2. STATISTICIAN S JOB

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Official Basketball Statistics Rules With Approved Rulings and Interpretations (Throughout this manual, Team A players have last names starting with A and Team B players have last names starting with B.
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Official Basketball Statistics Rules With Approved Rulings and Interpretations (Throughout this manual, Team A players have last names starting with A and Team B players have last names starting with B. ) Basic Interpretations (Indicated as B.I. references throughout manual.) 1. APPROVED RULING Approved rulings (indicated as A.R.s) are designed to interpret the spirit of the application of the Official Basketball Rules. A thorough understanding of the rules is essential to understanding and applying the statistics rules in this manual. 2. STATISTICIAN S JOB The statistician s responsibility is to judge only what has happened, not to speculate as to what would have happened. The statistician should not decide who would have gotten the rebound if it had not been for the foul. The statistician should not guess whether a player had the rebound before a violation caused the ball to become dead. This manual will attempt to give as many hard and fast guidelines as is possible and practical to help the statistician avoid guessing. When the statistician has doubts, this manual indicates which way to rule. When there are no doubts, the statistician is free to make his or her own decision. 3. SHOOTING ACCURACY A player should not be charged for a shot from the field or from the free-throw line influenced by the illegal actions of himself or herself, teammates, or opponents, unless the shot results in a field goal or free throw made. Shooting percentages should reflect as closely as possible the accuracy of the player and his or her team. Shooting percentages should not reflect shots that failed under the influence of illegal actions. 4. PLAYER CONTROL If there is any doubt about whether a player had control of the ball at a certain instant, assume that the player did. Similarly, if there is doubt about whether two players gained control of the ball simultaneously, assume that they did. SECTION 1 FIELD GOALS Article 1. A field-goal attempt (FGA) is charged to a player any time the player shoots, throws or taps a live ball at his or her own basket, when, in the opinion of the statistician, the player is attempting to score a goal, with these exceptions: (a) A FGA is not charged if the player is fouled in the act of shooting before the ball is in flight and the goal is not made. (b) A FGA is not charged if there is offensive goaltending or offensive basket interference on that shot. (c) A FGA is not charged if an unsuccessful shot is taken near the expiration of time for a period or for the shot clock, and it is the statistician s opinion that the shot was a desperation shot and not a reasonable attempt to make a field goal. One or more of the following factors should exist in order to classify a shot as a desperation shot. The shooter: (1) Is outside the normal shooting range. A shot from just beyond the three-point line would usually be considered in normal shooting range while a shot at or beyond the division line would be outside normal shooting range. (2) Uses an abnormal shooting motion, such as an overhand baseball toss. (3) Rushes or hurries the shot to beat the expiration of time. A shot could be considered rushed or hurried if the shooter tries to control and shoot the ball in the same motion with not enough time to get into a normal shooting position (squared up to the basket). Article 2. A field goal made (FGM) is credited to a player any time a FGA by the player results in the goal being counted or results in an awarded score of two (or three) points except when the field goal is the result of a defensive player tipping the ball in the offensive basket. Related rules in the NCAA Men s and Women s Basketball Rules and Interpretations: (1) 4-33: Definition of Goal (2) : Definition of Penalty for Violation (3) 4-69: Definition of Try for Field Goal and definition of Act of Shooting (4) 4-73: Definition of Violation (5) 5-1: Scoring (6) 9-16: Basket Interference and Goaltending Philosophy. A player should not be charged for a shot from the field influenced by the illegal actions of himself or herself, or any teammates or opponents unless the shot results in a FGM (see B.I. 3). Refer to the following Approved Rulings in this manual as they involve FGAs and FGMs: Section 2, Article 2, A.R. 6 Section 7, A.R. 1 Section 3, Article 1, A.R. 10 Section 7, A.R. 2 Section 3, Article 2, A.R. 2 Section 7, A.R. 3 Section 4, Article 2, A.R. 5 Section 7, A.R. 4 Section 4, Article 2, A.R. 23 Section 7, A.R. 5 Section 4, Article 2, A.R. 24 A.R. 1. Adams shoots but fouls Brown (a) before the ball is in flight or (b) after the ball is in flight but before Adams has returned to the floor, or (c) after the ball is in flight and Adams has returned to the floor. RULING: In (a), since the ball was dead before the shot was in flight, do not charge Adams with a FGA, but charge Adams with a turnover. Under men s rules in (b), charge Adams with a FGA and, if the shot is good, credit a FGM. Under women s rules in (b), do not charge Adams with a FGA, but charge Adams with a turnover. In (c), charge Adams with a FGA and, if the shot is successful, credit a FGM. If the statistician is in doubt about whether the foul is a player-control foul, the actions of the officials will indicate the correct ruling. If the foul is a player-control foul, it will be so indicated by the officials and any shot will be waved off. A.R. 2. Adams shoots and the shot hits the rim and bounces on it. Allen goes up and dunks the ball (a) while the ball still is on the rim or (b) after the ball has bounced to the side and it is obvious that Adams shot will not be successful. RULING: In (a), since the try by Adams does not end until it is certain the shot will not be successful, the interference was on Adams shot. Charge neither Adams nor Allen with a FGA. However, charge Allen with a turnover. In (b), since Adams shot obviously had missed, charge Adams with a FGA. Credit Allen with a rebound. Since Allen s dunk began with the ball outside the cylinder above the rim, it will be legal. Charge Allen with a FGA and credit with a FGM. A.R. 3. Adams shoots a FGA and misses. Allen tips the missed shot and, while Allen s tip still is on the rim, Adler tips it in. Due to Adler s interference, the goal is nullified and the ball is awarded to Team B out of bounds. RULING: Charge Adams with a FGA and credit Allen with a rebound. Do not charge Allen with a FGA but charge Adler with a turnover. A.R. 4. With two seconds remaining in the period, Adams (a) shoots a jump shot from the top of the circle, (b) shoots from just on the other side of the division line or (c) shoots from the free-throw line of the opponents court. RULING: In (a), charge Adams with a FGA and, if the shot is good, credit Adams with a FGM. In (b) and (c), do not charge Adams with a FGA unless the shot is good, in which case credit Adams with a FGM as well. A.R. 5. As the shot clock is about to run out, Adams shoots and the ball clearly is in flight before the horn. (a) The shot-clock horn sounds while the ball is in the air and the ball strikes the basket ring or enters the basket. (b) The shot-clock horn sounds while the ball is in the air, the ball fails to hit the ring, and Allen rebounds. The officials call the violation and Team B is awarded the ball for a throwin. (c) The shot-clock horn sounds while the ball is in the air, the ball fails to hit the ring, and Brown rebounds. The officials call the violation and Team B is awarded the ball for a throw-in. (d) The ball fails to hit the ring and the shotclock horn sounds as Brown rebounds. The officials call the violation and Team B is awarded the ball for a throw-in. (e) The ball fails to hit the ring and the shot-clock horn sounds as Brown rebounds. The officials do not call a violation and Team B continues control of the ball. RULING: In all cases, no turnover is charged. In (a), the horn is ignored. Charge Adams with a FGA and, if the shot is good, credit Adams with a FGM. In (b), (c) and (d), charge Adams with a FGA and credit Team B with a dead-ball rebound. In (e), charge Adams with a FGA and credit Brown with a rebound. A.R. 6. As the shot clock is about to run out, Adams shoots and the shot is blocked by Brown and is recovered by Allen. (a) Allen gets control of the ball as the shotclock horn sounds, or (b) Allen barely has time to turn and shoot and the shot misses the rim and the shot-clock horn sounds. In both cases, the ball is awarded to Team B for a throw-in. RULING: In both cases, charge Adams with a FGA, credit Brown with a blocked shot, and credit Allen with a rebound. In (a), charge a turnover to Team A. In (b), unless Allen had a reasonable chance to score, do not charge a FGA, but charge Team A with a turnover. If the statistician feels Allen did have a reasonable chance to score, charge Allen with a FGA and credit Team B with a dead-ball rebound. A.R. 7. As the shot clock is about to run out, Adams (a) throws a bad pass, (b) throws a pass that Brown tips, (c) throws a good pass that Allen mishandles or (d) has the ball stripped away. In all cases, Allen recovers the loose ball and shoots a desperation shot that misses the rim as the shot-clock horn sounds. The ball is awarded to Team B for a throw-in. RULING: In all cases, do not charge Allen with a FGA. In (a), (b) and (d), charge Adams with a turnover. In (c), charge Allen with a turnover. A.R. 8. As the shot clock is about to run out, Adams takes a desperation shot for reasons such as those illustrated in A.R. 6 and A.R. 7. The shot hits the rim but does not go into the basket. (a) Adams rebounds, or (b) Brown rebounds, or (c) the rebound goes out of bounds and is awarded to Team A for a throw-in, or (d) the rebound goes out of bounds and is awarded to Team B for a throw-in. RULING: In all cases, if the opinion of the statistician is that the shot was a desperation shot, do not charge Allen with a FGA and do not credit any rebound. In (b) and (d), charge a turnover. Depending on what preceded the shot, the turnover could be charged to Allen or to Team A. In (b), it might be appropriate to credit Brown with a steal. In (a) and (c), if no FGA is charged, then no rebound is credited. Article 3. When a player is fouled in the act of shooting before the ball is in flight and the shot results in a FGM, then a FGA also must be charged. A.R. 1. Adams is fouled in the act of shooting before the ball is in flight. While the ball still is on the rim from Adams shot, Brown bats it away, which is ruled goaltending, and Adams is awarded two points. RULING: Charge Adams with a FGA and credit with a FGM. Article 4. When a player shoots and is fouled after the ball clearly is in flight, a FGA is charged. If the shot is made, then whether it was in flight is not important; either way, the shot will count and a FGA must be charged and a FGM credited. If the shot does not score, the number of free throws awarded, if any, may help indicate if the shot was in flight. If no free throws are awarded or if the shooter is awarded one and the bonus, this indicates the foul was after the shot and a FGA should be charged. If two (or three) free throws are awarded, these are the possibilities: (a) The foul was before the ball was in flight; do not charge a FGA. (b) The foul was after the ball was in flight but the shooter was airborne and had not returned to the floor; charge the shooter with a FGA. (c) There is some other reason for the free throws (e.g., the foul is ruled intentional, or the defensive team has had at least 10 fouls, etc.). Charge the shooter with a FGA. If there still is doubt as to whether the ball was in flight, the interpretation shall be that it was not. A.R. 1. (This also appears in Section 7, A.R. 5.) Adams shoots and is fouled by Brown. (a) The foul occurs before the ball clearly is in flight and the shot is made; (b) the foul occurs before the ball clearly is in flight and the shot is missed; (c) the foul occurs before the ball clearly is in flight and the shot is blocked by Benton; (d) the foul occurs after the ball clearly is in flight and the shot is made; (e) the foul occurs after the ball clearly is in flight and the shot is missed; or (f) the foul occurs after the ball clearly is in flight and the shot is blocked by Benton. RULING: In (a) and (d), charge Adams with a FGA and credit with a FGM. In (b) and (c), do not charge Adams with a FGA. Without a FGA, there can be no blocked shot credited in (c). In (e) and (f), charge Adams with a FGA and credit Team A with a dead-ball rebound. Also, in (f), credit Benton with a blocked shot. A.R. 2. Adams shoots and misses a FGA, without leaving the floor. Adams is fouled by Brown and it is obviously after Adams is in the act of shooting, but there is doubt about whether it was before or after the shot was in flight; (a) Adams is awarded two (or three) free throws or (b) Adams is awarded one free throw (with a bonus possible) or Team A is awarded the ball for a throw-in. In both cases, there is no other reason to award free throws. RULING: In (a), apparently Adams was in the act of shooting before the ball was in flight when fouled. Do not charge a FGA. In (b), apparently Adams was fouled after the ball was in flight. Charge Adams with a FGA. Credit Team A with a dead-ball rebound. Do not charge Brown with a turnover. A.R. 3. Adams leaves the floor, shoots and misses a FGA. After the ball clearly is in flight, and as Adams is returning to the floor from the shot, he or she is fouled by Brown. (a) Adams is awarded two (or three) free throws or (b) Adams is awarded one free throw (with a bonus possible) or Team A is awarded the ball for a throw-in. In both cases, there is no other reason to award free throws. RUL- ING: In both (a) and (b), the foul came after the ball was in flight. Charge Adams with a FGA. Credit Team A with a dead-ball rebound. A.R. 4. Adams leaves the floor and shoots a FGA. After the ball is in flight and after Adams has returned to the floor from the shot, he or she is fouled by Brown. The official rules that the foul by Brown is intentional (or flagrant) and awards Adams two free throws. RULING: Charge Adams with a FGA. The statistician must be careful to avoid thinking that Adams was awarded two free throws because he or she was in the act of shooting. If the shot is made, credit Adams with a FGM. If the foul occurs after the shot is made, charge Brown with a turnover. If the shot is not made, credit Team A with a dead-ball rebound. A.R. 5. Adams shoots a FGA; (a) after the ball is in flight, Adams is fouled by Brown and, while the ball still is on the rim, Allen interferes with it or (b) after the ball is in flight and above the rim, Allen interferes with it and is fouled by Brown. RULING: In both cases, do not charge Adams with a FGA since Allen s interference nullified the shot. And since Team A will retain the ball for either a free throw or a throw-in, do not charge Allen with a turnover. Article 5. Tip-ups count as attempts when, in the opinion of the statistician, the player has sufficient control. Article 6. Blocked shots are counted as attempts when, in the opinion of the statistician, the ball clearly was in flight before being blocked; or the player was in the obvious act of shooting with the shooting hand moving toward the basket; or the player was airborne and moving toward the basket with the intention of a dunk or layup and the ball in position for the shot. If there is doubt about whether the player was in the act of shooting, the interpretation shall be that he or she was not. Article 7. A shot on which there is defensive goaltending or defensive basket interference is treated as though there was no violation and the shot had been made. That is, an attempt is charged and a FGM is credited. A.R. 1. Adams shoots and, while the ball is in flight toward the basket, (a) Allen is guilty of goaltending or (b) Brown is guilty of goaltending. RULING: In (a), do not charge Adams with a FGA but charge Allen with a turnover. In (b), charge Adams with a FGA and credit with a FGM. A.R. 2. Allen shoots and, while the ball still is on the rim, Brown bats it away, which is ruled goaltending, and Allen is awarded two points. RULING: Charge Allen with a FGA and credit with a FGM. A.R. 3. Adams shoots and, during the shot, Brown hangs on the rim. The official calls a technical foul on Brown, but does not call basket interference. Team A is awarded the ball for a free throw and then gets the ball out of bounds for a throw-in. RULING: Since the official did not rule basket interference, then it must be the official s judgment that Brown in no way affected the shot. The technical foul did not cause the ball to become dead until it obviously was not a successful shot. Therefore, charge Adams with a FGA and credit Team A with a dead-ball rebound. Article 8. When a field goal is scored in Team A s basket after last being touched by a player on Team B, score the play as follows: (a) If the touching by Team B was an attempt to block a shot by Team A and did not appreciably alter its flight, then such touching is ignored. (b) If the touching by Team B came after an attempt, either a FGA or a FTA, by Team A that had obviously missed and there was no control by Team B, then a FGA or FTA is charged to Team A on the original shot. No FGM is credited or FGA charged on the tip-in to either team. Instead, two points are added to Team A s score and a footnote is added to explain the extra points. Also, a dead-ball rebound is credited to Team A. On the box score, the two points should appear on the line used for team rebounds, an asterisk should be placed by the two points and an explanation for the asterisk should be written in the form of a footnote. (c) If the touching by Team B was a deflection of a ball last in control of Team A but was not a shot by Team A, then no FGA is charged or FGM credited to either team. The procedure for accounting for the two points is the same as in (b) above. (d) If the ball was last in control of Team B, then no FGA is charged or FGM credited to either team. The procedure for accounting for the two points is the same as in (b) above. Additionally, charge a player on Team B with a turnover. A.R. 1. Allen shoots and the shot is touched by Brown in an attempt to block the shot. The ball continues into the basket. RULING: Since the ball continued into the basket, Brown s touching it did not alter its flight appreciably. Ignore the touching, charge Allen with a FGA and credit with a FGM, but do not credit Brown with a blocked shot. A.R. 2. Allen shoots, either a FGA or a FTA, and the shot is unsuccessful. In the scramble for the rebound, both Adams and Brown try to tip the ball. (a) Adams tips the ball in, (b) Brown tips the ball in or (c) it appears that both players tip the ball in. RULING: In (a) and (c), charge Allen with a FGA and charge Adams with a FGA and credit with a FGM. Also credit Adams with an individual rebound. In (b), charge Allen with a FGA, credit Team A with a dead-ball rebound and credit Team A with two points in the form of a footnote as described in Article 8-(b). A.R. 3. Allen attempts to pass the ball to Adams. Brown deflects the ball into Team A s basket. RULING: Do not credit a FGM, but add the two points in the form of a footnote as described in Article 8-(b). A.R. 4. Brown s pass to Benton is deflected by Adams. In the scramble for the ball, Baker accidentally tips the ball into A s basket. RULING: Do not credit a FGM, but add two points in the form of a footnote as described in Article 8-(b). Also, charge Brown with a turnover. Do not credit Adams with a steal. A.R. 5. Allen gets confused and attempts a shot at Team B s basket. The shot is missed and rebounded by (a) Allen, (b) Adams or (c) Brown. RULING: Since the shot was not taken at the player s own basket, there is no FGA charged and no rebound credited. However, in (c), charge Allen with a turnover. Article 9. When a field goal is scor
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