2. Object Oriented Analysis and Modeling - Copy | Object Oriented Programming

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Introduction to Object Oriented Analysis Object-oriented programming (OOP) is used to manage the complexity of software systems. Object oriented Analysis and Design ãOOA is an approach used to       Simplicity: software objects model real world objects, so the complexity is reduced and the program structure is very clear; Modularity: each object forms a separate entity whose internal workings are decoupled from other parts of the system; Modifiability: it is easy to make minor changes i
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  1 Introduction to Object Oriented Analysis  Object-oriented programming (OOP) is used to manage the complexity of software systems. Object oriented Analysis and Design ãOOA is an approach used to    Simplicity: software objects model real world objects, so the complexity is reducedand the program structure is very clear;    Modularity: each object forms a separate entity whose internal workings aredecoupled from other parts of the system;    Modifiability: it is easy to make minor changes in the data representation or theprocedures in an OO program. Changes inside a class do not affect any other part of aprogram, since the only public interface that the external world has to a class isthrough the use of methods;    Extensibility : adding new features or responding to changing operating environmentscan be solved by introducing a few new objects and modifying some existing ones;    Maintainability: objects can be maintained separately, making locating and fixingproblems easier;    Re-usability : objects can be reused in different programs. Introduction to Unified Modeling Language (UML)  UML is a most useful method of visualization and documenting software systemsdesign.UML uses object oriented design concepts and it is independent of specificprogramming language. Unified Modeling Language is a popular technique for documentingand modeling system .the UML uses set of symbols to represent graphically the variouscomponents and relationships within the system and UML can be used for businessprocessing modeling and requirements modeling ,it mainly is used to support object orientedsystem analysis and to develop the object models. Real time UML, this method is theapplication of UML to design of real-time system. It represents the system with structural andbehavioral language models and those designing modeling include the architecturalmechanical and detailed design .Object oriented methodologies have employed in theconstruction of the real time system. Structural modeling:  Structural modeling captures the static features of a system. They consist of the followings:    Classes diagrams    Objects diagrams    Deployment diagrams    Package diagrams    Composite structure diagram    Component diagram  2 Structural model represents the framework for the system and this framework is the placewhere all other components exist. So the class diagram, component diagram and deploymentdiagrams are the part of structural modeling. They all represent the elements and themechanism to assemble them. Behavioral Modeling:  Behavioral model describes the interaction in the system. It represents the interaction amongthe structural diagrams. Behavioral modeling shows the dynamic nature of the system. Theyconsist of the following:    Activity diagrams    sequence diagram    Use case diagramsAll the above show the dynamic sequence of flow in a system.The static view helps an analyst communicate with a client. The dynamic view, as you’ll see, helps an analyst communicate with a team of developers, and helps the developers createprograms. UML Diagram Types1 Class Diagram Shows relationships between classes and pertinent information about classes themselves. Theclass diagrams are the only diagrams which can be directly mapped with object orientedlanguages and thus widely used at the time of construction.  3 2 Object Diagram Shows a configuration of objects at an instant in time.icon is a rectangle, just like the class icon, but the name is underlined. In the icon on the left,the name of the specific instance is on the left side of a colon, and the name of the class is onthe right side of the colon. The name o f the instance begins with a lowercase letter. It’s also possible to have an anonymous object,  4 3 Use-case Diagram Shows actors, use-cases, and the relationships between them. Use case diagrams model thefunctionality of a system using actors and use cases. Use cases are services or functionsprovided by the system to its users. One of the benefits of use case analysis is that it showsthe boundary between the system and the outside world. Actors are typically outside thesystem, whereas use cases are inside. You use a rectangle (with the name of the system somewhere inside) to represent the system boundary. The rectangle encloses the system’s use cases. System Draw your system's boundries using a rectangle that contains use cases. Place actors outsidethe system's boundries. Use Case Draw use cases using ovals. Label with ovals with verbs that represent the system's functions.
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