Unit III,IV Two Marks

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Unit III,IV Two Marks
  UNIT III-ENGINEERING AS SOCIAL EXPERIMENTATION PART A 1. What are the conditions re!ired to de ine a #a$id in or%ed consent& 'A(ri$ )*1+,No# )*1 (i)The consent was given voluntarily. (ii) The consent was based on the information that rational person would want, together with any other information requested, presented to them in understandable form. (iii) The consenter was competent to process the information and make rational decisions. ). What are the t/o %ain e$e%ents /hich are inc$!ded to !nderstand in or%ed consent& Informed Consent is understood as including two main elements (i)!nowledge #ub$ects should be given not only the information they request, but all the (ii)information needed to make a reasonable decision%. (iii)&oluntariness #ub$ects must enter into the e'periment without being sub$ected to force, fraud, or deception%. +. What are the 0enera$ eat!res o %ora$$ res(onsi2$e en0ineers& (i)Conscientiousness. (ii)Comprehensive perspective. (iii)utonomy. (iv)ccountability. 3. What is the (!r(ose o #ario!s t(es o standards& (i)ccuracy in measurement, interchangeability, ease of handling. (ii) revention of in$ury, death and loss of income or property. (iii) *air value of price. (iv)Competence in carrying out tasks.(v)#ound design, ease of communications. (vi) *reedom from interference. . 4e ine Code& Code is a set of standards and laws. 5. En!%erate the ro$es o codes& 'A(ri$ )*13 (i)Inspiration and +uidance (ii) #upport (iii)eterrence and iscipline (iv)-ducation and utual /nderstanding (v)Contributing to the rofession0s ublic Image (vi)rotecting the #tatus 1uo vii)romoting 2usiness Interests 6. Gi#e the $i%itations o codes&7Ma )*158 (i)Codes are restricted to general and vague wording. (ii) Codes can0t give a solution or method for solving the internal conflicts. (iii) Codes cannot serve as the final moral authority for professional conduct. (iv) Codes can be reproduced in a very rapid manner. 9. What are the (ro2$e%s /ith the $a/ in en0ineerin0& a. inimal compliance b. any laws are without enforceable sanctions. :. What is the need to #ie/ en0ineerin0 (ro;ects as e<(eri%ents& (i)ny pro$ect is carried out in partial ignorance. (ii) The final outcomes of engineering pro$ects, like those of e'periments, are generally uncertain. (iii) -ffective engineering relies upon knowledge gained about products before and after they leave the factory 3 knowledge needed for improving current products and creating better ones. 1*. 4i erentiate scienti ic e<(eri%ents and en0ineerin0 (ro;ects&7Ma )*158 #cientific e'periments are conducted to gain new knowledge, while 4engineering pro$ects are e'periments thatare not necessarily designed to produce very much knowledge5.  11. What are the !ncertainties occ!r in the %ode$ desi0ns& 'No# )*1 (i)odel used for the design calculations. (ii)-'act characteristics of the materials purchased. (iii)Constancies of materials used for processing and fabrication. (iv)6ature of the pressure, the finished product will encounter. 1). Co%%ent on the i%(ortance o $earnin0 ro% the (ast, !sin0 Titanic disaster, as an E<a%($e& The Titanic lacked a sufficient number of lifeboats. 1+. Co%%ent on the i%(ortance o $earnin0 ro% the (ast, !sin0 the n!c$ear reactor accident at Three Mi$e Is$and, as an e<a%($e& &alues are notorious for being among the least reliable components of hydraulic systems. It was a pressure relief valve, and lack of definitive information regarding its open or shut state. #imilar alfunctions had occurred with the identical values on nuclear reactors because of the same reasons at other locations, but no attention had been given to them. 13. Gi#e an t/o (ro%inent eat!res o conte%(orar en0ineerin0 (ractice that di erentiate cas!a$ in $!ence and %ora$ acco!nta2i$it in en0ineerin0& 7i8 7arge8scale engineering pro$ects involve fragmentation of work. (ii) ue to the fragmentation of the work, the accountability will spread widely within the organi9ation (iii) There is frequently pressure to move on to a new pro$ect before the current one has been operating long enough to be observed carefully. (iv) The contagion of malpractice suits currently afflicting the medical profession is carrying over into engineering. 1. 4e ine Whist$e =$o/in0 . 'No# )*1 This is an act by an employee of informing the public or higher management of unethical or illegal behaviour  by an employee or supervisor. 15. What is %eant 2 En0ineerin0 E<(eri%entation& (i)-ngineers involve in research e'perimentation and testing of new products. (ii) ppling various e'perimental producers is called e'perimentation. (iii) -very stage of product development, e'periments are conducted. (iv) :ne can view -ngineering work ; pro$ect as e'periment. 16. State the i%(ortance o Ethica$ codes. 'No# )*1 (i)To provide framework for ethical $udgment. (ii) -'press the ethical principles and standards in an understanding manner. (iii) It defines the role of responsibilities of professions. (iv) pplying moral ethical principles in critical situation. (v) Codes are well established and widely accepted in society. 19. State Genera$ eat!res o %ora$$ res(onsi2$e en0ineers. (i) conscientious commitment to live by moral values protect the safety of human respect. (ii)  Comprehensive perspective Constant awareness of the e'perimental nature. (iii) utonomy ersonally motivated to have dedicated involvement in the pro$ect. (iv) ccountability ccountable for the results of the pro$ect. 1:. What are the t/o e$e%ents o t/o in or%ed consent& >no/$ed0e  erson who participates in the e'periments should be given all the information to make a reasonable decision. ?o$!ntariness  erson should not be forced and he should have willingness to volunteer himself.  )*. In /hat /as en0ineerin0 e<(eri%ent di ers ro% standard e<(eri%ents. *inal outcomes of engineering pro$ects may also lead to une'pected problems that may endanger life. Similar to Standards experiment, engineering experiments requires knowledge about the product at the pre-production& post production stages. PART = <.=ow can engineer become a responsible e'perimenter> =ighlight the code of ethics for -ngineers. (pril?ay @A<B)@.iscuss on the roles played by the codes of ethics set by professional societies. (pril?ay @A<B) . Compare and contrast engineering e'periments with standard e'periments.D. -'plain in detail about engineers as responsible e'perimentersE. -'plain detail about balanced outlook on law.B.-'plain detail about industrial standards F. #tate the various problems of law in -ngineering  UNIT I?-SA@ET, RESPONSI=ILITIES AN4 RIGBTSPART A 1. What do o! !nderstand 2 co$$e0ia$it& 'No# )**: 'No# )*1+ -ngineers shall not attempt to in$ure, maliciously or falsely, directly or indirectly, the professional reputation,  prospects, practice, or employment of other engineers, nor untruthfully critici9e other engineers work. ‟ -ngineers who believe others are guilty of unethical or illegal practice shall present such information to the  proper authority for proper action. ). What does Loa$t %ean& 7oyalty means being truthful to one0s person. *or engineer0s loyalty should not to be equated with merely obeying, one is immediate superior, but to do good for the company and people. It is an important virtue. There are two sense of loyalty namely gency 7oyalty and Identification 7oyalty. +. E<($ain %is0!ided $oa$t. -mployee sometimes with over enthusiasm and loyalty will be misled to act on own and unknowingly e'ceed legal commitments to gain or profit for his employer, which may backfire sometime. =ence, this defines as isguided 7oyalty or inappropriate 7oyalty. 3. What does a!thorit %ean& uthority is an assignment of the resources needed to complete a task one should have leadership quality and a good motivator, to e'ecute his authority to get work done. =ence, authority is necessary. uthority provides a way for identifying the areas of responsibility and accountability.  . List the c$assi ications o A!thorit. 'No# )*11 The classifications of uthority are (i)Institutional uthority (ii)orally Gustified uthority (iii)ccepting uthority 5. E<($ain instit!tiona$ a!thorit. Institutional uthority is acquired, e'ercised, and defined within institutions. It may be defined as the institutional right given to a person to e'ercise power based on the resources of the institutions. It is given to individuals in order for them to meet their institutional duties, that is, their assigned tasks within an organi9ation. 6. What are the (ara%o!nt o2$i0ations o an en0ineer& Hecent Code of ethics typically states that engineer0s paramount obligations are to protect the public health, safety and welfare rather than the obligations of loyalty and faithful service to employers. aramount is to mean 4chief in importance or deserving primary emphasis5 9. What is %eant 2 co$$ecti#e 2ar0ainin0& 'A(ri$ )*13 /nions are Collective bargaining agents that sometimes place the economic interests of the members ahead of those of the clients or employer.  number of professional societies have also held that loyalty to employers and the public is incompatible with any form of collective bargaining. :. What is N.S.P.E code&  6#- 3 6ational #ociety of rofessional -ngineers (/#), 6ational #ociety of rofessional -ngineers has given their codes of ethics that the engineers shall not actively participate in strikes and other collective forcing action against their employers. 1*. E<($ain the ter% con identia$it. !eeping confidence is one of the most central and widely acknowledged duties of any professional. In this conte't, Confidential Information (rivileged Information) is information deemed desirable to keep secret. !eep secret is relational information.
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