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  P.A COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, POLLACHI DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ME2027 - PROCESS PLANNING AND COST ESTIMATIONTwo mark q! #$o% a%& a% w!r 'NIT-I ( )OR* ST'DY AND EROGONOMICS +. D!$%! m!#o& #&. Method study is the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed ways of doing work as a means of developing and applying easier and moreeffective methods and reducing cost. 2. )a# ar! #! o/!1#$! o m!#o& #&3 (a) To present and analyze true facts concerning the situation.(b) To examine those facts critically.(c) To develop the best answer possible under given circumstances based on critical examinations of facts. 4. )a# ar! #! ar$o 1ar#  !& or m!#o& #&3 (a). Out line process chart(b). low process chart(c). Two handed process chart(d). Multiple activity chart(e). !ang chart(f). imo chart 5. )r$#! or# %o#! o% o#6$%! ro1! 1ar#. The outline process chart gives an overall view of the process# from the beginning tothe end. $t is a graphic representation of the se%uence of all the operations andinspections carried out in the entire process and the stage at which the materials areintroduced. 8. )r$#! or# %o#! o% 6ow ro1! 1ar#. & flow process chart is a graphical representation of the se%uence of all operations#transportations# inspections# delay and shortages occurring during a process and includesinformation considered desirable for analysis such as time re%uired and distance moved. 9. )a# ar! #! ar$o &$a:ram  !& or m!#o& #&3 (a) low diagram# b) tring diagram# c) Travel chart 7. )r$#! or# %o#! o% 6ow &$a:ram. low diagram is a drawing# made to a scale of the workplace showing the location of various e%uipment and machines# activities carried out and the followed by workers andmaterials. ;. )r$#! or# o% #r$%: &$a:ram. tring diagram is a scale layout drawing on which the length of string is used torecord the extent as well as pattern of movement of a worker for materials or e%uipmentworking within limited area over a certain period time  <. )r$#! or# %o#! o% #ra!6 1ar#. Travel chart is a tabular record for presenting %uantitative data about the movementof workers# materials or e%uipment between any numbers of places over a given periodof time. +0. D!$%! Er:o%om$1 . The application of human biological sciences along with engineering sciences toachieve optimum mutual ad'ustment of men and his work# the benefits being measuredin terms of human efficiency and wellbeing.rgonomics also known as human engineering and human factors engineering is thescientific study of the relationship between man and his working environments. ++. )a# ar! r$%1$6! o mo#$o% !1o%om3 (a) *se of the human body.(b) &rrangement of workplace.(c) +esign of tools and e%uipment. +2. )a# ar! #! ar$o #!1%$q! o work m!a r!m!%#3 (a) Time study(b) ynthesis(c) ,ork sampling(d) &nalytical estimating(e) -redetermined motion and time study +4. D!$%! #$m! #&. The application of techni%ues designed to establish the time for a %ualified worker tocarry out a specified 'ob at a defined level of performance. +5. )a# ar! #! ar$o #$m! #& !q$m!%#3 (a) top watch(b) Time study board(c) Time study forms(d) Motion picture camera +8. )a# ar! #! a6$1a#$o% o work m!a r!m!%# ar$o #!1%$q! 3  Techni%ues &pplicationsa) Time study hort cycle repetitive 'obs(b) ynthesis hort cycle repetitive 'obs(c) ,ork sampling ong cycle 'obs(d) &nalytical estimating hort cycle repetitive 'obs.(e) -redetermined motion. Manual operations confined to one work centre time study. . +9. )a# ar! #! o/!1#$! o !r:o%om$1 3 (a). To enhance the efficiency and effectiveness with which the activities is carried outso as to increase the convenience of use# reduced errors and increase in productivity.(b). To enhance certain desirable human values including safety# reduced stress and fatigue and improved %uality of life. +7. )a# ar! #!r/6$: 3  Therbligs are the symbols used to denote the various activities and movements donefor different purposes.Therbligs refer primarily to motions of the human body at the work place and to themental activities associated with them. +;. Draw #! m/o6 r!r! !%#$%: =a> I% !1#$o% a%& =/> S#ora:!. $nspection  / torage  ˅ +<. D!$%! work m!a r!m!%#3 ,ork measurement is the application of techni%ues designed to establish the time for a %ualified worker to carry out a specified 'ob at a defined level of performance. 20. )a# ar! #! /!%!$# o mo#$o% #&3  It eliminates unnecessary and wasteful motion.  It makes the work faster and better.  It increases productivity. 2+. M!%#$o% #! $mor#a%# a6$1a#$o% o work #&3 cope of work study is not restricted to manufacturing industries only. $t caneffectively be used in service sector as well. $t can be applied in offices# hospitals# banks andother service organizations. 22. M!%#$o% a% #wo o/!1#$! o m!#o& #&3  The work study is mainly carried out to fulfill the following ob'ectives0i. To find the most economical way of doing the work.ii. To simplify and standardize the methods# materials# tools and e%uipment. 24. M!%#$o% !w a6$1a#$o% o work #&3 1esides in manufacturing industries# the work study can also be applied in offices#hospitals# banks# and other service organizations. 25. D!$%! SIMO 1ar#3 $MO stands for imultaneous Motion cycle chart. $MO chart is used to record simultaneously on a common time scale the activitiesof two hands or other parts of workers body during the performance of a single cycle of operation being investigated.  'NIT-II ( PROCESS PLANNING+.D!$%! ro1! 6a%%$%:. $t is defined as the systematic determination of methods by which a product is to bemanufactured economically and competitively. $t consists of selecting the proper machines# determining the se%uence of operations#specifying the inspection stages# and tools# 'igs and fixtures such that the product can bemanufactured as per the re%uired specifications. The detailed process planning is done ateach component level. 2. )a# ar! #! 1o% $&!ra#$o% #o /! :$!% w$6! !6!1#$%: a ro1! or ma1$%!3 a. conomic considerations b. -roduction rate and unit cost of production.c. +urability and dependability. d. ower process re'ection.e. Minimum setup and put away times. f. onger productive life machines or e%uipment.g. functional versatility. 4. )a# ar! #! $%orma#$o%? r!q$r!& or ro1! 6a%%$%:3  a. &ssembly and component drawings and bill of materials b. Machine or e%uipment details c. The standard times for# operation and details of setup time for each 'ob d. &vailability of tooling. 5. )a# ar! #! a1#or #a# $%6!%1$%: ro1! 6a%%$%:3  a. 2olume of production. b. +elivery date for components or products. c. &ccuracy and process capability of machines. d. The skill and expertise of manpower. f. Materials specifications. g. &ccuracy re%uirements of components or parts. 8. E@6a$% #! ro1! 6a%%$%: !!#. The whole information determined by the process planning is recorded in a tabular form in a sheet. 9. L$ # #! ro1! 6a%%$%: a1#$$#$! 3 &nalyse# determine# select# calculate# document# communicate. 7. )a# ar! #! aram!#!r or ma#!r$a6 !6!1#$o%3 unction# &ppearance# 3eliability# ervice life# environment# compactability# cost ;. )a# ar! #! #! o CAPP3 a. 3etrieval 4&-- system b. !enerative 4&-- system <.)a# ar! #! a1#or a!1#$%: ro1! 6a%%$%:3 2olume of production# Man -ower# +elivery dates of products# Materialspecification# accuracy of process and machines.
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