hit recording of the folk song The House of the Rising Sun , and the folk-influenced songwriting of The Beau Brummels. In particular, the folk-influence evident in such Beatles' songs as I'm a Loser and You've Got to Hide Your Love Away was very influential on folk rock. The repertoire of most folk rock acts was drawn in part from folk sources but it was also derived from folk-influenced singersongwriters such as Dylan. Musically, the genre was typified by clear vocal harmonies and a relatively clean (effects- and distortion-free) approach to electric instruments, as epitomized by the jangly 12-string guitar sound of The Byrds. This jangly guitar sound was derived from the music of The Searchers and from George Harrison's use of a Rickenbacker 12-string on The Beatles' recordings during 1964 and This original incarnation of folk rock led directly to the distinct, eclectic style of electric folk (aka British folk rock) pioneered in the late 1960s by Pentangle, Fairport Convention and Alan Stivell. Inspired by British psychedelic folk and the North-American style of folk rock, Pentangle, Fairport, and other related bands began to incorporate elements of traditional British folk music into their repertoire. Shortly afterwards, Fairport bassist, Ashley Hutchings, formed Steeleye Span with traditionalist folk musicians who wished to incorporate overt rock elements into their music and this, in turn, spawned a number of other variants, including the overtly English folk rock of The Albion Band (also featuring Hutchings) and the more prolific current of Celtic rock. In a broader sense, folk rock includes later similarly-inspired musical genres and movements in the English-speaking world (and its Celtic and Filipino fringes) and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in Europe. As with any genre, the borders are difficult to define. British Folk-Rock was heavily inspired by its American counterpart, but it still retained a distinctly British flavor. Such trailblazers as Fairport Convention clearly drew inspiration from the Byrds and Bob Dylan, but they incorporated elements of traditional British folk, as well as English themes that gave the music its unique character. Fairport Convention were the titans of British folk-rock, and such original members as Richard Thompson and Sandy Denny later forged successful solo careers. Their producer, Joe Boyd, also helped developed the careers of a number of other key players in British folk-rock, including the acclaimed singer/songwriter Nick Drake. Subgenres of Folk Rock : Country Folk Electric Folk Celtic Folk Medieval Folk Rock British Progressive Folk Rock British Folk Rock s Artists : Lonnie Donegan Led Zeppelin Pentangle Fairport Convention Oysterband 2.6 Punk Rock Punk rock is a rock music genre that was developed between 1974 and 1976 in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Rooted in garage rock and other forms of what is now known as protopunk music, punk rock bands eschewed the perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock. They created fast, hard-edged music, typically with short songs, stripped-down instrumentation, and often political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic, with many bands self-producing their recordings and distributing them through informal channels. By late 1976, bands such as the Ramones, in New York City, and the Sex Pistols and The Clash, in London, were recognized as the vanguard of a new musical movement. The following year saw punk rock spreading around the world, and it became a major cultural phenomenon in the United Kingdom. For the most part, punk took root in local scenes that tended to reject association with the mainstream. An associated punk subculture emerged, expressing youthful rebellion and characterized by distinctive styles of clothing and adornment and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies. By the beginning of the 1980s, faster, more aggressive styles such as hardcore and Oi! had become the predominant mode of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk also pursued a broad range of other variations, giving rise to post-punk and the alternative rock movement. By the turn of the century, pop punk had been adopted by the mainstream, as bands such as Green Day and The Offspring brought the genre widespread popularity The phenomenon of Punk Music exploded into the mainstream music scene in the 1970 s running parallel with the Brit rock Glam genre. Much less flamboyant in style i
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