US HISTORY, December 3

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US HISTORY, December 3 Entry Task: Give an example when WORDS can be considered dangerous. Announcements: Please take out your notes from yesterday. Test next WEDNESDAY (fill out your study guide!!!) David
US HISTORY, December 3 Entry Task: Give an example when WORDS can be considered dangerous. Announcements: Please take out your notes from yesterday. Test next WEDNESDAY (fill out your study guide!!!) David Walker Born to a free African American woman in North Carolina He witnessed cruelty towards slaves, particularly runaways By 1825, he settled in Boston, Massachusetts in a thriving black community owned a clothing store He wrote for Freedom s Journal Died at age 33 in 1830 (consumption or murder?) Edwin Walker st African American elected to Massachusetts legislature Predict: what was the reaction? By fellow free African Americans? By slaves? By abolitionists? By slave holders? Nat Turner s Rebellion At least 56 slaveowners are killed in this slave rebellion, led by Nat Turner (joined by about 40 other slaves) Where is David Walker on this spectrum? terrorist revolutionary civil disobedient Target ordinary Target police & Disobey unjust people; military forces; laws, not all laws; Violence seen Non-violent & Non-violence as necessary violent means necessary Covert action; Covert action; Open action; Avoid punishment Avoid capture Accept penalties There are 313 documented slave uprisings in US History Questions to answer about your READING Describe the leader/person s background. What was the origin and plan for resistance/revolt/runaway? Were the slaves able to carry out their plan? If not, why not? If so, describe the circumstances. What was the result of this resistance? Slavery under attack within The slave resisted a number of ways Broke tools Ran away Intentionally destroyed crops Feigned illness Helped others to escape Did as little work as possible Stole food Bought themselves out of slavery committed arson. Arson, next to theft, was the most common slave crime/form of resistance. Murder as Resistance Both masters and overseers were targets. Mary Chesnut's diary gives a case of poisoning from within her own family, and tells of the implications as they struck her and her friends. September, [Reading a letter] from Mary Witherspoon, and I broke down; horror and amazement was too much for me. Poor cousin Betsey Witherspoon was murdered! She did not die peacefully in her bed, as we supposed, but was murdered by her own people, her Negroes....Horrible beyond words!...the men who went to Society Hill (the Witherspoon home) have come again with nothing very definite. William and Cousin Betsey's old maid, Rhody, are in jail; strong suspicion but as yet no proof of their guilt. The neighborhood is in a ferment. Evans and Wallace say these Negroes ought to be burnt. Lynching proposed!. Hitherto I have never thought of being afraid of Negroes. I had never injured any of them; why should they want to hurt me? Two thirds of my religion consists in trying to be good to Negroes, because they are so in our power, and it would be so easy to be the other thing. Somehow today I feel that the ground is cut away from under my feet. Why should they treat me any better than they have done Cousin Betsy Witherspoon? Rebellions Armed Gabriel Prosser Denmark Vesey Nat Turner John Brown s Raid Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Seminoles Armed with words David Walker Maria Stewart Sojourner Truth Fredereck Douglass Questions to answer about your READING Describe the leader/person s background. What was the origin and plan for resistance/revolt/runaway? Were the slaves able to carry out their plan? If not, why not? If so, describe the circumstances. What was the result of this resistance? 1800 Richmond, Virginia Suppressed: Violent Storm halted the revolt how do you think whites viewed this storm? ca July 1822 Charleston, SC Men must not only be dissatified; they must be so dissatisfied that they will act Conspiracy was betrayed by a house slave ca 1831 Southampton County, VA 55 men, women, & children killed After rebellion, Nat Turner hid in a cave hundreds executed Eventually, Turner was captured & hung Slave holders - God was no longer protecting slave holders - paranoia US HISTORY, December 4 Entry Task: Let s finish up the rebellion/revolt/runaway examples! Announcements: Please take out your study guide does everyone have one?? Test next WEDNESDAY I m in the process of updating grades do you have: Jackson Essay, Alamo notes, Mex- American War timeline, and Manifest Destiny Write turned in??? Questions to answer about your READING Describe the leader/person s background. What was the origin and plan for resistance/revolt/runaway? Were the slaves able to carry out their plan? If not, why not? If so, describe the circumstances. What was the result of this resistance? Harriet Tubman was not only a leader of the Underground Railroad she was a spy for the Union Army. You will be free, or you will die. Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad Led over 300 slaves to freedom. Field hand in Maryland Her father taught her to chop wood and split rails, and other lessons for survival in the woods. Made 19 trips back and forth between North and South to lead slaves to freedom $40,000 reward for her capture The Underground Railroad was a series of safe houses. This a map of some of the stops. An estimated 100,000 people escaped by the Underground Railroad The Gage Home, a stop for many runaways on the Underground Railroad. Erastus Farnham House Fremont, Indiana This 45-foot long tunnel connects the Milton House basement to the cellar of the Goodrich log cabin behind it - IL - Conductor ==== leader of the escape - Passengers ==== escaping slaves - Tracks ==== routes - Trains ==== farm wagons transporting the escaping slaves - Depots ==== safe houses to rest/sleep 1848 Escaped to freedom Ellen, light-skinned, dressed up as William s owner Their story was made public as a remarkable and romantic escape An abolitionist activist, she wrote Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl Published her work under name Linda Brent Ad offering a reward for the capture of Harriet Jacobs. American Beacon ( Norfolk Virginia), July 4, 1835 1813 Harriet is born in NC 1819 Harriet s mother died and she realizes that she is a slave 1828 Dr. Flint, Harriet s owner, tries to exploit her 1831 Harriet has a daughter with Mr. Sands 1835 Harriet goes into hiding 1842 Harriet escapes to the North Her children join her $300 paid for freedom 1853 Harriet begins to write about her experiences The Desperation of the Runaway Margaret Garner, a fugitive slave, trapped near Cincinnati, killed her own daughter and tried to kill herself. She rejoiced that the girl was dead 'now she would never know what a woman suffers as a slave and pleaded to be tried for murder. 'I will go singing to the gallows rather than be returned to slavery. ' Source for Toni Morrison s novel Beloved The Desperation of the Runaway Thomas Satterwhite Noble s 1867 painting, Margaret Garner John Brown 1859 Harper s Ferry, Virginia Arguments Against Slavery Economically Slavery hinders progress America = beacon of progress British Empire = Freed slaves by Act of Parliament in 1833, France in 1794, brought back, then again 1848 Immorality - Moral suasion Slavery is cruel and unjust and deprived people of natural and unalienable rights - a national sin No man should have ownership over another man affects both slaves and masters, for example, it encouraged sexual immorality & destroys the family Stanford Prison Experiment The Lucifer Effect how good people turn evil (Zimbardo) There were many results, but perhaps the most important was simply this: The simulation became so real, and the guards became so abusive, that the experiment had to be shut down after only 6 days rather than the two weeks planned. With a little nudge perhaps we would all become tyrants??? Teens who BULLY their peers are four times more likely than nonbullies to be convicted of crimes by age 24, with 60 percent of bullies having at least one criminal conviction. Anti-Slave Arguments Leg Irons Slave ID Tag Slave muzzle Concern of abolitionists: Slavery degrades the sexuality of both slaves and masters (and both male and female slaves) HARRIET JACOBS Frederick Douglass s Accounts Reflecting on his childhood, recalled the floggings and torture of many rebellious women. His cousin was horribly beaten as she unsuccessfully resisted an overseer's sexual attack. Frederick Douglass 1852 speech What! Am I to argue that it is wrong to make men brutes, to rob them of their liberty, to work them without wages, to keep them ignorant of their relations to their fellow men, to beat them with sticks, to flay their flesh with the last, to load their limbs with irons, to hunt them with dogs, to sell them at auction, to sunder [break apart] their families, to knock out their teeth, to burn their flesh, to starve them into obedience and submission to their masters? Must I argue that a system thus marked with blood and stained with pollution is wrong? No; I will not. I have better employment for my time and strength than such arguments would imply. No, I will not The time for such arguments is past. Arguments Against Slavery Irony of Slavery Slavery vs. American dream all men are created equal hypocrisy If Slavery is not wrong, then nothing is wrong. Abraham Lincoln Racism Africans and their descendents were humans, and are therefore brothers Gradual vs. Immediate Pennsylvania 1780 (gradual last slave freed in 1847) Most gradual future children or after a certain date/# of years Massachusetts 1783 ( instant ) Why do you think many Northerners opposed abolition? Public Response to Abolitionism Initial (Northern) public responses to the radical abolitionists were insults, ridicule, and violence. In 1836, Garrison was dragged through the streets of Boston by a lynch mob and saved only when a huge teamster pulled him into a wagon and took him to jail for shelter. A proslavery mob in Cincinnati attacks the offices of abolitionist James Birney s anti-slavery weekly, The Philanthropist. Illustration from The Anti-Slavery Record, Vol. 2, No. 9 (September 1836) Arthur and Lewis Tappan In 1834, a mob broke in the house, threw furniture out into the street, then burned it. The next year an unnamed person advertised a $100,000 reward to the person who would deliver the dead bodies of the Tappans to any slave state. Tappan was burned in effigy, attacked in the press, unable to purchase insurance for either himself or his possessions, and sent crude warnings in the mail ranging from pieces of rope to a slave's ear. For protection, Tappan carried only a copy of the New Testament in his breast pocket. A pro-slavery mob attacks a warehouse holding the presses of abolitionist editor and minister Elijah P. Lovejoy; Lovejoy was killed. Public Response to Abolitionism Northern businesses depended on good trade with the South cotton for weaving and feared that abolitionism would ruin trade. Abolitionists were flogged, tarred-andfeathered, shunned, and even lynched by Northern mobs. And in the South, the Gag Rule was in effect it was illegal to speak against slavery in any way. Maria Weston Chapman Called Captain Chapman for assertive personality. A member of the Boston Female Anti- Slavery Society, famed for her calm response amidst an 1835 riot in Boston when abolitionists were attacked with the intent of lynching the speakers and burning the hall down. Leading the women out of the surrounded building, she spoke to the crowd so movingly that several men in the mob wept and the mob agreed to disperse. On the following night, the second night of speeches, the mob surrounded the Pennsylvania Hall and burned it to the ground. Prudence Crandall Quaker educator who opened a school for African American girls in CT in Citizens of the town were outraged: refused to supply school with food, barred students from attending local churches, threatened to prosecute students for vagrancy and pauperism. well stopped up with carcasses dead animals. When the school accepted the children of runaways, Crandall was arrested under a 'black law which prohibited teaching out-ofstate black students. Prudence Crandall Finally, after year and a half of struggle, when the school had been burned and she had been dragged out and beaten, Crandall closed the school for the safety of the girls. Although Crandall continued to write antislavery poetry and prose, she left CT for frontier Kansas. Analyze the photo (next slide) write down 3 observations and inferences (what does this show/mean?). The Tree of Slavery Loaded with the Sum of All Villanies! HOW do you get rid of SLAVERY? Difficult Questions/Issues: Colony in Liberia? (back to Africa 1,400) Canada? Appalachian Mountains? Gradual Emancipation? Compensation for slave owners? Through political or more radical means? Non-violent vs. Violence What were options for 3-4 million newly freed people? Pro-Slavery Arguments Economical Stability King Cotton Historical Slavery enabled founding of the republic 4/5 of our first Presidents were slave-holders Comparisons to slave-holding Great Civilizations from the past = engine of wealth, empires Dangerous to abruptly intervene in evolution of human institutions Pro-Slavery Arguments Biblical: Curse of Ham (Canaan) Christ never spoke against it Instructions were given to treat slaves with justice and fairness (many early Christians were slaves to the Romans) Human institutions, are by definition, flawed Guilty slave owners slavery is a Necessary Evil try to do God s work by improving slavery Pro-Slavery Arguments Sociological All men are not created equal keeping order as it is (it s natural for people were born to prescribed stations in life) Paternalism Fitzhugh, Negro is but a grownup child master place of parent or guardian Cradle to Grave social security vs. pauper slavery Slaves were content Pro-Slavery Arguments Political: Balance Freedom with Order/Tradition States Rights a political philosophy advocating that the Federal gov t is merely a compact b/t the states, nullification (SC John C. Calhoun) Abolitionism is dividing the nation Constitutional: Private Property Dred Scott Case STATES RIGHTS is to the Civil War as NATURAL RIGHTS is to the American Revolution The RIGHT that the seceding states hoped to preserve was the right to own slaves. Mississippi s Declaration of Secession Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery - the greatest material interest of the world. Its labor supplies the product, which constitutes by far the largest and most important portions of commerce of the earth. These products are peculiar to the climate verging on the tropical regions, and by an imperious law of nature, none but the black race can bear exposure to the tropical sun. These products have become necessities of the world, and a blow at slavery is a blow at commerce and civilization. That blow has been long aimed at the institution, and was at the point of reaching its consummation. There was no choice left us but submission to the mandates of abolition, or a dissolution of the Union, whose principles had been subverted to work out our ruin. David Walker Born free in 1785 in Wilmington, NC witnessed slavery Author, abolitionist, activist Tailor by trade, an abolitionist by calling Moved to Boston in 1827 Wrote David Walker s Appeal Offer of $10,000 to bring him to the South alive Advocated violence to end slavery American Antislavery Society Founded by William Lloyd Garrison in WLG demanded immediate end to slavery and to colonization. Blacks and whites could live together in peace to the benefit of both. The Liberator, Garrison s newspaper, founded in 1831, continued to be leading vehicle for radical thought through 1860s. Arthur and Lewis Tappan Helped to form the first Anti-Slavery Society in New York and founded Oberlin College (open to white and black students) Helped the Amistad Africans defense and the Underground RR Did NOT support women s leading roles in abolitionist movement Maria W. Stewart One America's first black women political writers African American Female Intelligence Society In 1832, in Boston, she mounted lecture platform to speak to assembled crowd of men and women, white and black the first woman to give a public lecture on slavery to mixed audience Pamphlet: Religion and the Pure Principles of Morality (1831) Frederick Douglass ( ) R The Narrative of the Life Of Frederick Douglass (autobiography) 1847 The North Star (newspaper) Frederick Douglass Born into slavery - broken in body, soul, and spirit - and escaped in 1838 Abolitionist who embraced integration An articulate spokesperson for African American rights I would unite with anybody to do right and with nobody to do wrong. Sojourner Truth ( ) or Isabella Baumfree 1850 The Narrative of Sojourner Truth R2-10 Angelina Grimke Angelina Grimke s Appeal to Christian Women of the South, and Appeal to Women of Nominally Free States Theme of both appeals: sisterhood of black and white women The female slaves are our country women, they are our sisters; & to us as women, they have a right to look for sympathy with their sorrows and effort and prayer for their rescue. Harriet Tubman Harriet Tubman was not only a leader of the Underground Railroad, she was also a spy for the Union Army. Nicknamed, Moses of her people Harriet Beecher Stowe ( ) So this is the little lady who wrote the book that started the Civil War. -- Abraham Lincoln Uncle Tom s Cabin, 1852 Sold 300,000 copies in the first year, 2 million in a decade! Spoiler Alert: Simon Legree, orders the $1200 slave savagely beaten (to death) by two fellow slaves, Here, Sambo, Quimbo, give this dog such a breakin in as he won t get over, this month! Uncle Tom s Cabin, 1852 John Brown John Brown, a well known abolitionist, planned a slave uprising that was crazy as it was audacious. He led a gang of people against Harper s Ferry. His force was quickly apprehended and he was brought to trial and hung. Before his death he spoke eloquently about the evils of slavery. Was Lincoln an Abolitionist? You ask me to put in writing the substance of what I verbally said the other day, in your presence : I am naturally anti-slavery. If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong. I can not remember when I did not so think, and feel. And yet I have never understood that the Presidency conferred upon me an unrestricted right to act officially upon this judgment and feeling. It was in the oath I took that I would, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States From 4th Lincoln/Douglas Debate, 1858 I will say then that I am not, nor ever have been in favor of bringing about in anyway the social and political equality of the white and black races - that I am not nor ever have been in favor of making voters or jurors of negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to intermarry with white people; and I will say in addition to this that there is a physical difference between the white and black races which I believe will forever forbid the two races living together on terms of social and political equality. And inasmuch as they cannot so live, while they do remain together there must be the position of superior and inferior, and I, as much as any other man, am in favor of having the superior position assigned to the white race. From Lincoln s Published Response to Horace Greeley, 1862 My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that. What I do about slavery, and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union; and what I forbear, I forbear because I do not believe it would help to save the Union. I shall do less whenever I shall believe what I am doing hurts the cause, and I shall do more whenever I shall believe doing more will hel
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