Water Treatment Guidelines For Use in Emergencies

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This manual is part of a series of guides devised by the Oxfam Public Health Engineering Team to help provide a reliable water supply for populations affected by conflict or natural disaster. The object of water treatment is to provide potable water, i.e. pathogen free and chemically safe, which is low in physical impurities and is also aesthetically acceptable to the consumer. However the greatest health risks in the overwhelming majority of situations where disasters occur are due to the presence of pathogens (microbiological contamination), where as chemical contamination is rarely on immediate health impact. Therefore these guidelines reflect this and focus accordingly. However it maybe that in the future that greater risks will be presented by chemical pollution of water and for example the extensive arsenic poisoning of groundwater in Bangladesh and Eastern India highlights that there can be other longer term detrimental health impacts.
    Oxfam Guidelines for Water Treatment in Emergencies Oxfam Humanitarian Department (new Oxfam logo) 1    2   CONTENTS 1. Introduction 4 2. Assessing water quality 5 2.1 Suspended solids (NTU)  6 2.2 Microbiological (Faecal coliforms) 7 2.3 Acidity/alkalinity (pH)  7 2.4 Iron  7 2.5 Salinity (TDS/Conductivity)  7 2.6 Chemical 8 3. Treatment technologies 9 3.1 Suspended solids removal/reduction  10 3.2 Microbiological improvements  14 3.3 pH adjustment 19 3.4 Iron removal  20 3  4. Application of treatment processes 21 4.1 Bulk water supply to displaced populations  21 4.2 Village level facilities 25 4.3 Household level arrangements 26 5. Installation strategy for bulk water supply 28   5.1 Acute phase  28 5.2 Late emergency phase  29 5.3 Post emergency phase  30 6. Operation/management 32 6.1 Operation  32 6.2 Monitoring  32 6.3 Maintenance  32 6.4 Management and Training 33 Appendix 1 WHO water quality guidelines and Sphere standards 35 Appendix 2 Oxfam kits 36 Appendix 3 Treatment Monitoring forms 37 4
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